Fire resistance -- Tests for thermo-physical and mechanical properties of structural materials at elevated temperatures for fire engineering design

This document identifies test methods already in existence and provides guidance on those that need to be developed to characterize the thermo-physical and mechanical properties of structural materials at elevated temperatures for use in fire safety engineering calculations. It is applicable to materials used in load-bearing construction in which structural and thermal calculations might be required to assess the performance of elements or systems exposed to either standard fire tests, real or design fire heating conditions.

Résistance au feu -- Essais des propriétés thermophysiques et mécaniques des matériaux aux températures élevées pour la conception de l'ingénierie contre l'incendie

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Feb-2020
Completion Date
05-Mar-2020
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ISO/TR 15655:2020 - Fire resistance -- Tests for thermo-physical and mechanical properties of structural materials at elevated temperatures for fire engineering design
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 15655
Second edition
2020-02
Fire resistance — Tests for thermo-
physical and mechanical properties
of structural materials at elevated
temperatures for fire engineering
design
Résistance au feu — Essais des propriétés thermophysiques et
mécaniques des matériaux aux températures élevées pour la
conception de l'ingénierie contre l'incendie
Reference number
ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Tests for thermal properties at elevated temperatures .............................................................................................. 1

4.1 Metals .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1.2 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1.3 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 2

4.1.4 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... .............. 2

4.1.5 Thermal strain (expansion and contraction) .......................................................................................... 3

4.1.6 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Concrete ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 4

4.2.4 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... .............. 5

4.2.5 Thermal strain (expansion and contraction) .......................................................................................... 5

4.2.6 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.8 Spalling ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.9 Expansion/shrinkage .................. ......................................................................................................................... ........ 7

4.2.10 Moisture .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Masonry ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.1 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 8

4.3.3 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... .............. 9

4.3.4 Thermal strain (expansion and contraction) .......................................................................................... 9

4.3.5 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.6 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.7 Spalling ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.8 Expansion/shrinkage .................. ......................................................................................................................... .....11

4.3.9 Moisture content ...........................................................................................................................................................11

4.4 Wood .............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.2 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................11

4.4.3 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... .....12

4.4.4 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...........12

4.4.5 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.6 Charring rate ....................................................................................................................................................................13

4.4.7 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................14

4.4.8 Moisture ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

4.5 Plastics, fibre reinforcement, organic and inorganic materials .................................................................14

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.5.2 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................15

4.5.3 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... .....15

4.5.4 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...........16

4.5.5 Thermal strain (expansion and contraction) .......................................................................................16

4.5.6 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.5.7 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................17

4.6 Adhesives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................17

4.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

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ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)

4.6.2 Specific heat ......................................................................................................................................................................17

4.6.3 Thermal conductivity ........................................................................................................................................... .....18

4.6.4 Thermal diffusivity .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...........18

4.6.5 Thermal strain (expansion and contraction) .......................................................................................18

4.6.6 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.6.7 Emissivity ............................................................................................................................................................................19

5 Tests for mechanical properties at elevated temperatures ..................................................................................19

5.1 Metals ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.1.2 Elastic modulus ..............................................................................................................................................................19

5.1.3 Creep .......................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.1.4 Stress relaxation ............................................................................................................................................................20

5.1.5 Bauschinger effect .......................................................................................................................................................21

5.1.6 Stress–strain (steady state) .................................................................................................................................21

5.1.7 Stress–strain (transient state) ..........................................................................................................................21

5.1.8 Ultimate strength (tension) .................................................................................................................................22

5.1.9 Ultimate strength (compression) ...................................................................................................................22

5.1.10 Joints — Bolts (ultimate capacity: shear, slip and tension under steady

state and transient heating) ................................................................................................................................23

5.1.11 Joints — Bolts (stress–strain under transient heating) ..............................................................23

5.1.12 Joints — Welds (ultimate capacity: steady state and transient heating) .....................24

5.1.13 Joints — Welds (stress–strain under transient heating)............................................................24

5.2 Concrete .....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

5.2.2 Elastic modulus (compression) .......................................................................................................................25

5.2.3 Transient creep (under compression) .......................................................................................................25

5.2.4 Stress relaxation ............................................................................................................................................................26

5.2.5 Stress–strain (steady state) .................................................................................................................................26

5.2.6 Stress–strain (transient) ........................................................................................................................................26

5.2.7 Ultimate strength (compression) ...................................................................................................................26

5.2.8 Ultimate strength (tension) .................................................................................................................................27

