Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete — Test methods — Part 2: FRP sheets

ISO 10406-2:2008 specifies test methods applicable to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for the upgrading of concrete members.

Polymère renforcé par des fibres (PRF) pour l'armature du béton — Méthodes d'essai — Partie 2: Feuilles en PRF

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
30-Nov-2008
Withdrawal Date
30-Nov-2008
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
15-Jan-2015
Completion Date
15-Jan-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10406-2
First edition
2008-12-15
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)
reinforcement of concrete — Test
methods —
Part 2:
FRP sheets
Polymère renforcé par des fibres (PRF) pour l'armature du béton —
Méthodes d'essai —
Partie 2: Feuilles en PRF
Reference number
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

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accepts no liability in this area.
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the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions and symbols ...................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. 4

4 General provision concerning test pieces ......................................................................................... 5

5 Test method for determining tensile properties................................................................................ 5

5.1 Test pieces ............................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Testing machine and measuring devices .......................................................................................... 9

5.3 Test method........................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................10

5.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Test method for overlap splice strength .......................................................................................... 12

6.1 Test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 12

6.2 Testing machine.................................................................................................................................. 14

6.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................14

6.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 15

7 Test method for determining bond properties of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets to

concrete ............................................................................................................................................... 16

7.1 Test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 16

7.2 Testing machine and measuring devices ........................................................................................ 20

7.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 20

7.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................21

7.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 22

8 Test method for direct pull-off strength of FRP sheets with concrete.......................................... 23

8.1 Test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 23

8.2 Testing machine and measuring devices ........................................................................................ 24

8.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 24

8.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................25

8.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 25

9 Test method for freeze/thaw resistance ........................................................................................... 26

9.1 Test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 26

9.2 Testing machine and measuring devices ........................................................................................ 26

9.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 27

9.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................27

9.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 28

10 Test method for exposure to laboratory light sources................................................................... 29

10.1 Test pieces .......................................................................................................................................... 29

10.2 Testing machine and measuring devices ........................................................................................ 29

10.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 30

10.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................30

10.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 31

11 Test method for durability ................................................................................................................. 32

11.1 Types of test methods for durability................................................................................................. 32

11.2 Test piece ............................................................................................................................................ 32

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)

11.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 32

11.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 34

11.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 34

iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 10406-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-

stressed concrete, Subcommittee SC 6, Non-traditional reinforcing materials for concrete structures.

ISO 10406 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)

reinforcement of concrete — Test methods:
⎯ Part 1: FRP bars and grids
⎯ Part 2: FRP sheets
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete —
Test methods —
Part 2:
FRP sheets
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10406 specifies test methods applicable to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for the

upgrading of concrete members.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 31-0:1992, Quantities and units — Part 0: General principles
ISO 291:2008, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 4892 (all parts), Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources

ISO 5725 (all parts), Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1: Tension/

compression testing machines — Verification and calibration of the force-measuring system

JIS A 9511, Preformed cellular plastics thermal insulation materials
3 Definitions and symbols
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
accelerated artificial-exposure testing machine

machine that creates reproducible standard test conditions to accelerate weathering artificially

3.1.2
ambient temperature

environmental conditions corresponding to the usual atmospheric conditions in laboratories with uncontrolled

temperature and humidity
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
3.1.3
anchorage block
block corresponding to the test block to prevent bond failure of the FRP sheet

NOTE Additional FRP sheet circumferentially jackets the block with sheets being tested to provide higher bond

strength (in this block).
3.1.4
anchoring portion

end parts of a test piece fitted with anchoring devices to transmit loads from the testing machine to the test

portion
3.1.5
bond strength
strength calculated by dividing the maximum load by the effective bond area
3.1.6
concrete block

rectangular block of concrete used to study the bond properties of FRP sheets to concrete

NOTE Steel reinforcement or steel bars are embedded in the axial direction at the centre of the cross-sectional area

of the concrete block in order to transmit tensile strength. Concrete blocks are made up of a test block and an anchorage

block.
3.1.7
conditioning

storage of test pieces at a prescribed temperature and humidity to keep them under identical conditions before

testing
3.1.8
coupon test piece

test piece selected from the same lot that is unexposed and subjected to the tensile strength and overlap

splice strength tests
3.1.9
effective bond area

area estimated using the effective bond length and the bond width of the FRP sheet

