Fire-resistance tests -- Guidance on the application and extension of results from tests conducted on fire containment assemblies and products

ISO/TR 12470-2:2017 explains a methodology to determine the applicability of the results of fire resistance tests to actual applications. ISO/TR 12470-2:2017 is applicable to those non-loadbearing elements for which there is an ISO standard test procedure based upon the ISO 834 series for determining the fire resistance of a representative sample of the construction proposed for use in a specific building or just for general use. These elements are: - fire resisting door assemblies (excluding lift landing doorsets): - timber; - steel; - fire resisting vertical glazing ? metal framed: NOTE The rheology of glass is such that gravity has a disproportional influence on fire glass when it is heated to high temperatures and as a consequence, it is not possible to provide generic guidance on the extended application of horizontal glazed elements. - timber framed; - linear gap sealing; - service penetration sealing. Fire resistance testing furnaces have fairly restricted size limitations and as a consequence, there is little confidence that the result obtained on an element of construction tested in accordance with the standard methods will behave in a similar manner when installed in the final building. Direct and extended applications of test results are the two possible ways to ensure that an element that is not identical to the tested construction will have an acceptable probability of obtaining the same fire rating as that of the original tested specimen. In both cases, these applications generally refer only to the fire rating that the building element can expect to reach if it, or a representative sample of it, were to be tested in a furnace according to the standard fire test conditions used in the reference test. The criteria and methodology used in evaluating ductwork and dampers is significantly different from those used to evaluate conventional separating elements and for this reason, these forms of construction are not included in the scope of this document. It is planned that a subsequent part of this document may include guidance on these elements.

Essais de résistance au feu -- Recommandations pour l'application et l'extrapolation des résultats d'essais réalisés sur les produits et assemblages d'endiguement du feu

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Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Nov-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
21-Nov-2017
Completion Date
23-Nov-2017
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 12470-2
First edition
2017-11
Fire-resistance tests — Guidance
on the application and extension
of results from tests conducted on
fire containment assemblies and
products —
Part 2:
Non-loadbearing elements
Essais de résistance au feu — Recommandations pour l'application
et l'extrapolation des résultats d'essais réalisés sur les produits et
assemblages d'endiguement du feu —
Partie 2: Éléments non porteurs
Reference number
ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
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© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principles of the field of application ................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Direct application ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Extended application ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Rules of extended application .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.3 Calculations and computer programs used in extended applications ............................... 5

4.3.4 Judgements in extended applications ............................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Project specific application .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Common factors which influence the field of application of all elements ................................................6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Manufacture and materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Direct application ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Fire resisting door assemblies ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Direct application ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Leaves ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.3 Openings in the leaf ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Frames ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.5 Door hardware (ironmongery)............................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.6 Fire seals ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Extended application ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Rules ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.3 Fire engineering calculations .............................................................................................................................10

6.3.4 Expert judgements ......................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Opening in the leaf or leaves...............................................................................................................................22

7 Fixed vertical fire resisting glazed elements ........................................................................................................................28

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2 Direct application ..............................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.2.2 Common parameters of all forms of fixed glazed elements .....................................................28

7.2.3 Framing members (timber) ................................................................................................................................28

7.2.4 Framing members (metal) ...................................................................................................................................29

7.2.5 Glass retention system .............................................................................................................................................29

7.2.6 Glass .........................................................................................................................................................................................29

7.3 Extended application ......................................................................................................................................................................30

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................30

7.3.2 Rules ........................................................................................................................................................................................30

7.3.3 Fire engineering calculations ...........................................................................................................................30

7.3.4 Expert judgements ......................................................................................................................................................30

8 Linear gap sealing systems .....................................................................................................................................................................33

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

8.2 Direct application ..............................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.2.2 Common parameters for all applications ................................................................................................34

8.3 Extended applications ...................................................................................................................................................................35

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................35

8.3.2 Rules ........................................................................................................................................................................................35

8.3.3 Fire engineering calculations .............................................................................................................................35

8.3.4 Expert judgement .........................................................................................................................................................36

9 Service penetration sealing systems ............................................................................................................................................47

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................47

9.2 Direct application ..............................................................................................................................................................................48

