Telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Future network architecture — Part 3: Networking of everything

This document focuses on networking issues for integrating various networking technologies for integrating various networking techniques to provide the thing-user centric communication service. This document specifies: — the architectural model of the Future Network – Networking of Everything (FN-NoE); — the functional procedure for providing advanced FN-NoE services that integrate various networks.

Télécommunications et échange d'informations entre systèmes — Architecture du réseau du futur — Partie 3: Réseautique universelle

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 21558-3
First edition
2022-03
Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems — Future
network architecture —
Part 3:
Networking of everything
Télécommunications et échange d'informations entre systèmes —
Architecture du réseau du futur —
Partie 3: Réseautique universelle
Reference number
ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Future Networks — Networking of Everything (FN-NoE) ....................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Thing-user social networking ................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Thing-user centric communication service .................................................................................................................. 5

6 Architecture of FN-NoE ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 FN-NoE for thing-user centric communication service ...................................................................................... 7

6.3 Topologies of the FN-NoE .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4 Reference model of the FN-NoE ............................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Functional procedure of the FN-NoE ........................................................................................................................................... .11

7.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2 Thing-user and thing-user social community .........................................................................................................12

7.3 Organizing and maintaining the thing-user social community ............................................................... 14

7.4 Sharing thing-user experiences in the thing-user social community ................................................15

7.5 Thing-user manages the subscription and publishing of experiences in the level of

cluster and each community tier — Finding the coordinated thing-user ......................................15

7.6 Establishing and maintaining the proximal path ................................................................................................. 15

Annex A (informative) FN-NoE thing-user centric communication service ............................................................16

Annex B (informative) FN-NoE architecture over RINA (Recursive InterNetwork

Architecture) based future networks ........................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

iii
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21558 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Introduction

This document specifies the Future Network – Networking of everything (FN-NoE) architecture, which

is designed to provide further advanced NoE services identified in ISO/IEC TR 29181-9.

ISO/IEC TR 29181-9 is part of the ISO/IEC TR 29181 series of standards on Future Network (FN).

ISO/IEC TR 29181-9, which addresses networking issues raised in ISO/IEC TR 29181-1, covers

networking of everything.

The scope of this document focuses on the FN-NoE architecture, consisting of access and core networks,

thing social networks, and proximity defined networks, in which smart devices participate.

This document provides the general characteristics of NoE which can be applied to future networks

such as RINA as shown in Annex B, especially from an Internet of Things (IoT) perspective, through a

conceptual model of NoE.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems — Future network architecture —
Part 3:
Networking of everything
1 Scope

This document focuses on networking issues for integrating various networking technologies for

integrating various networking techniques to provide the thing-user centric communication service.

This document specifies:

— the architectural model of the Future Network – Networking of Everything (FN-NoE);

— the functional procedure for providing advanced FN-NoE services that integrate various networks.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC/TR 29181-9:2017, Information technology — Future Network — Problem statement and

requirements — Part 9: Networking of everything
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC TR 29181-9 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
object

intrinsic representation of an entity that is described at an appropriate level of abstraction in terms of

its attributes and functions
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.12]
3.2
context
information that can be used to characterize the environment of a user
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.4]
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
3.3
thing

object of the physical world (physical things) or of the information world (virtual thing), which is

capable of being identified and integrated into communication networks.

Note 1 to entry: Physical things are capable of being sensed, actuated, and connected to things such as robots,

goods, and electrical equipment. Virtual things are capable of being stored, processed, and accessed by things

such as multimedia content and application software.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.16]
3.4
Internet of Things
IoT

global infrastructure for the information society enabling advanced services by interconnecting

(physical and virtual) things based on existing or evolving interoperable information and

communication technologies
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.8]
3.5
collaborative work group

group of thing users that can perform job planning, thing user recruitment, and coordination without

human intervention
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.2]
3.6
proximity defined network
PDN

network configured among devices in close proximity, using conventional LAN or WAN technologies:

which are in not only physically close proximity, but also closely related, or logically close proximity

