Information technology -- Radio frequency identification device conformance test methods

ISO/IEC 18047-6 defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64, but does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented, are verified. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application-specific functionality criteria that are not available in the general case. The interrogator and tag conformance parameters in ISO/IEC 18047-6 are the following: - type-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances; - parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability. Parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements are not included in ISO/IEC 18047-6. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 18047-6 are intended to be applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64.

Technologies de l'information -- Méthodes d'essai de conformité du dispositif d'identification de radiofréquence

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Oct-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-Jul-2017
Completion Date
10-Oct-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18047-6
Second edition
2017-10
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification device
conformance test methods —
Part 6:
Test methods for air interface
communications at 860 MHz to 960
MHz
Technologies de l'information — Méthodes d'essai de conformité du
dispositif d'identification de radiofréquence —
Partie 6: Méthodes d'essai pour des communications d'une interface
d'air à 860 MHz et jusqu'à 960 MHz
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
ISO/IEC 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 2

4 Default conditions applicable to the test methods ........................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Default tolerance .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2.3 Noise floor at test location....................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.4 Total measurement uncertainty ......................................................................................................................... 3

5 Setup of test equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Setup of test equipment for interrogator tests ............................................................................................................ 4

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Sense antenna..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.3 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62

and ISO/IEC 18000-63 interrogator ............................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Setup of test equipment for tag tests ................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Test apparatus and test circuits for ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62,

ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 tags .................................................................................... 5

6 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-61................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Functional tests of interrogator ............................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.1 Interrogator modulation test ................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1.2 Interrogator demodulation and turn-around time ............................................................................ 7

6.2 Functional tests of tag ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Tag demodulation and turn-around time ................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Tag backscatter .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Tag response time ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Tag bit rate ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................10

6.2.5 Tag state storage time ........................................................................................................................................... ....10

7 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-62................................................................................................................................11

7.1 Functional tests of interrogator ............................................................................................................................................11

7.1.1 Interrogator modulation test .............................................................................................................................11

7.1.2 Interrogator demodulation and turn-around time .........................................................................12

7.2 Functional tests of tag ....................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.1 Tag demodulation and turn-around time ................................................................................................12

7.2.2 Tag backscatter ...............................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.3 Tag response time ........................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.4 Tag bit rate ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................15

7.2.5 Tag state storage time ........................................................................................................................................... ....15

8 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63................................................................................................................................16

8.1 Functional tests of interrogator ............................................................................................................................................16

8.1.1 Interrogator data encoding ..................................................................................................................................16

8.1.2 Interrogator RF envelope parameters ........................................................................................................17

8.1.3 Interrogator RF power-up and power-down parameters .........................................................18

8.1.4 Interrogator preamble parameters...............................................................................................................19

8.1.5 Interrogator link timing T2 ..................................................................................................................................20

8.1.6 Interrogator link timing T3 ..................................................................................................................................21

8.1.7 Interrogator link timing T4 ..................................................................................................................................22

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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)

8.2 Functional tests of tag ....................................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.1 Tag frequency range ...................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.2 Tag demodulation capability ..............................................................................................................................24

8.2.3 Tag duty cycle ..................................................................................................................................................................25

8.2.4 Tag preamble ....................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.5 Tag link frequency tolerance and variation ...........................................................................................28

8.2.6 Tag link timing T1 ........................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.7 Tag link timing T2 ........................................................................................................................................................30

8.2.8 Tag link timing T5 ........................................................................................................................................................31

8.2.9 Tag link timing T6 ........................................................................................................................................................32

8.2.10 Tag link timing T7 ........................................................................................................................................................33

8.2.11 Tag state diagram .........................................................................................................................................................34

8.2.12 Tag backscatter (optional) ....................................................................................................................................36

8.3 Additional protocol related tests ..........................................................................................................................................37

8.3.1 Memory overruns.........................................................................................................................................................37

8.3.2 Kill command ...................................................................................................................................................................38

8.3.3 Unauthorized Write command .........................................................................................................................38

8.3.4 Optional commands and features ..................................................................................................................39

9 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-64................................................................................................................................42

9.1 Functional tests of interrogator ............................................................................................................................................42

9.1.1 Interrogator modulation test .............................................................................................................................42

9.1.2 Interrogator demodulation and data decoding ..................................................................................42

9.2 Functional tests of tag ....................................................................................................................................................................44

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

9.2.2 Data encoding ..................................................................................................................................................................45

9.2.3 Link bits ................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.2.4 Tag timing parameters .............................................................................................................................................46

9.2.5 Tag bit rate ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................47

9.2.6 Tag multi-page timing ..............................................................................................................................................48

9.2.7 Tag LBT ..................................................................................................................................................................................48

10 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63 battery-assisted passive (BAP) ...........................................49

10.1 Tag functional tests ..........................................................................................................................................................................49

10.1.1 Battery-assisted passive tag persistence time test ..........................................................................49

11 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63 Manchester mode battery-assisted

passive (BAP).........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

11.1 Functional tests of interrogator ............................................................................................................................................50

11.1.1 Interrogator RF envelope parameters ........................................................................................................50

11.1.2 Interrogator activation minimum dwell time, T ..............................................................................