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.2.2 Common parameters .................................................................................................................................................48

9.3 Extended applications ...................................................................................................................................................................49

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.3.2 Rules ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.3.3 Fire engineering calculations .............................................................................................................................50

9.3.4 Expert judgement .........................................................................................................................................................50

10 Improvements in the design of test specimens and modelling to generate fields

of application ........................................................................................................................................................................................................56

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................56

10.2 Expert system based upon the use of performance coefficients...............................................................57

10.2.1 Concept .................................................................................................................................................................................57

10.2.2 Expert system applied to doors .......................................................................................................................57

Annex A (informative) Principles of using expert judgement to establishing the extended

field of application ...........................................................................................................................................................................................62

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................69

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TR 12470 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
Introduction

Fire resistance tests on building components are necessary to establish their behaviour against pre-

determined criteria when exposed to a representative fully developed fire and to provide information

that may be used in determining the fire safety of buildings. For several decades, people have accepted,

by means of test results only, the possibility of grading the components. Now, due to the enhancement

of our knowledge and the complexity of buildings, it is necessary to be able to give a more accurate

assessment of the components used in buildings, particularly with the growth of the use of functional

approaches to designing fire safe structures.

The need to understand how the element will perform at a different size, with different levels of

restraint, etc., is vital when applying the results of the fire tests in a life safety situation, especially

those where the fire safe solution has been generated using fire safety engineering techniques rather

than code compliant solutions. This does not negate the need to predict any changes that may result

from changes to the test construction when complying with building code solutions, but these codes

may themselves provide solutions that take into account the influence or impact of changes, and indeed,

the guidance given in this document may be used by the code writers to produce such guidance.

Even with the knowledge available to assess the behaviour of a given constructional element, whatever

its design or its size, we will still be some distance away from establishing the complete behaviour of a

building in a real fire.

The philosophy of only grading elements into different fire resistance categories may not give any

indication about how the element actually behaves when heated. By studying and assessing the data

from fire resistance tests, it will be possible, using the guidance within this document, to obtain a

basic understanding of the influence of the main parameters on the element performance during fire

resistance tests.

In practice, tests give much useful information which can be used for interpolation and extrapolation of

the results.

The original version of ISO/TR 12470 was published by ISO/TC 92 in 1998. This Technical Report

provided a methodology in identifying how the results of fire resistance tests carried out in the

standard furnaces could be modified to apply to the elements as they may be used in practice. In some

cases, the results of the test may need to be reduced to reflect any increases in the degree of difficulty

that the final application represents, or alternatively, modifications/enhancements may need to be

made to the construction in order to maintain the performance level(s).

In the intervening years since the original Technical Report was prepared, a greater understanding has

developed as to what the changes are likely to be and how they may be quantified. Some of the work in

CEN (Committee European Normalisation) has aided this process and in particular, the principles given

in Annex A remained unpublished by CEN but were developed in one of the technical Work Groups

of CEN/TC 127. This revision represents the current state-of-art with respect to the objectives of the

original 1998 version of ISO/TR 12470.

In this document, all the assessments of extended application are based, on the one hand, on the

standard time/temperature conditions and, on the other hand, on isolated elements with no interaction

with the adjacent elements.
Ageing and weathering are not covered here.
This document is divided into two parts.

The first part provides the methodology for defining the field of application for loadbearing members,

both separating and non-separating. It also includes a review of the state-of-the-art and possible

improvement in the methods of testing which would make it easier to establish the field of application

for an element.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)

Guidance on direct and extended application of test results for specific non-loadbearing elements used

in buildings, and the major parameters, which would be assessed by calculation or by expert judgements

based upon the principles and discipline given in Annex A, are discussed

This document suggests expert systems which could take into account the interaction of various factors

in an assessment of the fire resistance of doors, glazing, services, service penetrations and linear gap seals

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
Fire-resistance tests — Guidance on the application
and extension of results from tests conducted on fire
containment assemblies and products —
Part 2:
Non-loadbearing elements
1 Scope

This document explains a methodology to determine the applicability of the results of fire resistance

tests to actual applications.