3.1.10
effective bond length

length of the portion in which the bond stress between the FRP sheet and the concrete acts effectively at

maximum load before the FRP sheet comes loose from the concrete
3.1.11
fibre bundle
several fibre filaments bound together to form a bundle
3.1.12
fibre mass per unit area

mass of fibre in the direction of reinforcement in the FRP sheets before impregnation with resin

NOTE Expressed as mass per square metre of the FRP sheet.
3.1.13
interfacial fracture energy
amount of energy per unit bond area necessary to produce interfacial fracture
2 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
3.1.14
overlap splice strength retention rate

ratio of the overlap splice strength after accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing compared with the

overlap splice strength before accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing

NOTE The overlap splice strength retention is rate expressed as a percentage.
3.1.15
plate
FRP sheet impregnated with resin from which the test pieces are cut
3.1.16
pull-out strength

strength calculated by dividing the maximum load by the cross-sectional area of the bond surface of the steel

device
3.1.17
steel device
mechanism made of steel connected to a loading machine to apply tensile force

NOTE Adhesive is used to mount the device to the FRP sheet attached to the concrete surface. The shape of the

bond surface is either square or circular.
3.1.18
tab

plate made of fibre-reinforced polymer, aluminium or any other suitable material bonded to the test piece to

transmit loads from the testing machine to the test portion
3.1.19
tensile capacity
maximum tensile load which the test piece bears during the tensile test
3.1.20
tensile strength retention rate

ratio of the tensile strength after accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing compared with the tensile

strength before accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing
NOTE The tensile strength retention rate is expressed as a percentage.
3.1.21
test block
block used to study the bond properties of FRP sheets
3.1.22
test portion

part of a test piece that is in between the anchoring portions and is subjected to testing

3.1.23
ultimate strain
strain corresponding to the tensile capacity
3.1.24
weathering

physical and chemical changes of material properties due to exposure to sunlight, rain, snow and other

outdoor natural conditions
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
3.2 Symbols
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Unit Description Reference
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area (general) 5.4
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area of type A test piece 5.4, 6.4
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area of type B test piece 5.4, 6.4
A mm Area of steel device 8.4
b mm Average width of FRP sheet 7.4
b mm Minimum width of test piece 5.4, 6.4
t,min
E N/mm Young's modulus 5.4, 7.4
f N/mm Bond strength 8.4
f N/mm Tensile strength 5.4
Average value for tensile strength before treating, e.g. freezing and
f N/mm 9.4, 10.4
fu0
thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
Average value for tensile strength after treating, e.g. freezing and
f N/mm 9.4, 10.4
fu1
thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
f N/mm Overlap splice strength 6.4
fus

Average value for overlap splice strength before treating, e.g. freezing 9.4, 10.4

f N/mm
fus0
and thawing or accelerated artificial exposure

Average value for overlap splice strength after treating, e.g. freezing 9.4, 10.4

f N/mm
fus1
and thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
F N Maximum load 8.4
The load included in the last simultaneously recorded pair of values of
F 5.4.5
last
the load and the strain when determining the ultimate strain
F N Tensile capacity 5.4, 6.4
G N/mm Interfacial fracture energy 7.4
L Anchoring portion length 5.1.1
L Anchorage thickness 5.1.1
L Anchorage length 5.1.1
L Width at both ends 5.1.1
end
L Gauge length 5.1.1
L Thickness 5.1.1
L Total length 5.1.1
tot
l mm Effective bond length in test portion of FRP sheet 7.4
N — Number of fibre bundles in test piece 5.4
n — Number of plies of the FRP sheet 7.4
n strands/mm Number of fibre bundles per unit area of the FRP sheet 5.4
N Maximum load 7.4
max
% Overlap splice strength retention 9.4
ets
R % Tensile strength retention 9.4
ett
4 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Table 1— Symbols (continued)
Symbol Unit Description Reference
t mm Thickness of FRP sheet, equal to n·ρ /ρ 7.4
S sh
Difference between loads at two points at 20 % and 60 % of tensile
∆F N 5.4
capacity
ρ g/mm Surface density of the fibre of the FRP sheet 5.4, 6.4, 7.4
ρ g/mm Density of FRP sheet 5.4, 6.4, 7.4
The strain included in the last simultaneously recorded pair of values
ε 5.4.5
last
of the load and the strain when determining the ultimate strain
ε — Ultimate strain 5.4.5
∆ε — Difference in strain between the two points used to calculate ∆F 5.4
τ N/mm Bond strength 7.4
4 General provision concerning test pieces

Unless otherwise agreed, test pieces shall be taken from the bar or grid in the “as-delivered” condition.