5.3 Masonry .....................................................................................................................................................................................................27

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

5.3.2 Elastic modulus ..............................................................................................................................................................27

5.3.3 Shear modulus ................................................................................................................................................................28

5.3.4 Modulus of rupture .....................................................................................................................................................28

5.3.5 Creep (in compression) .................. .........................................................................................................................28

5.3.6 Stress–strain (steady state) .................................................................................................................................29

5.3.7 Stress–strain (transient state) ..........................................................................................................................29

5.3.8 Ultimate strength in compression .................................................................................................................30

5.3.9 Ultimate strength in shear ....................................................................................................................................30

5.3.10 Bond/frictional strength ........................................................................................................................................30

5.3.11 Bending/flexure strength ......................................................................................................................................30

5.4 Wood .............................................................................................................................................................................................................31

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

5.4.2 Elastic modulus ..............................................................................................................................................................31

5.4.3 Creep .......................................................................................................................................................................................31

5.4.4 Ultimate strength in compression .................................................................................................................31

5.4.5 Ultimate strength in shear ....................................................................................................................................32

5.4.6 Ultimate strength in tension ...............................................................................................................................32

5.4.7 Adhesive strength (tensile shear) ..................................................................................................................32

5.4.8 Adhesive strength (delamination) .................................................................................................................33

5.4.9 Bending strength ..........................................................................................................................................................33

5.4.10 Joints (mechanical fixings) ...................................................................................................................................33

5.5 Plastics, fibre reinforcement, organic and inorganic materials .................................................................34

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

5.5.2 Elastic modulus ..............................................................................................................................................................34

5.5.3 Shear modulus ................................................................................................................................................................34

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ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)

5.5.4 Poisson's ratio .................................................................................................................................................................34

5.5.5 Flexural creep ..................................................................................................................................................................35

5.5.6 Tensile creep .....................................................................................................................................................................35

5.5.7 Stress–strain (steady state heating) .............................................................................................................35

5.5.8 Stress–strain (transient heating) ....................................................................................................................35

5.5.9 Ultimate strength (compression) ...................................................................................................................36

5.5.10 Ultimate strength (shear) .................. ....................................................................................................................36

5.5.11 Ultimate tension ............................................................................................................................................................36

5.6 Adhesives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................36

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................36

5.6.2 Elastic modulus in compression ......................................................................................................................37

5.6.3 Modulus of elasticity..................................................................................................................................................37

5.6.4 Creep (tension and compression) ..................................................................................................................37

5.6.5 Ultimate strength (compression) ...................................................................................................................37

5.6.6 Ultimate strength (shear) .................. ....................................................................................................................37

5.6.7 Ultimate strength (tension) .................................................................................................................................38

5.6.8 Bond strength (slant shear) ................................................................................................................................38

5.6.9 Bond strength (tensile lap-shear) ..................................................................................................................38

5.6.10 Bond strength (shear) ..............................................................................................................................................38

5.6.11 Bond strength (direct tension) .........................................................................................................................39

5.6.12 Bending strength ..........................................................................................................................................................39

5.6.13 Flexural strength ...........................................................................................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 15655:2003), which has been

technically revised.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 15655:2020(E)
Introduction

Fire engineering has developed to the stage whereby detailed calculation procedures are now being

carried out to establish the behaviour of structural elements and frames under the action of fire.

[1]

These cover standard fire resistance furnace tests such as ISO 834 (all parts) as well as natural/real

fires, in which performance based criteria covering stability, integrity and insulation may need to be

determined.

As fire engineering is advanced through the development of design codes and standards, there is

an increasing need to provide as inputs to the numerical calculations, the thermal and mechanical

properties of construction materials at elevated temperatures. In addition, as part of the process in

applying rules for the interpolation and extension of fire resistance test results, specific data on

material properties is often required to conduct assessments on variations in construction other than

those tested.

It is recognized that the elevated temperature properties of materials can be determined under a variety

of conditions. Since fire is a relatively short transient process lasting from a few minutes to several

hours, ideally, the properties determined should reflect the transient thermal and loading conditions

as well as the duration of heating that may be experienced in practice. However, it is also recognized

that some properties are relatively insensitive to the transient conditions and therefore, alternative

steady state test methods may be appropriate. Some properties are sensitive to orientation effects, for

example timber, and these should be considered with respect to how the tests are conducted.

In cases where materials undergo either a chemical or a physical reaction during the heating process,

it might be impossible to determine an individual property. This document gives guidance in selecting

a test method to determine an effec
...

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