Friction stir welding — Aluminium — Part 1: Vocabulary

This document defines terms related to friction stir welding. In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium — Partie 1: Vocabulaire

Le présent document définit les termes relatifs au soudage par friction-malaxage. Dans le présent document, le terme « aluminium » se rapporte à l'aluminium et ses alliages.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
01-Jul-2020
Completion Date
01-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 25239-1
Second edition
2020-06
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

Welding, Solid State Welding and Allied Joining Process, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 121, Welding and allied processes, in accordance

with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 25239-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new definitions have been added for joint area deformation, operator, plunge phase, root flaw,

stationary shoulder tool and temperature control;

— definitions of incomplete penetration, multi run welding, production welding test and single run

welding have been deleted.
A list of all parts in the ISO 25239 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. In 1991, Wayne Thomas

at TWI invented friction stir welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no melting).

The increasing use of FSW has created the need for this document in order to ensure that welding is

carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. This document focuses on the FSW of aluminium because, at the time of publication, the

majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include railway carriages,

consumer products, food processing equipment, aerospace structures, and marine vessels.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope
This document defines terms related to friction stir welding.
In this document, the term “aluminium” refers to aluminium and its alloys.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 25901 (all parts), Welding and allied processes — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 25901 (all parts) and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
adjustable tool probe

tool whose probe length, rotation speed and direction of probe rotation are adjustable. Rotation speed

and direction of probe rotation may be different from those of the shoulder during welding

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: This tool enables joining to be accomplished without creating excessive toe flash at the start and

exit hole.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Key
1 shoulder 6 probe at required position for welding
2 unwelded workpiece 7 probe moving upward
3 probe Direction of probe rotation.
4 probe moving downward Direction of shoulder rotation.
5 welded workpiece Direction of welding.
Figure 1 — Adjustable tool probe
3.2
advancing side

side of the weld where the direction of tool rotation is the same as the direction of welding

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Key
1 workpiece Direction of tool rotation.
2 tool NOTE A clock-wise rotation is shown in this figure.
3 shoulder Downward motion of tool.
4 probe Axial force.
5 weld face Direction of welding.
6 retreating side of weld Upward motion of tool.
7 advancing side of weld
8 exit hole
Figure 2 — Basic principle of friction stir welding
3.3
axial force

force applied to the workpiece along the axis of tool rotation

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
3.4
bobbin tool

tool with two shoulders separated by a fixed length or an adjustable length probe

Note 1 to entry: The self-reacting bobbin tool allows the shoulders to automatically maintain contact with the

workpiece.
Note 2 to entry: See Figure 3.
3.5
dwell time at end of weld

time interval after travel has stopped, but before the rotating tool has begun to

withdraw from the weld
Note 1 to entry: See t in Figure 4.
3.6
dwell time at start of weld

interval between the end of the plunge phase and the start of travel

Note 1 to entry: See t in Figu
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 25239-1
Deuxième édition
2020-06
Soudage par friction-malaxage —
Aluminium —
Partie 1:
Vocabulaire
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1: Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par l’IIW, l’Institut international de la soudure, Commission III,

Welding, Solid State Welding and Allied Joining Processes, en collaboration avec le comité technique CEN/

TC 121, Soudage, du Comité européen de normalisation (CEN), conformément à l'Accord de coopération

technique entre l'ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 25239-1:2011), qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— adjonction de nouvelles définitions pour la déformation de la zone du joint, l’opérateur, la phase de

pénétration, le défaut à la racine, l’outil à épaulement fixe et l’asservissement en température;

— suppression des définitions de manque de pénétration, de soudage multipasse, d’assemblage soudé

de production et de soudage monopasse.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 25239 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Introduction

Les procédés de soudage sont largement utilisés dans la fabrication de structures ouvragées. Au

cours de la deuxième moitié du vingtième siècle, les procédés de soudage par fusion faisant intervenir

la fusion du métal de base et, généralement, d'un métal d'apport de soudage ont dominé le soudage

des structures de grandes dimensions. En 1991, Thomas Wayne au TWI a mis au point le soudage par

friction-malaxage, qui est entièrement réalisé en phase solide (sans fusion).

L'utilisation croissante du soudage par friction-malaxage a rendu nécessaire l'élaboration du présent

document afin de garantir que le soudage est réalisé de la manière la plus efficace et que tous les aspects

de l'opération font l'objet d'un contrôle approprié. Le présent document se focalise sur le soudage par

friction-malaxage de l'aluminium parce que, au moment de la publication, la majorité des applications

commerciales du soudage par friction-malaxage concernait l'aluminium, par exemple les véhicules

ferroviaires, les produits de grande consommation, les équipements de transformation des aliments,

l'aéronautique et les bateaux.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium —
Partie 1:
Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document définit les termes relatifs au soudage par friction-malaxage.