In cases where test pieces are taken from a coil, they shall be straightened prior to any test by a simple

bending operation with a minimum amount of plastic deformation.

For the determination of the mechanical properties in the tensile, bond and anchorage tests, the test piece

may be artificially aged (after straightening, if applicable) depending on the performance requirements of the

product.

When a test piece is “aged”, the conditions of the ageing treatment shall be stated in the test report.

5 Test method for determining tensile properties
5.1 Test pieces
5.1.1 Types and dimensions
Two types of test pieces may be used (see Figure 1 and Table 1):

a) Type A test pieces: Prepare type A test pieces in accordance with the method described 5.1.2.1 and

use them for the general tension test. The shape and the dimensions of type A test

pieces are given in Figure 1 and Table 2, respectively.

b) Type B test pieces: Prepare type B test pieces in accordance with the method described in 5.1.2.2.

These test pieces are suitable for FRP sheets in which the fibre bundles consist of

a number of filaments that can be easily separated into individual bundles.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
tot
L L
A1 A1
L L
A3 A3
See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and dimensions.
Figure 1 — Shape of type A and type B test pieces
Table 2 — Dimensions of test pieces
Dimensions in millimetres
Symbol Dimension for the types of test piece
Type A Type B
L total length W 200
tot
L width at both ends 12,5 ± 0,5 10 to 15
end
L thickness Recommended not to exceed 2,5
L gauge length W 100
L anchoring portion length W 35
L anchorage thickness 1 to 2
L anchorage length W 50

When the peeling-off at tabs and the pull-out in the chuck do not occur, the thickness of the test piece

can exceed 2,5 mm. When the thickness of the test piece is less than 2,5 mm and fracture at anchoring

section occurs, the specification of the anchoring section should be reconsidered.

5.1.2 Preparation
5.1.2.1 Type A test pieces
Type A test pieces shall be prepared using the following method.
a) Prepare an FRP sheet cut to a sufficient length for the test piece.

b) Apply the bottom coat of impregnation resin to the separation film and attach the aforementioned sheet,

fastening it so that the fibre axis of the sheet is in a straight line.

c) Apply the top coat of impregnation resin. Then smooth the surface, so that the thickness of the

impregnation resin layer is even, to form a plate. Covering with separation film and smoothing would be

best.

d) Cure the plate for the prescribed duration, then cut in widths of 12,5 mm as shown in Figure 2. The cut

length should be at least 200 mm. Use a diamond cutter for cutting.
e) Attach the anchorages to the anchorage portions to form the test pieces.

f) Prior to testing, the test pieces shall be conditioned as prescribed in 5.1.5.

6 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
L L
th end
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
12,5
Key
1 direction of fibre axis
2 section used to prepare test piece: W 200 (area impregnated with resin)
3 test piece portion
4 cut-away portion
5 marking
a, b

Location of the two straight-line marks perpendicular to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm.

Figure 2 — Dimensions of plate used to prepare type A test pieces
5.1.2.2 Type B test pieces
Type B test pieces shall be prepared using the following method.

a) Prepare an FRP sheet cut to a sufficient length for the test piece. Fasten the sheet so that the fibre axis is

in a straight line.

b) In the centre of the fastened sheet, mark two straight lines (footnotes a and b in Figure 3) perpendicular

to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm. Mark two other straight lines (footnotes c and d in

Figure 3) approximately 100 mm on either side of the area defined by lines a and b.

c) Working along the fibre axis between lines c and d, remove 1 to 3 fibre bundles from each side of the test

piece sections. The width measures 10 mm to 15 mm. When preparing several test pieces from the same

FRP sheet, the portions to be used as test pieces should be separated by intervals of at least 50 mm in

the direction perpendicular to the fibre axis.

d) Apply the bottom coat of impregnation resin to the separation film and attach the aforementioned sheet

onto the film.

