Document management — Environmental and work place safety regulations affecting microfilm processors

ISO/TR 18159:2015 provides information about environmental laws and regulations that can affect microfilm processing laboratories. These laws and regulations control the following microfilm processing activities: - storage and disposal of effluents; - storage and disposal of hazardous waste, employee safety training; - notification of the public regarding hazardous waste incidents. NOTE This Technical Report includes in an Annex, for information purposes, a discussion of The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations Under Pretreatment Programme and that guidance manual's relationship with state and local requirements in the United States. Also included in this Technical Report are examples of typical discharge limitations.

Gestion des documents — Réglementations relatives à la sécurité environnementale et du lieu de travail affectant les processeurs de microfilms

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Published
Publication Date
21-Jul-2015
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Jul-2015
Completion Date
22-Jul-2015
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 18159
First edition
2015-08-15
Document management —
Environmental and work place safety
regulations affecting microfilm
processors
Gestion des documents — Réglementations relatives à la sécurité
environnementale et du lieu de travail affectant les processeurs de
microfilms
Reference number
ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
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© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 International standard industrial classification ................................................................................................................. 4

4 Effluent pretreatment requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Stream standards ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Disposal of photo processing effluents using septic tanks and leach fields ...........................................5

7 Trade effluents consents .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8 Photographic processing effluent characteristics ............................................................................................................. 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Temperature .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3 Oxygen demand ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2 BOD ............................................................................................................................................................................................

5 9

8.3.3 COD ...........................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Suspended solids ................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Chlorine demand ................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.6 pH ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.7 Heavy metals ..........................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.7.2 Silver ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.7.3 Chromium compound ...............................................................................................................................................11

8.7.4 Iron complexes ...............................................................................................................................................................11

8.7.5 Zinc ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.7.6 Cadmium ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.7.7 Other heavy metals .....................................................................................................................................................12

8.8 Phenols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.9 Cyano complexes ................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.10 Thiocyanate.............................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.11 Hydroquinone .......................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.12 Ammonium ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.13 Phosphates and nitrates ..............................................................................................................................................................13

8.14 Detergents, oils, and tars .............................................................................................................................................................13

8.15 Colour and odour ...............................................................................................................................................................................13

8.16 Flammable and explosive materials ..................................................................................................................................13

8.17 Volatile organic compounds (VOC) .....................................................................................................................................14

9 Effluent sampling ..............................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.2 Sampling techniques .......................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.2 Grab sampling .................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.3 Composite sampling...................................................................................................................................................16

9.2.4 Continuous sampling ................................................................................................................................................16

10 Handling samples for analysis ............................................................................................................................................................16

11 Pollution prevention ......................................................................................................................................................................................16

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

11.2 Squeegees .................................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2.2 Types of squeegees .....................................................................................................................................................17

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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)

11.3 Replenishment rates .......................................................................................................................................................................17

11.4 Good housekeeping ..........................................................................................................................................................................18

12 Dilution (equalization) ...............................................................................................................................................................................18

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

12.2 Holding tank ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

13 Silver recovery .....................................................................................................................................................................................................19

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

13.2 Regulatory compliance .................................................................................................................................................................19

13.3 Silver recovery techniques .........................................................................................................................................................20

14 Commercial disposal services .............................................................................................................................................................20

15 Current issues in environmental and work place safety regulations affecting

microfilm processing laboratories .................................................................................................................................................20

16 Hazardous waste resulting from photo processing .......................................................................................................21

17 Container storage requirements and labelling..................................................................................................................22

18 Emergency contingency plans and procedures .................................................................................................................22

19 Land disposal criteria...................................................................................................................................................................................23

20 Storm water regulations ............................................................................................................................................................................23

21 Air pollution considerations .................................................................................................................................................................23

22 General guidelines for ventilating photographic processing areas .............................................................24

22.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

22.2 Ventilation guidelines ....................................................................................................................................................................24

23 Regulation of photographic processing air emissions ...............................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Assistance from manufacturers ................................................................................................................27

Annex B (informative) Sample written Hazard Communication Programme in the United

States of America(Provided by U.S. Department of Labour/OSHA)..............................................................28

Annex C (informative) References, statutes, and regulations applicable to the United States

of America.................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex D (informative) General guidelines for ventilating photographic processing areas ....................44