Note 1 to entry: PDN is an instantaneous network that is formed during the networking of everything.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 29181-9:2017, 3.13, modified — Note 1 to entry added.]
3.7
identifier

series of digits, characters, and symbols or any other form of data used to identify a subscriber(s), a

user(s), a network element(s), function(s), a network entity(es) providing services/applications, or

other entities, e.g. physical or logical objects

Note 1 to entry: An identifier can also be a string of bits bound to an object that may be used to locate an object

in a given context.
3.8
Future Network for Networking of Everything
FN-NoE

network that is capable of providing thing-user social networking and thing-user centric communication

service to the thing-users
3.9
profile

all or some of the information statements about a thing-user, including (1) basic statements including

Name, Identity, Address, URI, Account, Contract, Security; (2) motivation statements describing why

the thing-user joins the social network; (3) mission statements describing what the thing-user plans to

accomplish; or (4) its capacity statements which describe its predications, knowledge, resources

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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
3.10
thing-user

thing that uses the Future Network for Networking of Everything (FN-NoE) network service or the FN-

NoE services provided by other things
3.11
everything
equipment that is capable of performing Networking of Everything (NoE)

Note 1 to entry: "Everything" can be regarded as anything which can perform NoE in Future Network (FN).

3.12
Networking of Everything
NoE

process that is capable of providing Future Network for Networking of Everything (FN-NoE) services

3.13
Network of Everything (NoE) terminal

thing that can perform the process in the network capable of providing thing-user social networking

and thing-user centric communication service to the thing-users
3.14
thing-user social network

social network among thing-users which automatically shares its capabilities, context, communicative

motivation, experiences, and intentions of collaboration for delivering the intelligent super-realistic

service

Note 1 to entry: As the thing-user expands the social network, it may expand its knowledge.

Note 2 to entry: Thing-user social networking service can be a web application that thing-users use to build a

social network provided by Networking of Everything (NoE).
3.15
thing-user centric communication

process of conveying intended meanings from one thing-user to another thing-user or thing-user group

through the use of mutually understood language
3.16
thing-user centric network

network that allows a thing-user to discover another thing-user or thing-user group who understands

its intention conveyed from the thing-user and supports the thing-user in achieving its mission

4 Abbreviated terms
FN Future Network
FN-NoE Future Network for Networking of Everything
ID IDentifier
IoT Internet of Things
NoE Networking of Everything
PDN Proximity Defined Networks
SAP Service Access Point
TSN Thing-user Social Network
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
5 Future Networks — Networking of Everything (FN-NoE)
5.1 General

Networking of Everything (NoE) refers to the process capable of providing FN-NoE services such as

thing-user social networking and thing-user centric communication services to the thing users who

participate in the FN-NoE.

FN-NoE provides a functional procedure that integrates various networking technologies through

social networking among thing-users and provides user-centtric communication. This document

defines an architectural model of the FN-NoE and serves as a companion document to ISO/IEC 21559-3

for protocol and mechanisms specifying control protocols of the FN-NoE.

For the time being, since the deployment of FN-NoE will be very limited geographically or technically

until more advanced applications for IoT emerge in the market, FN-NoE shall coexist with the

conventional networks. FN-NoE is regarded as (connected) islands in the sea of the Internet, as shown

in the Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Deployment of FN-NoE in the Internet
5.2 Thing-user social networking

A thing can be an intelligent thing-user that describes its sensing information, shares the acquired

experience or knowledge with other things, and leverages the capabilities provided by other thing

users. A thing will become a thing-user of the FN-NoE by having its physical entity or logical entity that

performs a task with an equipped major skill-set and optional-skill set. The thing-user will have the

expertise built on its experience performing tasks using specific domain-related knowledge. The thing-

user may be classified according to the equipped skill set and expertise domain.
Thing-users can form a thing-user social network to share:

a) basic information for communication of its device, e.g. ID, address, URI or URL, security (described

in Basic statements),
b) their capabilities (described in Capability statements in Profile),
c) context,
d) communicative motivation (described in Motivation statements),
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
e) experiences,

f) intentions of collaboration for delivering the intelligent super-realistic service (described in Mission

statements).

To understand and share this information, each thing-user should use the language that computers

understand, e.g. semantics to describe diverse context, standard DB structure to store, retrieve.

