Intelligent transport systems — Interoperability between interoperable fare management (IFM) systems and near field communication (NFC) mobile devices

This document presents methods to establish technical interoperability between the contactless interfaces of NFC mobile devices and those of public transport readers and customer media. It provides information on how to apply these for public transport fare management systems which are using ISO/IEC 14443 and/or ISO/IEC 18092 and/or EMV® Contactless Interface Specification[1] [9] as a basis for contactless communication. This document deals with the application of standards, specifications and certification schemes from other organizations and standards bodies. These organizations and standards bodies are solely responsible for the content and the maintenance of these standards, specifications and certification schemes. This document focuses on the technical interoperability of the contactless interfaces of NFC mobile devices and public transport devices. The goal is to reliably support communication and the exchange of data. Syntactic and semantic interoperability, i.e. the support for a particular public transport fare management application, is not covered by this document. However, practical experience shows that if technical interoperability is established successfully, the adoption of a specific public transport application can typically be achieved by loading the fare management system’s particular application software onto the NFC mobile device. [1] This trade name is provided for reasons of public interest or public safety. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO.

Systèmes de transport intelligents — Interopérabilité entre les systèmes de gestion tarifaire interopérables (IFM) et les dispositifs mobiles à communication en champ proche (NFC)

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ISO/TR 20527:2022 - Intelligent transport systems — Interoperability between interoperable fare management (IFM) systems and near field communication (NFC) mobile devices Released:1/4/2022
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20527
First edition
2022-01
Intelligent transport systems —
Interoperability between
interoperable fare management (IFM)
systems and near field communication
(NFC) mobile devices
Systèmes de transport intelligents — Interopérabilité entre les
systèmes de gestion tarifaire interopérables (IFM) et les dispositifs
mobiles à communication en champ proche (NFC)
Reference number
ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General considerations .................................................................................................................................................................................2

5.1 Interoperability across different specifications ....................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Need for continuous, synchronized maintenance ................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Relevance of certification ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Description of the solution for interoperability................................................................................................................. 3

6.1 Approach ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Partners, roles and responsibilities ..................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Implementation of interoperability of the contactless interface ............................................................... 4

6.3.1 Concept for NFC mobile devices ............................................................................................................................ 4

6.3.2 Concept for ISO/IEC 14443-conformant PT devices ........................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Concept for ISO/IEC 18092-conformant Type F PT devices ........................................................ 5

6.3.4 Concept for EMV Contactless Interface Specification-conformant PT devices .......... 6

6.4 Levels of interoperability .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Some statements with regard to establishing interoperability in public transport

infrastructures ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Ensuring interoperability for ISO/IEC 14443 PT devices ................................................................................ 7

7.3 Ensuring interoperability for ISO/IEC 18092-conformant Type F PT devices .............................. 8

7.4 Information for EMV Contactless Interface Specification-conformant PT devices .................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
Introduction

Globally, the increasing use of mobile devices and mobile services is one of the most visible trends.

Public transport can benefit from this development since new products and services, such as multi-

modal travel and traveller information, can be addressed more easily if the customer uses his or her

mobile device as the interface to his or her service provider.

In order to take advantage of these new opportunities, the public transport industry can integrate

customers’ mobile devices with existing public transport fare management systems and ensure

technical interoperability with the existing public transport infrastructure of contactless readers and

media.

Today, the vast majority of mobile devices are equipped with a near field communication (NFC) interface

and can in principle communicate with contactless public transport readers and media. However,

globally there are several specifications for contactless interfaces in the industry which can deviate

in some details from those for mobile devices. If no precautions are in place, such deviations have the

potential to lead to interoperability issues.

A joint working group with participants from the global public transport sector, ISO, the NFC Forum,

GSMA and CEN has started to address this issue over the past few years. As a result, there are now

specifications and certification schemes in place that will make sure that mobile devices which follow

the newly developed specifications for the NFC interface will support technical interoperability with

the globally relevant standards for contactless interfaces of public transport devices.

This document presents the results of this work and can provide guidance to owners of interoperable

fare management systems [interoperable fare management system suppliers, public transport (PT)

operators, PT authorities] on how technical interoperability with NFC mobile devices can be achieved.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Interoperability between
interoperable fare management (IFM) systems and near
field communication (NFC) mobile devices
1 Scope

This document presents methods to establish technical interoperability between the contactless

interfaces of NFC mobile devices and those of public transport readers and customer media. It provides

information on how to apply these for public transport fare management systems which are using

® 1) [9]

ISO/IEC 14443 and/or ISO/IEC 18092 and/or EMV Contactless Interface Specification as a basis

for contactless communication.