It is applicable to those non-loadbearing elements for which there is an ISO standard test procedure

based upon the ISO 834 series for determining the fire resistance of a representative sample of the

construction proposed for use in a specific building or just for general use. These elements are:

— fire resisting door assemblies (excluding lift landing doorsets):
— timber;
— steel;
— fire resisting vertical glazing – metal framed:

NOTE The rheology of glass is such that gravity has a disproportional influence on fire glass when it

is heated to high temperatures and as a consequence, it is not possible to provide generic guidance on the

extended application of horizontal glazed elements.
— timber framed;
— linear gap sealing;
— service penetration sealing.

Fire resistance testing furnaces have fairly restricted size limitations and as a consequence, there is

little confidence that the result obtained on an element of construction tested in accordance with the

standard methods will behave in a similar manner when installed in the final building.

Direct and extended applications of test results are the two possible ways to ensure that an element

that is not identical to the tested construction will have an acceptable probability of obtaining the same

fire rating as that of the original tested specimen. In both cases, these applications generally refer only

to the fire rating that the building element can expect to reach if it, or a representative sample of it,

were to be tested in a furnace according to the standard fire test conditions used in the reference test.

The criteria and methodology used in evaluating ductwork and dampers is significantly different

from those used to evaluate conventional separating elements and for this reason, these forms of

construction are not included in the scope of this document. It is planned that a subsequent part of this

document may include guidance on these elements.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 834 (all parts), Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction

ISO/TR 10295 (all parts), Fire tests for building elements and components — Fire testing of service

installations
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 834 (all parts),

ISO/TR 10295 (all parts) and ISO 13943 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
direct application

application that identifies the modifications that can be made to the design of the tested element

without reducing its fire rating

Note 1 to entry: These possible modifications are based on obvious knowledge and do not need further evaluation.

In every case it is, at least, assumed that the basic material(s) used for the construction of the tested sample will

not be changed.

Note 2 to entry: Direct application defines the variation(s) in the construction and the limits of use for the

element which, without further analysis, are covered by the result of a test in accordance with ISO 834 (all parts).

Direct application is arrived at by the application of simple rules (3.4) that are known, or considered by the fire

community, to give equal fire resistance performance by the users. The rules can be applied by non- fire experts.

Note 3 to entry: Only results from one test report can be used when considering a change of an element. Any

combination and use of two or more tests reports or other technical sources should be regarded as extended

application (3.2) and hence dealt with accordingly.
3.2
extended application

application that is arrived at by the application of calculation or assessment rules (3.4) that are known,

or considered by the fire community, to give equal or improved fire resistance performance by the users

Note 1 to entry: The rules are applied by fire experts.

Note 2 to entry: This will generally require an assessment by a fire expert either in developing rules of application

for more general application by others or evaluating the results of fire engineering calculations or for making

a judgement in specific cases. In every case, it will be taken into consideration that extended application may

take into account the difference between the result of the original test and the fire resistance required for the

untested element.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017(E)

Note 3 to entry: Extended application defines and specifies the variations in the construction and establishes

the limits of use for an element that has been tested according to the appropriate EN standard based upon an

analysis by fire experts. The extended application can use the results from one or more test reports and can be

based upon rules, calculations and expert judgement. As a result of the extended application, the fire resistance

classification of an element with respect to defined performance characteristics may be maintained, increased

or decreased when used in practice.
3.3
project specific application

application that uses a mixture of established validated calculations/computer models (if they exist and

are appropriate) together with judgements made by suitably qualified persons (normally a professional

badged engineer or a corporate member of a learned professional body)

Note 1 to entry: Because the application will, in these circumstances, require an understanding of both the

structural response and the fire dynamics of the building in question, it is inevitable that the solution will involve

an element of fire safety engineering.
3.4
rule

quantitative factor (3.9) that can be applied to the result of tests when defining the limits of application

for which justification exists as a result of research and testing

Note 1 to entry: Rules are primarily used in determining the direct application (3.1) of the result as their

application do not generally require specialist knowledge.

Note 2 to entry: It is anticipated that these rules be established by the specialist (or ad-hoc) groups preparing

the specific standards based upon public domain knowledge and developed by industry consortia or trade

associations for specific elements for which the members have a
...

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