e) Apply the topcoat of impregnation resin. Then smooth the surface, so that the thickness of the

impregnation resin layer is even, to form a plate. Covering with separation film and smoothing would be

best.

f) Cure the plate for the prescribed duration, then cut the fibre bundle portions that are to be the test pieces

at widths of 10 mm to 15 mm. The cut length shall be at least 200 mm.
g) Attach the anchorages to the anchorage portions to form the test pieces.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
100 3 100
cab d
10-15
4 4
Key
1 direction of fibre axis
2 area impregnated with resin: W 400
3 section used to prepare test piece: W 200
4 marking
5 cut-away portion
6 test piece portion
a, b

Location of the two straight-line marks perpendicular to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm.

c, d

Location of the two straight-line marks at least 100 mm on either side of lines a and b.

Figure 3 — Dimensions of plate used to prepare type B test pieces
Prior to testing, condition the test pieces as prescribed in 5.1.5.

A tracer thread may be added to uncured, wet-laid material to help identify the fibre direction, to somehow

specify how accurately the specimens should be cut from the larger piece of material, specifically with respect

to the fibre direction.
5.1.3 Curing of test pieces

Establish the curing period needed to give the test piece the desired strength and cure the test piece.

The curing period generally takes about one week.
5.1.4 Anchorage portion of test pieces

The anchorage portion of the test piece shall not have a shape that causes the test piece to twist or bend. An

anchorage made of fibre-reinforced polymer or aluminium shall be attached to the anchorage portion using

resin or adhesive at a suitable pressure so that the thickness of the adhesive layer is constant. The adhesive

or resin shall ensure that the adhesive layer does not experience shear fracture before the test piece breaks.

8 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
5.1.5 Conditioning of test pieces

The most appropriate condition from ISO 291 shall be selected, unless otherwise agreed upon by the

interested parties. If humidity has a negligible or no influence on the properties being examined, it is not

necessary to control the relative humidity. Similarly, if neither temperature nor humidity has any noticeable

influence on the properties being examined, it is not necessary to control either the temperature or the relative

humidity. In this case, the atmospheric condition is termed “ambient temperature”.

5.1.6 Number of test pieces

Determine the number of test pieces suitable for the objective of the test. It shall be no fewer than five.

5.2 Testing machine and measuring devices
5.2.1 Testing machine

The testing machine shall conform to ISO 7500-1. The testing machine shall have a loading capacity in

excess of the tensile capacity of the test piece and shall be capable of applying loading at the required loading

rate.
5.2.2 Strain gauges/extensometers

Strain gauges/extensometers used to measure the elongation of the test piece under loading should be

capable of recording all variations in the gage length or elongation during testing with a strain measurement

accuracy of at least 10 × 10 . The gauge length of the extensometer shall be not less than 100 mm.

5.3 Test method
5.3.1 Dimensions of test pieces

Measure the width and thickness of the test portion of the test pieces as follows.

a) Test pieces of type A shall be measured to 0,01 mm.
b) Test pieces of type B shall be measured to 0,1 mm.
5.3.2 Mounting of strain gauges/extensometers

Mount the strain gauges/extensometers at the centre of the test portion of the test piece in order to determine

the Young's modulus and the ultimate strain of the test piece.
5.3.3 Mounting of test piece

Mount the test piece in such a way that the long axis of the test piece coincides with the centre line between

the two chucks.
5.3.4 Loading rate

The standard loading rate shall be a constant strain rate equivalent to 1 %/min to 3 %/min strain.

5.3.5 Test temperature

In principle, conduct the test in the same atmosphere used for conditioning the test piece, unless otherwise

agreed upon by the interested parties, e.g. for testing at elevated or low temperatures.