A 51

11.1.3 Interrogator link timing T2 ..................................................................................................................................52

11.1.4 Interrogator link timing T3 ..................................................................................................................................54

11.1.5 Interrogator link timing T4 ..................................................................................................................................55

11.2 Functional tests of tag ....................................................................................................................................................................56

11.2.1 Tag demodulation capability ..............................................................................................................................56

11.2.2 Tag link frequency tolerance and variation ...........................................................................................57

11.2.3 Tag link timing T1 ........................................................................................................................................................58

11.2.4 Tag link timing T2 ........................................................................................................................................................59

11.2.5 Tag activation time maximum, T ...................................................................................................................

A 60

11.2.6 Tag stateful hibernate timer ................................................................................................................................61

12 Conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63 Sensor support ....................................................................................63

12.1 Tag functional tests ..........................................................................................................................................................................63

12.1.1 Simple sensor test ........................................................................................................................................................63

13 Full-function sensor test ............................................................................................................................................................................64

13.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................64

13.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................64

13.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................64

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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)

Annex A (informative) Test measurement site .......................................................................................................................................65

Annex B (normative) Command coding for conformance tests for the different types of ISO/

IEC 18000-6 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................77

Annex C (normative) Technical performance of the generic electronic test instruments ........................78

Annex D (normative) Tag emulator ....................................................................................................................................................................79

Annex E (informative) Measurement examples .....................................................................................................................................81

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................82

© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18047-6:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Tag demodulation test setup now includes a monostatic setup with the use of a circulator;

— new tests for Tag link timings T5, T6 and T7 (defined in ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015 and related to

delayed and in-process tag reply); and

— new tests related to ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015 like Tag memory overruns, Kill command, unauthorized

write commands and optional commands that involve C-flag, ResponseBuffer, security features and

untraceability.
vi © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 18000 series defines the air interfaces for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices

used in item management applications. ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and

ISO/IEC 18000-64 define the air interface for these devices operating at frequencies from 860 MHz to

960 MHz.

ISO/IEC 18047 series provides test methods for conformance with the various parts of the

ISO/IEC 18000 series.

Each part of ISO/IEC 18047 contains all measurements required to be made on a product in order to

establish whether it conforms to the corresponding part of ISO/IEC 18000. For this document, each

interrogator and each tag needs to support at least one of the types A or B or C or D.

NOTE Test methods for interrogator and tag performance are covered by ISO/IEC 18046 series.

Clause 5 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-61.
Clause 6 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-62.
Clause 7 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63.
Clause 8 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-64.

Clause 9 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015, Clause 7.

Clause 10 describes all necessary conformance tests for ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015, 7.5.

© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device conformance test methods —
Part 6:
Test methods for air interface communications at 860 MHz
to 960 MHz
1 Scope

This document defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification

(RFID) devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in

ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64, but does not apply to

the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements.

The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are

implemented, are verified. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further,

application-specific functionality criteria that are not available in the general case.

The interrogator and tag conformance parameters in this document are the following:

— type-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances;

— parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability.

Parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements are not included in this document.

Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are intended to be applied exclusively to

RFID tags and interrogators defined in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and

ISO/IEC 18000-64.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-61:2012, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 61: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type A

ISO/IEC 18000-62:2012, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 62: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type B

ISO/IEC 18000-63:2015, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18000-64, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 64: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type D

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the following apply.

D modulation depth of data coding pulse
d distance between the interrogator and test antenna
d distance between test antenna and DUT tag
d distance between the interrogator antenna and sense antenna
d interrogator antenna to tag distance
T,IA
d measurement antenna to tag distance
T,MA
d distance between the interrogator antenna and tag emulator
G gain of interrogator antenna
G gain of measurement antenna
Icir isolation of a circulator
K calibration factor
L maximum interrogator antenna dimension
M modulation index
P delivered power at the carrier frequency
P measured power at the carrier frequency
T fall time
T rise time
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ISO/IEC 18047-6:2017(E)
3.3 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the following apply.

BLF backscatter-link frequency (BLF = 1/T = DR/TRcal)
pri
DUT device under test
RCS radar cross-section
ΔRCS change in radar cross-section
RBW resolution bandwidth
VBW video bandwidth
4 Default conditions applicable to the test methods
4.1 Test environm
...

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