Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Test method for flexural bond strength of ceramics

This document specifies a test method for determining the flexural bond strength of ceramic/ceramic joints or ceramic/metal joints at room temperature. The substrate materials, for example ceramic or metal, are both monolithic. This method can be used to test the interfacial bond strength of the joint under bending conditions. It can be used for the development of joining materials and/or for the quality control of joints, the characterization and generating design data purposes.

Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques avancées) – Méthodes d’essai pour déterminer la résistance d’adhésion en flexion des céramiques

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Apr-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Apr-2020
Completion Date
02-Apr-2020
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ISO 21712:2020 - Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) -- Test method for flexural bond strength of ceramics
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21712
First edition
2020-03
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
advanced technical ceramics) — Test
method for flexural bond strength of
ceramics
Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques
avancées) – Méthodes d’essai pour déterminer la résistance
d’adhésion en flexion des céramiques
Reference number
ISO 21712:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Testing machine ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Test fixture .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Bearings ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Positioning of bearings ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.4 Fixture material ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Micrometer ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.1 Specimen size ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.1 Type A specimens ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.2 Type B specimens ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.3 Chamfering and rounded edge ............................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Specimen preparation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Custom machining procedure .............................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.3 Component-matched procedure ........................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.4 Basic machining procedure .................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.5 Parallelism, orthogonality and chamfer sizes ......................................................................................... 8

6.2.6 Handling of specimens ........................................................................................................................................... ..... 8

6.2.7 Number of specimens .................................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

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World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21712:2020(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Test method for flexural bond strength of
ceramics
1 Scope

This document specifies a test method for determining the flexural bond strength of ceramic/ceramic

joints or ceramic/metal joints at room temperature. The substrate materials, for example ceramic or

metal, are both monolithic. This method can be used to test the interfacial bond strength of the joint

under bending conditions. It can be used for the development of joining materials and/or for the quality

control of joints, the characterization and generating design data purposes.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

ISO 14704:2016, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Test method for

flexural strength of monolithic ceramics at room temperature
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
flexural bond strength

maximum stress at fracture at the bond interface of a specified beam containing the ceramic/ceramic

joint or the ceramic/metal joint subjected to bending
3.2
four-point flexure

configuration of flexural test where a specimen is subjected to equal loads through two bearings

symmetrically located between two support bearings
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 a) and b).

Note 2 to entry: The bearings may be cylindrical rollers or cylindrical bearings.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
3.3
four-point 1/4 point flexure

specific configuration of four-point flexural test where the inner bearings are situated one-quarter of

the support span away from the two outer bearings
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 a) and Table 1.
3.4
four-point 1/3 point flexure

specific configuration of four-point strength test where the inner bearings are situated one-third of the

support span away from the two outer bearings
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1 b) and Table 1.
3.5
semi-articulating fixture

test fixture designed to apply uniform and even loading to test specimens that have flat and parallel

surfaces
3.6
fully articulating fixture

test fixture designed to apply uniform and even loading to specimens that may have uneven, non-

parallel or twisted surfaces
4 Principle

A beam-type specimen containing the specific bond joint with a rectangular cross-section or circular

cross-section is loaded in flexure until fracture. The load at fracture, the geometry of the test fixture

and specimen dimensions are used to compute the flexural bond strength, which is a measure of the

bond strength. The material or joining interface is assumed to be linearly elastic.

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
a) Four-point 1/4 point flexure
b) Four-point 1/3 point flexure
Key
1 loading bearings b width
2 support bearings δ thickness
3 interface L outer span
a distance between loading and support bearings L inner span
Figure 1 — Flexural bond test configurations
Table 1 — Dimensions of flexural bond test configurations
Dimensions in millimetres
Bending Diameters of
Specimen L (outer span) L (inner span) a
1 2
type bearings
Four-point
A-I, B-I 40 ± 0,1 20 ± 0,1 10 ± 0,1 4,5 to 5,0
1/4
Four-point
A-II, B-II 30 ± 0,1 10 ± 0,1 10 ± 0,1 4,5 to 5,0
1/3
Four-point A-III, A-IV,
30 ± 0,1 10 ± 0,1 10 ± 0,1 4,0 to 6,0
1/3 B-III, B-IV
Four-point

A-V, A-VI, B-V, B-VI (4,5~10,5)δ ± 0,5 (1,5~3,5)δ ± 0,5 (1,5~3,5)δ ± 0,5 4,0 to 6,0

1/3
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ISO 21712:2020(E)
5 Apparatus
5.1 Testing machine

A suitable testing machine capable of applying a uniform crosshead speed shall be used. The testing

machine shall have the function for recording the peak load applied to the test specimen. The testing

machine shall fulfil the requirements of ISO 7500-1, Class 1, with an accuracy of 1 % of the indicated

load at fracture.
5.2 Test fixture
5.2.1 General

The test adopts four-point flexure configurations, as illustrated in Figure 1. The four-point 1/4 point

configuration is recommended. The fixture shall have bearings that are free to roll, as described in

5.2.2, in order to eliminate frictional constraints when the specimen surfaces expand or contract during

loading. In addition, the fixture shall be designed so that it can articulate or tilt to ensure uniform

loading to the specimen. The articulation is designed so that bearing parts of the fixture can rotate, as

shown in ISO 14704:2016, Figure B.1. The bearing parts should also provide articulation to ensure that

all bearing contacts can apply uniform load to the specimen surfaces. Semi-articulated fixtures, which

have pairs of upper and lower bearings articulating to match the specimen surfaces, may be used with

specimens that have flat and parallel surfaces, as illustrated in ISO 14704:2016, Figures B.2 a) and B.3

a). Fully articulated fixtures have more moving parts and are necessary for specimens that do not have

flat and parallel surfaces, as illustrated in ISO 14704:2016, Figures B
...

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