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 10406-2:2008(E)
5.3.6 Range of test

Perform the loading test until tensile failure and record the measurements of load and strain continuously or at

regular intervals at least up to two thirds of the tensile capacity.
5.4 Calculation and expression of test results
5.4.1 General

Use only results from those pieces that undergo failure in the test portion. Reject the test results from those

pieces that show tensile failure or slippage at the anchorage portion and carry out additional tests using test

pieces from the same lot until the number of test pieces having failed in the test portion is not less than the

prescribed number.
5.4.2 Load-strain curve

When strain gauges/extensometers are mounted, plot a load-strain curve depicting the relationship between

the measured load and strain.
5.4.3 Tensile strength

Calculate the tensile strength, f , expressed in newtons per square millimetre, and rounded off to three

significant digits in accordance with ISO 31-0:1992, Annex B, using Equation (1):

f = (1)
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 10406-2
ISO/TC 71/SC 6
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)
Secretariat: JISC
reinforcement of concrete — Test
Voting begins on:
methods —
2008-09-01
Part 2:
Voting terminates on:
2008-11-01
FRP sheets
Polymère renforcé par des fibres (PRF) pour l'armature du béton —
Méthodes d'essai —
Partie 2: Feuilles en PRF
Please see the administrative notes on page iii
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORT-
ING DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted

under the applicable laws of the user's country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract from it may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO's

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993, this document is circulated in the

English language only.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Definitions and symbols....................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Definitions.............................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. 4

4 General provision concerning test pieces ......................................................................................... 5

5 Test method for determining tensile properties ................................................................................ 5

5.1 Test pieces............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Testing machine and measuring devices...........................................................................................9

5.3 Test method........................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 10

5.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 11

6 Test method for overlap splice strength .......................................................................................... 12

6.1 Test pieces........................................................................................................................................... 12

6.2 Testing machine.................................................................................................................................. 14

6.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 14

6.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 15

7 Test method for determining bond properties of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets to

concrete ............................................................................................................................................... 16

7.1 Test pieces........................................................................................................................................... 16

7.2 Testing machine and measuring devices......................................................................................... 20

7.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 20

7.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 21

7.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 22

8 Test method for direct pull-off strength of FRP sheets with concrete.......................................... 23

8.1 Test pieces........................................................................................................................................... 23

8.2 Testing machine and measuring devices......................................................................................... 24

8.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 24

8.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 25

8.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 25

9 Test method for freeze/thaw resistance ........................................................................................... 26

9.1 Test pieces........................................................................................................................................... 26

9.2 Testing machine and measuring devices......................................................................................... 26

9.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 27

9.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 27

9.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 28

10 Test method for exposure to laboratory light sources ................................................................... 29

10.1 Test pieces........................................................................................................................................... 29

10.2 Testing machine and measuring devices......................................................................................... 29

10.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 30

10.4 Calculation and expression of test results....................................................................................... 30

10.5 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 31

11 Test method for durability.................................................................................................................. 32

11.1 Types of test methods for durability................................................................................................. 32

11.2 Test piece............................................................................................................................................. 32

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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)

11.3 Test method......................................................................................................................................... 32

11.4 Calculation and expression of test results ......................................................................................34

11.5 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 34

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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 10406-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-

stressed concrete, Subcommittee SC 6, Non-traditional reinforcing materials for concrete structures.

ISO 10406 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)

reinforcement of concrete — Test methods:
⎯ Part 1: FRP bars and grids
⎯ Part 2: FRP sheets
vi © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete —
Test methods —
Part 2:
FRP sheets
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10406 specifies test methods applicable to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets for the

upgrading of concrete members.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 31-0:1992, Quantities and units — Part 0: General principles
ISO 291:2008, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 4892 (all parts), Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources

ISO 5725 (all parts), Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1: Tension/

compression testing machines — Verification and calibration of the force-measuring system

JIS A 1435, Test methods for frost resistance of exterior wall materials of buildings (Freezing and thawing

method)
JIS A 9511, Preformed cellular plastics thermal insulation materials
3 Definitions and symbols
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
accelerated artificial-exposure testing machine

machine that creates reproducible standard test conditions to accelerate weathering artificially

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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
3.1.2
ambient temperature

environmental conditions corresponding to the usual atmospheric conditions in laboratories with uncontrolled

temperature and humidity
3.1.3
anchorage block
block corresponding to the test block to prevent bond failure of the FRP sheet

NOTE Additional FRP sheet circumferentially jackets the block with sheets being tested to provide higher bond

strength (in this block).
3.1.4
anchoring portion

end parts of a test piece fitted with anchoring devices to transmit loads from the testing machine to the test

portion
3.1.5
bond strength
strength calculated by dividing the maximum load by the effective bond area
3.1.6
concrete block

rectangular block of concrete used to study the bond properties of FRP sheets to concrete