Dans le présent document, le terme « aluminium » se rapporte à l'aluminium et ses alliages.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO/TR 25901 (toutes les parties), Soudage et techniques connexes — Vocabulaire
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et les définitions de l’ISO/TR 25901 (toutes les

parties), s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l'adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l'adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
pion ajustable

outil dont la longueur du pion, la vitesse de rotation et le sens de rotation du pion sont réglables. La

vitesse de rotation et le sens de rotation du pion peuvent être différentes de ceux de l'épaulement

pendant le soudage
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 1.

Note 2 à l'article: Cet outil permet de réaliser l'assemblage sans bavure excessive sur les bords de la soudure au

début du cordon et au trou de sortie.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Légende
1 épaulement 6 pion en position requise de soudage
2 pièce à souder 7 pion se déplaçant vers le haut
3 pion Sens de rotation du pion.
4 pion se déplaçant vers le bas Sens de rotation de l'épaulement.
5 pièce soudée Sens du soudage.
Figure 1 — Pion ajustable
3.2
côté avance

côté de la soudure où le sens de rotation de l'outil coïncide avec le sens du soudage

Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 2.
2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
Légende
1 pièce Sens de rotation de l'outil.
2 outil NOTE Une rotation dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre est
indiquée sur cette figure.
3 épaulement
4 pion Mouvement vers le bas de l’outil.
5 face endroit de la soudure Force axiale.
6 côté recul de la soudure Sens du soudage.
7 côté avance de la soudure Mouvement vers le haut de l'outil.
8 trou de sortie
Figure 2 — Principe de base du soudage par friction-malaxage
3.3
force axiale

force appliquée à la pièce selon l'axe de rotation de l'outil

Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 2.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 25239-1:2020(F)
3.4
outil à double épaulement

outil comportant deux épaulements séparés par un pion de longueur fixe ou de longueur réglable

Note 1 à l'article: Avec la technologie « self-reacting tool », l'outil à double épaulement permet aux épaulements de

rester automatiquement en contact avec la pièce.
Note 2 à l'article: Voir Figure 3.
3.5
temps d'attente en fin de soudure

intervalle de temps entre l'arrêt du déplacement de l'outil rotatif et le

début de son retrait de la soudure
Note 1 à l'article: Voir t en Figure 4.
3.6
temps de préchauffage en début de soudure

intervalle de temps entre la fin de la phase de pénétration et le début

du déplacement
Note 1 à l'article: Voir t en Figure 4.
3.7
trou de sortie
empreinte de fin de cordon
trou subsistant à l'extrémité d'une soudure après le retrait de l'outil
Note 1 à l'article: Voir Figure 2.
a) Vue isométrique b) Vue de côté
Légende
1 pièce 6 épaulement inférieur
2 outil supérieur Sens de rotation de l'outil.
3 épaulement supérieur Sens du soudag
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 25239-1
IIW
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Voting begins on:
2020-04-16
Part 1:
Voting terminates on:
Vocabulary
2020-06-11
Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
44/SC 10 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

Welding, Solid State Welding and Allied Joining Process, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 121, Welding, in accordance with the Agreement

on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 25239-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new definitions have been added for joint area deformation, operator, plunge phase, root flaw,

stationary shoulder tool and temperature control;

— definitions of incomplete penetration, multi run welding, production welding test and single run

welding have been deleted.
A list of all parts in the ISO 25239 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. In 1991, Wayne Thomas

at TWI invented friction stir welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no melting).

The increasing use of FSW has created the need for this document in order to ensure that welding is

carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. This document focuses on the FSW of aluminium because, at the time of publication, the

majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include railway carriages,

consumer products, food processing equipment, aerospace structures, and marine vessels.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope
This document defines terms related to friction stir welding.
In this document, the term “aluminium” refers to aluminium and its alloys.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 25901 (all parts), Welding and allied processes — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 25901 (all parts) and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
adjustable tool probe

tool whose probe length, rotation speed and direction of probe rotation are adjustable. Rotation speed

and direction of probe rotation may be different from those of the shoulder during welding

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: This tool enables joining to be accomplished without creating excessive toe flash at the start and

exit hole.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Key
1 shoulder 6 probe at required position for welding
2 unwelded workpiece 7 probe moving upward
3 probe Direction of probe rotation.
4 probe moving downward Direction of shoulder rotation.
5 welded workpiece Direction of welding.
Figure 1 — Adjustable tool probe
3.2
advancing side

side of the weld where the direction of tool rotation is the same as the direction of welding

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
Key
1 workpiece Direction of tool rotation.
2 tool NOTE A clock-wise rotation is shown in this figure.
3 shoulder Downward motion of tool.
4 probe Axial force.
5 weld face Direction of welding.
6 retreating side of weld Upward motion of tool.
7 advancing side of weld
8 exit hole
Figure 2 — Basic principle of friction stir welding
3.3
axial force

force applied to the workpiece along the axis of tool rotation

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 25239-1:2020(E)
3.4
bobbin tool

tool with two shoulders separated by a fixed length or an adjustable length probe

Note 1 to entry: The self-reacting bobbin tool allows the shoulders to automatically maintain contact with the

workpiece.
Note 2 to entry: See Figure 3.
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