The central aspect of thing-user social networking is very similar to human social networking. The

only difference is that each device or computer understands the social information through semantic

[4],[5]

language All such information is defined based on FN-NoE ontology and is updated continuously

by a third party.

After a thing-user is initiated, it searches for social networks which fit its context and objectives, joins

them, and shares its information with other thing-users that have already joined as partners. Depending

on its context, a thing-user can join two or more social networks at the same time. While performing

collaborative work with other thing-users, if a thing-user needs further information, it may request

that its partners contact their partners to resolve it. This search process may repeat recursively.

5.3 Thing-user centric communication service

In the FN-NoE, the thing-user is intelligent and socialized to interact with other thing-users

autonomously. In addition to producing digitalized information, thing-users also produce varieties

of reactions based on a socialized decision. The thing-user describes communicative motivation or

goals and conveys intended meanings to other thing-users or thing-user groups through mutually

understood language. From the thing-user communities, the thing-user discovers another thing-user or

thing-users capable of collaborating to accomplish its communicative goal as a human-user does. One of

the service use-cases is shown in Annex A.

The FN-NoE provides a structure in which a thing-user discovers and coordinates thing-users among

the socialized things located within a space to autonomously perform collaborative work.

6 Architecture of FN-NoE
6.1 General

The infrastructure for the FN-NoE is constructed by the access networks, the core networks, and the

regional networks. The access networks and the core networks are evolved from the current networks.

The FN-NoE is operated over either existing legacy networks or future networks. An NoE terminal

located in a certain space connects to an access network. It is connected to another NoE terminal

through the core networks and an access network.

Different network operators may operate the core networks between NoE terminals. The switching

and routing schemes applied to the core networks may be different. The access network is managed by

the core network operator. The access network is differentiated by the type of access links and access

procedures. The access network may have a local network managed by the local private owner as a

subnetwork. The local network may have a local network underneath it.

Figure 2 shows a reference network model in which multiple NoE terminals located in a particular space

are connected, as shown in Figure 1. There is an NoE terminal connected to the A type access network

of the core network managed by the operator X. There is an NoE terminal connected to the B type access

network of the core network managed by the operator Y. There is an NoE terminal connected to the C

type local network operated by the local operator, connected to the B type access network of the core

network managed by the operator Y. There is an NoE terminal connected to the D type local network

operated by the local operator, connected to the C type local network operated by the local operator,

connected to the B type access network of the core network managed by the operator Y.

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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Figure 2 — FN-NoE operated over existing legacy networks

The FN-NoE provides a thing-to-thing connection for coordinating NoE terminals connected to

heterogeneous access networks. The FN-NoE defines the coordinated networking layer, in which the

NoE terminals can socialize with each other for sharing the coordination experience and performing

context-based discovery, as shown in Figure 3. The coordinated networking layer locates between

application layer and transport/network layer.
Figure 3 — FN-NoE layered architecture based on conventional OSI network

The regional network is a virtual network that provides logical access to an intelligent socialized thing-

user. The regional networks overlay with the access networks and the core networks. The regional

networks consist of the NoE terminals and the NoE virtual switches. They can either concurrently work

to an NoE terminal or dedicate themselves to thing-users.

The coordinated networking layer is implemented in the NoE terminals and the NoE virtual switches

of the regional networks, as shown in Figure 4. The NoE virtual switch has a position to share the

coordination information among the NoE terminals. The regional virtual switch is nominated by the

NoE terminals or network devices that implement the NoE coordinated networking layer. The overlay

virtual switch is nominated by the regional virtual switches.
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Figure 4 — Example of connections in the FN-NoE
6.2 FN-NoE for thing-user centric communication service

The thing-user centric network provides a thing-to-thing connection that can support autonomous

coordination between the NoE terminals located in proximity to each other. In the thing-user centric

network, the NoE terminal communicates as a thing-user with another thing-user or a thing-user group

by conveying intended meaning using the mutually understood language. The thing-user describes

the communicative motivation or experience to perform a specific task using the thing-user language,

based on the task-related domain ontology.

The thing-user may form a thing-user social group to share experiences with thing-users located in

its proximity or with thing-users sharing the same interest. The thing-users are autonomous and

have equal rights to govern the thing-user social group. The thing-users share equally the resources

necessary for the operation and maintenance of the social group. The goal of a thing-user social group

and thing-user experiences are described in domain ontology-based semantic language.