NOTE Steel reinforcement or steel bars are embedded in the axial direction at the centre of the cross-sectional area

of the concrete block in order to transmit tensile strength. Concrete blocks are made up of a test block and an anchorage

block.
3.1.7
conditioning

storage of test pieces at a prescribed temperature and humidity to keep them under identical conditions before

testing
3.1.8
coupon test piece

test piece selected from the same lot that is unexposed and subjected to the tensile strength and overlap

splice strength tests
3.1.9
effective bond area

area estimated using the effective bond length and the bond width of the FRP sheet

3.1.10
effective bond length

length of the portion in which the bond stress between the FRP sheet and the concrete acts effectively at

maximum load before the FRP sheet comes loose from the concrete
3.1.11
fibre bundle
several fibre filaments bound together to form a bundle
3.1.12
fibre mass per unit area

mass of fibre in the direction of reinforcement in the FRP sheets before impregnation with resin

NOTE Expressed as mass per square metre of the FRP sheet.
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
3.1.13
interfacial fracture energy
amount of energy per unit bond area necessary to produce interfacial fracture
3.1.14
overlap splice strength retention rate

ratio of the overlap splice strength after accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing compared with the

overlap splice strength before accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing

NOTE The overlap splice strength retention is rate expressed as a percentage.
3.1.15
plate
FRP sheet impregnated with resin from which the test pieces are cut
3.1.16
pull-out strength

strength calculated by dividing the maximum load by the cross-sectional area of the bond surface of the steel

device
3.1.17
steel device
mechanism made of steel connected to a loading machine to apply tensile force

NOTE Adhesive is used to mount the device to the FRP sheet attached to the concrete surface. The shape of the

bond surface is either square or circular.
3.1.18
tab

plate made of fibre-reinforced polymer, aluminium or any other suitable material bonded to the test piece to

transmit loads from the testing machine to the test portion
3.1.19
tensile capacity
maximum tensile load which the test piece bears during the tensile test
3.1.20
tensile strength retention rate

ratio of the tensile strength after accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing compared with the tensile

strength before accelerated artificial exposure or freezing/thawing
NOTE The tensile strength retention rate is expressed as a percentage.
3.1.21
test block
block used to study the bond properties of FRP sheets
3.1.22
test portion

part of a test piece that is in between the anchoring portions and is subjected to testing

3.1.23
ultimate strain
strain corresponding to the tensile capacity
3.1.24
weathering

physical and chemical changes of material properties due to exposure to sunlight, rain, snow and other

outdoor natural conditions
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
3.2 Symbols
See Table 1.
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Unit Description Reference
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area (general) 5.4
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area of type A test piece 5.4, 6.4
A mm Nominal cross-sectional area of type B test piece 5.4, 6.4
A mm Area of steel device 8.4
b mm Average width of FRP sheet 7.4
b mm Minimum width of test piece 5.4, 6.4
t,min
E N/mm Young's modulus 5.4, 7.4
f N/mm Bond strength 8.4
f N/mm Tensile strength 5.4
Average value for tensile strength before treating, e.g. freezing and
f N/mm 9.4, 10.4
fu0
thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
Average value for tensile strength after treating, e.g. freezing and
f N/mm 9.4, 10.4
fu1
thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
f N/mm Overlap splice strength 6.4
fus

Average value for overlap splice strength before treating, e.g. freezing 9.4, 10.4

f N/mm
fus0
and thawing or accelerated artificial exposure

Average value for overlap splice strength after treating, e.g. freezing 9.4, 10.4

