Plastics -- Epoxy resins -- Test methods

ISO 18280:2005 provides an overview of the ISO test methods used to characterize epoxy resins.

Plastiques -- Résines époxydes -- Méthodes d'essai

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
26-Apr-2005
Withdrawal Date
26-Apr-2005
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Apr-2005
Completion Date
27-Apr-2005
Ref Project

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ISO 18280:2005 - Plastics -- Epoxy resins -- Test methods
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18280
First edition
2005-05-01
Plastics — Epoxy resins — Test methods
Plastiques — Résines époxydes — Méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 18280:2005(E)
ISO 2005
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ISO 18280:2005(E)
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© ISO 2005

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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18280:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Description of test methods................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Physical properties ............................................................................................................................... 2

3.1.1 Determination of the melting range .................................................................................................... 2

3.1.2 Determination of density...................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.3 Determination of refractive index........................................................................................................ 3

3.1.4 Determination of viscosity ................................................................................................................... 3

3.1.5 Determination of tendency to crystallize............................................................................................ 3

3.1.6 Determination of overall volume shrinkage .......................................................................................4

3.1.7 Determination of flash point ................................................................................................................ 4

3.1.8 Estimation of colour ............................................................................................................................. 4

3.2 Chemical properties.............................................................................................................................. 5

3.2.1 Determination of epoxy equivalent ..................................................................................................... 5

3.2.2 Determination of chlorine content ...................................................................................................... 5

3.2.3 Determination of ash ............................................................................................................................ 6

3.2.4 Determination of primary, secondary and tertiary amine group nitrogen content in amine

epoxy hardeners ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2.5 Determination of free acid anhydride in hardeners and accelerators............................................. 7

3.2.6 Non-volatile-matter content ................................................................................................................. 7

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18280:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 18280 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 12, Thermosetting

materials.
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18280:2005(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this International Standard is to present an overview of ISO test methods for characterizing

epoxy resins. Those test methods that are suitable and necessary for characterizing epoxy resins prior to

polymerization are listed, along with brief explanations of the principles involved.

Because of the specificity of thermosetting resins like epoxy resins, a distinction is made between the

presentation of properties before crosslinking (characteristics which are useful for processing) and after

crosslinking (intrinsic characteristics). Procedures for determining intrinsic characteristics of crosslinked (or

cured) epoxy resins are given in ISO 3673-2.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18280:2005(E)
Plastics — Epoxy resins — Test methods
1 Scope

Epoxy resins are a family of synthetic resins, including products, which range from viscous liquid to high-

melting solids. The resin molecule contains as reactive sites one or more oxirane or epoxy groups, usually in

the form of a glycidyl group. The most commercially important resin is the glycidyl ether of bisphenol A,

produced by the condensation of epichlorohydrin and diphenylpropane (bisphenol A). Epoxy resins with

different characteristics are also produced commercially by reacting epichlorohydrin with other materials. To

be of use, the resins must be crosslinked with a curing agent or hardener. The choice of curing agent is of

importance in designing an epoxy resin system for a given application. The major reactive groups in the resin,

the epoxy and the hydroxyl group, react with many other groups so that many types of chemical substance

can be used as curing agents. These include acid anhydrides, aliphatic and aromatic amines and

polyaminoamides. Some curing agents will crosslink the resin at ambient temperatures while others require

the application of heat.

This International Standard provides an overview of the ISO test methods used to characterize epoxy resins.

The listed property to be determined in any given case depends on agreement between the supplier and

customer.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 1523, Determination of flash point — Closed cup equilibrium method

ISO 1675, Plastics — Liquid resins — Determination of density by the pyknometer method

ISO 2555, Plastics — Resins in the liquid state or as emulsions or dispersions — Determination of apparent

viscosity by the Brookfield Test method
ISO 2592, Determination of flash and fire points — Cleveland open cup method
ISO 3001, Plastics — Epoxy compounds — Determination of epoxy equivalent

ISO 3146:2000, Plastics — Determination of melting behaviour (melting temperature or melting range) of

semi-crystalline polymers by capillary tube and polarizing-microscope methods

ISO 3219, Plastics — Polymers/resins in the liquid state or as emulsions or dispersions — Determination of

viscosity using a rotational viscometer with defined shear rate

ISO 3251, Paints, varnishes and plastics — Determination of non-volatile-matter content

ISO 3451-1:1997, Plastics — Determination of ash — Part 1: General methods

ISO 3521, Plastics — Unsaturated polyester and epoxy resins — Determination of overall volume shrinkage

ISO 3673-2, Plastics — Epoxy resins — Part 2: Preparation of test specimens and determination of properties

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18280:2005(E)

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products — Laboratory determination of density —

Hydrometer method

ISO 4615:1979, Plastics — Unsaturated polyesters and epoxide resins — Determination of total chlorine

content

ISO 4630-1, Clear liquids — Estimation of colour by the Gardner colour scale — Part 1: Visual method

ISO 4895, Plastics — Liquid epoxy resins — Determination of tendency to crystallize

ISO 5661, Petroleum products — Hydrocarbon liquids — Determination of refractive index

ISO 6271-1, Clear liquids — Estimation of colour by the platinum-cobalt scale — Part 1: Visual method

ISO 7327, Plastics — Hardeners and accelerators for epoxide resins — Determination of free acid in acid

anhydride

ISO 9702, Plastics — Amine epoxide hardeners — Determination of primary, secondary and tertiary amine

group nitrogen content

ISO 11357-3, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 3: Determination of temperature and

enthalpy of melting and crystallization

ISO 12058-1, Plastics — Determination of viscosity using a falling-ball viscometer — Part 1: Inclined-tube

method

ISO 21627-1, Plastics — Epoxy resins — Determination of chlorine content — Part 1. Inorganic chlorine

ISO 21627-2, Plastics — Epoxy resins — Determination of chlorine content — Part 2: Easily saponifiable

chlorine

ISO 21627-3, Plastics — Epoxy resins — Determination of chlorine content — Part 3: Total chlorine

3 Description of test methods
3.1 Physical properties
3.1.1 Determination of the melting range
3.1.1.1 Determination of the melting range using capillary methods
The test shall be performed in accordance with ISO 3146:2000, method A.
Principle of ISO 3146:2000, method A:

A specimen is heated in a capillary tube at a controlled rate, and monitored visually for change in shape.

NOTE Epoxy resins are not single chemical substances, but polymolecular compounds. This is evident from their

melting behaviour — the process is not limited to one temperature but extends over a range of temperatures. The limits of

the melting range consist of a “sinter point”(also known as the “stick point”) and the “melted stage”. The challenge is to

establish exact definitions of these “points” for interpretation by variou
...

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