The thing-user may join a thing-user social group or invite another thing-user to join a thing-user social

group. The thing-user subscribes to a thing-user or a thing-user group to harvest the knowledge needed

to perform a task.

The thing-user discovers a communication party relying on the assistance of thing-users in a thing-user

social group. The thing-user requests that other thing-users of a thing-user group introduce a thing-

user who may be the communicative correspondent or may know the communicative correspondent.

The thing-user continues these referral requests until it meets the right communication party. Social

assistance is accepted based upon the trustworthiness and reputation a thing-user has established

within a social group.

In the thing-user centric network, each of the NoE terminals maintains autonomous social coordination

information. The NoE terminal may share the coordination information with the NoE terminals located

within the same space or exchange coordination information over regional virtual switches and overlay

virtual switches.

The NoE terminal, the regional virtual switch, and the overlay virtual switch maintain social

coordination information fully distributed manners. Autonomous social coordination information

can be searched on the flat web service architecture consisting of NoE terminals, regional virtual

switches, and overlay virtual switches. The overlay virtual switch is used for exchanging coordination

information between regional virtual switches.

In the FN-NoE for the thing-user centric communication, an NoE terminal can be a thing or a thing-user,

possibly acting as a regional virtual switch or an overlay virtual switch as shown in Figure 5. It can be a

perception of NoE virtual circuit in Figure 5.
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)

Figure 5 — Example of geographical distribution of thing-users, thing-user social groups, and

virtual switches
6.3 Topologies of the FN-NoE
The components of the FN-NoE are:
a) a thing-user that performs in an NoE terminal or an NoE virtual switch,

b) transport networks that provide physical connections to NoE terminals and NoE virtual switches.

The FN-NoE is composed of the physical network and logical networks. The physical network of the

FN-NoE can be the heterogeneous network implemented in legacy networks. The Thing-user Social

Network (TSN) and the Proximity Defined Network (PDN) are the logical networks of the FN-NoE.

As shown in Figure 6, nodes and thing-users are in the scope of three different types of access networks.

They may or may not communicate with each other over the heterogeneous network. The thing-users

form thing-user communities and share their experiences over the TSNs.

The NoE terminal requests a thing-user centric communication service while providing a communicative

motivation described in thing-user language. FN-NoE consults with an NoE virtual switch in a social

network to discover a thing-user or thing-user group to achieve the goal.

The PDN consists of thing-users and virtual switches joining TSNs. In Figure 6, we see that when a node

in legacy networks usually accesses the local network 1, it can communicate with a node in network 3

only if the node knows its destination network address (or name). Networks should be interconnected

via intermediate nodes. However, when thing-user 1 in FN-NoE joins an appropriate social network 1

depending on its profile and communicative motivation, it can locate the exact thing-user in network 3,

not by a network-dependent routing algorithm, but by context-aware social networking. Through this

thing-user social networking, a thing-user centric communication service is provided to the thing-user,

which is only identified by a profile or name (not a network address).
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ISO/IEC 21558-3:2022(E)
Figure 6 — Networking example of the FN-NoE
6.4 Reference model of the FN-NoE

A FN-NoE terminal comprises an application service layer, a coordinated networking layer, and a

transport network layer, as shown in Figure 7. The coordinated networking layer consists of a Thing-

user Service Control sublayer, a Thing-user Social Network sublayer, and a Proximity Defined Network

sublayer. The definitions of “application service layer” and “transport network layer” are outside the

scope of this document.

The Thing-user Service Control sublayer provides NoE service to the Application Service layer through

the NoE service access point (NoE SAP). This sublayer maintains its own profile as the thing-user of the

NoE terminal and controls the execution of thing-user centric communication services.

The Thing-User Social Network sublayer provides the social network service to the Thing-user Service

Control sublayer through the Thing-user Social Network service access point (TSN SAP). This sublayer

provides the thing-user social community organizing service, the thing-user experience sharing service,

and the thing-user collaboration service.
The Proximity Defined Network sublayer provides the proximity define
...

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