f N/mm
fus1
and thawing or accelerated artificial exposure
F N Maximum load 8.4
The load included in the last simultaneously recorded pair of values of
F 5.4.5
last
the load and the strain when determining the ultimate strain
F N Tensile capacity 5.4, 6.4
G N/mm Interfacial fracture energy 7.4
L Anchoring portion length 5.1.1
L Anchorage thickness 5.1.1
L Anchorage length 5.1.1
L Width at both ends 5.1.1
end
L Gauge length 5.1.1
L Thickness 5.1.1
L Total length 5.1.1
tot
l mm Effective bond length in test portion of FRP sheet 7.4
N — Number of fibre bundles in test piece 5.4
n — Number of plies of the FRP sheet 7.4
n strands/mm Number of fibre bundles per unit area of the FRP sheet 5.4
N Maximum load 7.4
max
% Overlap splice strength retention 9.4
ets
R % Tensile strength retention 9.4
ett
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Table 1— Symbols (continued)
Symbol Unit Description Reference
t mm Thickness of FRP sheet, equal to n·ρ /ρ 7.4
S sh
Difference between loads at two points at 20 % and 60 % of tensile
∆F N 5.4
capacity
ρ g/mm Surface density of the fibre of the FRP sheet 5.4, 6.4, 7.4
ρ g/mm Density of FRP sheet 5.4, 6.4, 7.4
The strain included in the last simultaneously recorded pair of values
ε 5.4.5
last
of the load and the strain when determining the ultimate strain
ε — Ultimate strain 5.4.5
∆ε — Difference in strain between the two points used to calculate ∆F 5.4
τ N/mm Bond strength 7.4
4 General provision concerning test pieces

Unless otherwise agreed, test pieces shall be taken from the bar or grid in the “as-delivered” condition.

In cases where test pieces are taken from a coil, they shall be straightened prior to any test by a simple

bending operation with a minimum amount of plastic deformation.

For the determination of the mechanical properties in the tensile, bond and anchorage tests, the test piece

may be artificially aged (after straightening, if applicable) depending on the performance requirements of the

product.

When a test piece is “aged”, the conditions of the ageing treatment shall be stated in the test report.

5 Test method for determining tensile properties
5.1 Test pieces
5.1.1 Types and dimensions
Two types of test pieces may be used (see Figure 1 and Table 1):

a) Type A test pieces: Prepare type A test pieces in accordance with the method described 5.1.2.1 and

use them for the general tension test. The shape and the dimensions of type A test

pieces are given in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively.

b) Type B test pieces: Prepare type B test pieces in accordance with the method described in 5.1.2.2.

These test pieces are suitable for FRP sheets in which the fibre bundles consist of

a number of filaments that can be easily separated into individual bundles.
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
tot
L L
A1 A1
L L
A3 A3
See Table 2 for definitions of symbols and dimensions.
Figure 1 — Shape of type A and type B test pieces
Table 2 — Dimensions of test pieces
Dimensions in millimetres
Symbol Dimension for the types of test piece
Type A Type B
L total length W 200
tot
L width at both ends 12,5 ± 0,5 10 to 15
end
L thickness Recommended not to exceed 2,5
L gauge length W 100
L anchoring portion length W 35
L anchorage thickness 1 to 2
L anchorage length W 50

When the peeling-off at tabs and the pull-out in the chuck do not occur, the thickness of the test piece

can exceed 2,5 mm. When the thickness of the test piece is less than 2,5 mm and fracture at anchoring

section occurs, the specification of the anchoring section should be reconsidered.

5.1.2 Preparation
5.1.2.1 Type A test pieces
Type A test pieces shall be prepared using the following method.
a) Prepare an FRP sheet cut to a sufficient length for the test piece.

b) Apply the bottom coat of impregnation resin to the separation film and attach the aforementioned sheet,

fastening it so that the fibre axis of the sheet is in a straight line.

c) Apply the top coat of impregnation resin. Then smooth the surface, so that the thickness of the

impregnation resin layer is even, to form a plate. Covering with separation film and smoothing would be

best.

d) Cure the plate for the prescribed duration, then cut in widths of 12,5 mm as shown in Figure 2. The cut

length should be at least 200 mm. Use a diamond cutter for cutting.
e) Attach the anchorages to the anchorage portions to form the test pieces.
f) Prior to testing, the test pieces shall be conditioned as prescribed.
6 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
12,5
Key
1 direction of fibre axis
2 section used to prepare test piece: W 200 (area impregnated with resin)
3 test piece portion
4 cut-away portion
5 marking
a, b

Location of the two straight-line marks perpendicular to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm.