Annex E (informative) Environmental protection in France ....................................................................................................46

Annex F (informative) Environmental protection in the United Kingdom ................................................................48

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO/TR 18159 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document Management Applications,

Subcommittee SC 1, Quality.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report was developed to help microfilm processing laboratories understand

characteristics of effluent resulting from film processing, regulations, comply with regulations, and

report on regulation compliance. The intended audience of this technical report includes those people

responsible for maintaining an organization’s awareness of environmental regulations and those

people responsible for implementing procedures for compliance (such as training and record keeping)

and reporting their implementations.
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
Document management — Environmental and work place
safety regulations affecting microfilm processors
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides information about environmental laws and regulations that can

affect microfilm processing laboratories. These laws and regulations control the following microfilm

processing activities:
— storage and disposal of effluents;
— storage and disposal of hazardous waste, employee safety training;
— notification of the public regarding hazardous waste incidents.

NOTE This Technical Report includes in an Annex, for information purposes, a discussion of The United

States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementation of

Local Discharge Limitations Under Pretreatment Programme and that guidance manual’s relationship with

state and local requirements in the United States. Also included in this Technical Report are examples of typical

discharge limitations.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
bath
chemical solution in water used in wet processing
2.2
bleaching

converting the reduced silver of an image to soluble silver sulphate salts, in black-and-white reversal

processing, that will be removed by clearing in colour processing (reversal or negative)

Note 1 to entry: This is the step that converts the reduced silver of an image to silver halide that will be removed

by fixing and washing.
2.3
bleaching/fixing
combining, in a single bath, the bleaching and fixing steps
Note 1 to entry: This is a step in colour processing.
2.4
clearing

removing the soluble silver sulphate salts and the stains, in black-and-white reversal processing,

resulting from bleaching action in colour processing (reversal or negative)

Note 1 to entry: This is the step that removes the stains resulting from bleaching action.

2.5
coupler

chemical compound (e.g. phenols, naphthols, pyrazolones) that combines during

colour development with the oxidation products of the developing agent to form a dye

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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
2.6
coupler

compound that combines with the unexposed diazonium salts to form dyes

2.7
developing agent
active agent of the developer
2.8
development
processing step in which the latent image is made visible
2.9
developer
chemical solution used in the development process
2.10
diazo film

photographic film containing one or more photosensitive layers composed of diazonium salts in a

polymeric material which react with coupler(s), contained either in photosensitive layer(s) or in the

processing solution, to form an azo dye image after film processing
2.11
drying
removing unwanted moisture from photographic materials
Note 1 to entry: This is a step in processing.
2.12
effluent
fluid discharged from a given source into the external environment
[SOURCE: ISO 29464:2011, 3.2.32]
2.13
fixer
chemical used in fixing
2.14
fixing

converting the residual light sensitive silver halides into soluble salts removed by washing to make the

developed image stable
Note 1 to entry: This is a step in processing.
2.15
International Standard Industrial Classification
ISIC
International Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities

Note 1 to entry: ISIC is the international reference classification of productive activities. Its main purpose is to

provide a set of activity categories that can be utilized for the collection and reporting of statistics according to

such activities (United Nations Statistics Division).
2.16
leach field
leaching field

filter that consists of layers of coarse gravel, fine gravel, coarse sand, and fine sand arranged over one

another so that a liquid flowing through one material does not carry it into the next to clog it

[SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 5.4.45, modified.]
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
2.17
micrographics
techniques associated with the production, handling, and use of microforms
2.18.1
microfilm processing

treatment of exposed photographic material by chemical or physical means to make the latent image

clearly visible and ultimately usable
2.18.2
conventional processing

processing, including development, fixing, washing, and drying of silver film in which the polarity of

the original is reversed in the image
2.18.3
reversal processing

processing of silver film in which the polarity of the original is maintained in the image

2.18.4
full reversal processing

reversal processing that requires secondary exposure and development, or a secondary development

using fogging agents
2.18.5
colour processing

processing in which the oxidation products of the developing agent react with a coupler incorporated in

the developer or film to produce a dye close to each silver grain
2.18.6
dry processing

processing in which chemicals incorporated in the film react to heat or gas or both