This document deals with the application of standards, specifications and certification schemes

from other organizations and standards bodies. These organizations and standards bodies are solely

responsible for the content and the maintenance of these standards, specifications and certification

schemes.

This document focuses on the technical interoperability of the contactless interfaces of NFC mobile

devices and public transport devices. The goal is to reliably support communication and the exchange

of data. Syntactic and semantic interoperability, i.e. the support for a particular public transport fare

management application, is not covered by this document. However, practical experience shows that

if technical interoperability is established successfully, the adoption of a specific public transport

application can typically be achieved by loading the fare management system’s particular application

software onto the NFC mobile device.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 10373-6, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Test methods — Part 6:

Contactless proximity objects

ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts), Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity

objects

ISO/IEC 18092, Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between

systems — Near Field Communication — Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1)

ISO/IEC 22536, Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between

systems — Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) — RF interface test methods

ISO/IEC 23917, Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems

— NFCIP-1 — Protocol Test Methods

ISO 24014-1, Public transport — Interoperable fare management system — Part 1: Architecture

ISO/IEC/TS 24192-1, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Communication between

contactless readers and fare media used in public transport — Part 1: Implementation requirements for

ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts)

1) This trade name is provided for reasons of public interest or public safety. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)

ISO/IEC/TS 24192-2, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Communication between

contactless readers and fare media used in public transport — Part 2: Test plan for ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 10373-6, the

ISO/IEC 14443 series, ISO/IEC 18092, ISO/IEC 22536, ISO/IEC 23917, ISO 24014-1, ISO/IEC TS 24192-1

and ISO/IEC TS 24192-2 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
Type F
communication signal interface

Note 1 to entry: Conforms with the requirements for bit rates of fc/64 and fc/32 in ISO/IEC 18092.

3.2
technical interoperability
ability to establish communication between devices and support data exchange
4 Abbreviated terms
GCF Global Certification Forum
GSMA GSM Association
IFM interoperable fare management
JRE East Japan Railway Company
NFC near field communication
PT public transport
5 General considerations
5.1 Interoperability across different specifications

Globally, four different standards or specifications for the contactless interface cover most of the

deployed public transport fare management systems:
a) ISO/IEC 14443 series;
b) ISO/IEC 18092;
[9]
c) EMV Contactless Interface Specification ;
[2]–[6]
d) NFC Forum specifications (Analog, Digital, Activity) .

NFC mobile devices are designed for the global market. Adaptations for single markets or technologies

are typically not supported by the mobile industry. In order to take advantage of the existing global

public transport fare management infrastructures, the NFC interface of mobile devices supports

interoperability with all the previously mentioned contactless specifications.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 20527:2022(E)
5.2 Need for continuous, synchronized maintenance

The standards or specifications mentioned in 5.1 are owned and maintained by individual bodies and

working parties. In order to guarantee interoperability for current and future versions, the responsible

bodies establish continuous working relationships that support alignment and synchronization before

any changes are released.

Liaisons which established harmonization of contactless specification releases are in place between

the bodies that maintain the NFC Forum specifications, the ISO/IEC TS 24192 series, ISO/IEC 18092 and

the EMV Contactless Interface Specification, as well as the related communication signal interfaces.

The continuous working relationships between these specification bodies ensures future-proofed

interoperability between PT devices and NFC mobile devices.
5.3 Relevance of certification

Public transport fare management systems which employ a variety of devices from different suppliers

use specific measures to ensure technical interoperability of the contactless interfaces. This applies

all the more if NFC mobile devices, which are external to the interoperable fare management system

manager, will be used as a customer medium or as access devices to customer media:

a) To achieve technical interoperability, the contactless interfaces of the relevant devices conform

with the same specifications or alternatively with specifications which are harmonized.

b) Practical experience shows that conformity to the necessary specifications can be reliably achieved

if the devices pass specific testing. In that situation, test cases for these specifications and a neutral,

trustworthy body that monitors testing and certifies the conformity to the requested specification

can be used as a basis to establish conformity successfully.
6 Description of the solution for interoperability
6.1 Approach

The market-relevant standards and specifications for contactless proximity interfaces are implementing

requirements from different markets or applications and are maintained by dedicated standardization

or industry bodies. Deviations between particular parameters of these standards or different concepts

for testing are justified by different device or application requirements. Current standards and

specifications and the responsible bodies will keep their role in their markets.

Therefore, it was recognized that a complete harmonization of these standards would not be practical.

Instead, the approach focused on establishing technical interoperability between the relevant

standards and specifications by harmonization of just those parameters that are necessary for technical

interoperabilit
...

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