Figure 2 — Dimensions of plate used to prepare type A test pieces
5.1.2.2 Type B test pieces
Type B test pieces shall be prepared using the following method.

a) Prepare an FRP sheet cut to a sufficient length for the test piece. Fasten the sheet so that the fibre axis is

in a straight line.

b) In the centre of the fastened sheet, mark two straight lines (footnotes a and b in Figure 3) perpendicular

to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm. Mark two other straight lines (footnotes c and d in

Figure 3) approximately 100 mm on either side of the area defined by lines a and b.

c) Working along the fibre axis between lines c and d, remove 1 to 3 fibre bundles from each side of the test

piece sections. The width measures 10 mm to 15 mm. When preparing several test pieces from the same

FRP sheet, the portions to be used as test pieces should be separated by intervals of at least 50 mm in

the direction perpendicular to the fibre axis.

d) Apply the bottom coat of impregnation resin to the separation film and attach the aforementioned sheet

onto the film.

e) Apply the topcoat of impregnation resin. Then smooth the surface, so that the thickness of the

impregnation resin layer is even, to form a plate. Covering with separation film and smoothing would be

best.

f) Cure the plate for the prescribed duration, then cut the fibre bundle portions that are to be the test pieces

at widths of 10 mm to 15 mm. The cut length shall be at least 200 mm.
g) Attach the anchorages to the anchorage portions to form the test pieces.
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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
100 3 100
cab d
10-15
4 4
Key
1 direction of fibre axis
2 area impregnated with resin: W 400
3 section used to prepare test piece: W 200
4 marking
5 cut-away portion
6 test piece portion
a, b

Location of the two straight-line marks perpendicular to the fibre axis that define a length of at least 200 mm.

c, d

Location of the two straight-line marks at least 100 mm on either side of lines a and b.

Figure 3 — Dimensions of plate used to prepare type B test pieces
Prior to testing, condition the test pieces.

A tracer thread may be added to uncured, wet-laid material to help identify the fibre direction, to somehow

specify how accurately the specimens should be cut from the larger piece of material, specifically with respect

to the fibre direction.
5.1.3 Curing of test pieces

Establish the curing period needed to give the test piece the desired strength and cure the test piece.

The curing period generally takes about one week.
5.1.4 Anchorage portion of test pieces

The anchorage portion of the test piece shall not have a shape that causes the test piece to twist or bend. An

anchorage made of fibre-reinforced polymer or aluminium shall be attached to the anchorage portion using

resin or adhesive at a suitable pressure so that the thickness of the adhesive layer is constant. The adhesive

or resin shall ensure that the adhesive layer does not experience shear fracture before the test piece breaks.

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ISO/FDIS 10406-2:2008(E)
5.1.5 Conditioning of test pieces

The most appropriate condition from ISO 291 shall be selected, unless otherwise agreed upon by the

interested parties. If humidity has a negligible or no influence on the properties being examined, it is not

necessary to control the relative humidity. Similarly, if neither temperature nor humidity has any noticeable

influence on the properties being examined, it is not necessary to control either the temperature or the relative

humidity. In this case, the atmospheric condition is termed “ambient temperature”.

5.1.6 Number of test pieces

Determine the number of test pieces suitable for the objective of the test. It shall be no fewer than five.

5.2 Testing machine and measuring devices
5.2.1 Testing machine

The testing machine shall conform to ISO 7500-1. The testing machine shall have a loading capacity in

excess of the tensile capacity of the test piece and shall be capable of applying loading at the required loading

rate.
5.2.2 Strain gauges/extensometers

Strain gauges/extensometers used to measure the elongation of the test piece under loading should be

capable of recording all variations in the gage length or elongation during testing with a strain measurement

accuracy of at least 10 × 10 . The gauge length of the extensometer shall be not less than 100 mm.

5.3 Test method
5.3.1 Dimensions of test pieces

Measure the width and thickness of the test portion of the test pieces as follows.

a) Test pieces of type A shall be measured to 0,01 mm.
b) Test pieces of type B shall be measured to 0,1 mm.
5.3.2 Mounting of strain gauges/extensometers

Mount the strain gauges/extensometers at the centre of the test portion of the test piece in order to determine

the Young's modulus and the ultimate strain of the test piece.
5.3.3 Mounting of test piece

Mount the test piece in such a way that the long axis of the test piece coincides with the centre line between

the two chucks.
5.3.4 Loading rate

The standard loading rate shall be a constant strain rate equivalent to 1 %/min to 3 %/min strain.

5.3.5 Test temperature
In principle, conduct th
...

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