2.18.7
wet processing
processing using chemicals in liquid form
2.18.8
deep-tank processor
deep-tank microfilm photoprocessor

developing machine containing 30 litres to 60 litres of liquid in each bath, wherein the chemicals are

automatically replenished, and with a built-in hot air dryer
2.19
replenishment

replacing exhausted chemistry, in photographic film and paper processing, in a continuous or per-batch

fashion using fresh chemistry
Note 1 to entry: This is a process used in chemical processing.
2.20
sludge

accumulated settled solids separated from various types of water as a result of natural or artificial

processes
[SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2014, 10.27]
2.21
squeegee

device for scraping the excess water from the film, consisting e.g. of a holder and a blade

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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
2.22
toxicity characteristic leaching procedure
TCLP

soil sample extraction method for chemical analysis employed as an analytical method to simulate

leaching through a landfill
2.23
TSDF
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility

facility that is permitted to treat, store, and/or dispose hazardous waste in special units

Note 1 to entry: These units are commonly called hazardous waste management units. A facility may be permitted

to accept hazardous wastes for treatment, storage, and/or disposal from outside generators (a commercial TSDF)

or be permitted to treat, store, or dispose of its own hazardous waste (a private TSDF).

2.24
UN number

UN ID four-digit number that identifies hazardous substances and articles (such as explosives,

flammable liquids, toxic substances, etc.) in the framework of international transport

Note 1 to entry: Some hazardous substances have their own UN numbers (e.g. acrylamide has UN2074), while

sometimes groups of chemicals or products with similar properties receive a common UN number (e.g. flammable

liquids, not otherwise specified, have UN1993). A chemical in its solid state may receive a different UN number

than the liquid phase if their hazardous properties differ significantly; substances with different levels of purity

(or concentration in solution) may also receive different UN numbers.

Note 2 to entry: UN numbers range from UN0001 to about UN3506 and are assigned by the United Nations

Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. They are published as part of their Recommendations

on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, also known as the Orange Book. These recommendations are adopted by

the regulatory organization responsible for the different modes of transport.

Note 3 to entry: There is no UN number allocated to non-hazardous substances. These will simply not have a UN

number.
2.25
washing
removing unwanted soluble chemicals from photographic materials using water
Note 1 to entry: This is a step in processing.
3 International standard industrial classification

Microfilm processing falls under International Standard Industrial Classification, Rev. Four (ISIC)

M 7420 — Photographic activities. This ISIC number is often requested for permits and survey forms.

4 Effluent pretreatment requirements

Although microfilm processing laboratories may not be specifically regulated, guidelines exist

for water discharge. The applicable regulation is for silver and affects those microfilm processing

laboratories that directly discharge to a receiving body of water. One can determine the amount of

silver discharged from a specific microfilm processing laboratory by collecting a representative sample

of the photo processing waste water and having it analysed by a certified analytical laboratory. Because

most microfilm processing laboratories do not discharge directly to surface water but discharge to a

municipal treatment system instead, they are not directly affected by these limits.

Microfilm processing laboratories which discharge to receiving bodies of water may be required to

have a permit. If the microfilm processing laboratory discharges directly to a surface stream, contact

the local water pollution control agency.
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ISO/TR 18159:2015(E)
5 Stream standards

Discharge permits are required by regulatory agencies. Water quality standards regulate direct

discharges into receiving bodies of water. These standards are usually stricter than sewer codes

because they reflect the quality of water after treatment. Nearly all standards include a clause that

prohibits discharging any substance that will injure fish or other aquatic life.
6 Disposal of photo processing effluents using septic tanks and leach fields

Most locations specifically prohibit the use of septic tanks for anything other than domestic waste, and

most manufacturers of photographic materials and chemistries do not recommend discharge to a septic

system. Septic tanks are used for the disposal of domestic waste primarily in areas where municipal

sewers are unavailable. Septic tanks operate with anaerobic biological action; that is, the wastes are

broken down by living organisms in the absence of an adequate oxygen supply.

One of the concerns about using a septic tank/leach field system is that, photographic effluents can

adversely affect the anaerobic digestion system unless the effluents are heavily diluted with domestic

wastes. Another concern is that, the soil may not have adequate capacity to absorb the leach field runoff.

With a sept
...

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