Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles

This document specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, assembly, and testing of bicycles and sub-assemblies, and lays down guidelines for manufacturer’s instructions on the use and care of such bicycles. This document applies to young adult bicycles with maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more and less than 750 mm, city and trekking bicycles, mountain bicycles, and racing bicycles that have a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more including folding bicycles. This document does not apply to specialized types of bicycle, such as delivery bicycles, recumbent bicycles, tandems, BMX bicycles, and bicycles designed and equipped for use in severe applications such as sanctioned competition events, stunting, or aerobatic manoeuvres. NOTE For bicycles with a maximum saddle height of 435 mm or less, see national regulations for ride-on toys, and with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less than 635 mm, see ISO 8098.

Cycles — Exigences de sécurité pour les bicyclettes — Partie 2: Exigences pour bicyclettes de ville et tout chemin (trekking), jeunes adultes, tout-terrain et de course

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
12-Sep-2022
Completion Date
11-Jan-2023
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ISO 4210-2:2023 - Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles Released:11. 01. 2023
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4210-2
Third edition
2023-01
Cycles — Safety requirements for
bicycles —
Part 2:
Requirements for city and trekking,
young adult, mountain and racing
bicycles
Cycles — Exigences de sécurité pour les bicyclettes —
Partie 2: Exigences pour bicyclettes de ville et tout chemin (trekking),
jeunes adultes, tout-terrain et de course
Reference number
ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
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© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Toxicity .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Sharp edges ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners .................................................................................................. 2

4.3.1 Security of screws ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3.2 Minimum failure torque .............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3.3 Folding bicycle mechanism ....................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Crack detection methods ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Exposed protrusions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6 Brakes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.6.1 Braking systems ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.6.2 Hand-operated brakes ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.6.3 Attachment of brake assembly and cable requirements ................................................................ 4

4.6.4 Brake-block and brake-pad assemblies — Security test ................................................................ 5

4.6.5 Brake adjustment ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6.6 Hand-operated braking-system — Strength test ................................................................................. 5

4.6.7 Back-pedal braking system — Strength test............................................................................................. 5

4.6.8 Braking performance ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6.9 Brakes — Heat-resistance test ................................... ............................................................................................ 8

4.7 Steering ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.7.1 Handlebar — Dimensions .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.7.2 Handlebar grips and plugs ......................................................................................................................................... 9

4.7.3 Handlebar stem — Insertion-depth mark or positive stop .......................................................... 9

4.7.4 Handlebar stem to fork steerer — Clamping requirements ..................................................... 10

4.7.5 Steering stability ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.7.6 Steering assembly — Static strength and security tests ............................................................ 11

4.7.7 Handlebar and stem assembly — Fatigue test .....................................................................................12

4.8 Frames ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.8.1 Suspension-frames — Special requirements .........................................................................................12

4.8.2 Frame — Impact test (falling mass) ............................................................................................................... 13

4.8.3 Frame and front fork assembly — Impact test (falling frame) ..............................................13

4.8.4 Frame — Fatigue test with pedalling forces ..........................................................................................13

4.8.5 Frame — Fatigue test with horizontal forces ................................... .....................................................13

4.8.6 Frame — Fatigue test with a vertical force .............................................................................................13

4.8.7 Rear brake mount tests ............................................................................................................................................. 14

4.9 Front fork .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

4.9.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

4.9.2 Means of location of the axle and wheel retention ........................................................................... 14

4.9.3 Tyre clearance test — Suspension fork ....................................................................................................... 14

4.9.4 Front fork — Tensile test ......................................................................................................................................... 14

4.9.5 Front fork — Static bending test ....................................................................................................................... 14

4.9.6 Front fork — Rearward impact test ............................................................................................................... 14

4.9.7 Front fork — Bending fatigue test plus rearward impact test ...............................................15

4.9.8 Forks intended for use with hub- or disc-brakes................................................................................ 15

4.9.9 Steerer tube — fatigue test .................................................................................................................................... 15

4.10 Wheels and tyre assembly ........................................................................................................................................................ 16

4.10.1 Wheels and tyre assembly — Rotational accuracy — Concentricity

tolerance and lateral tolerance ........................................................................................................................... 16

iii
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)

4.10.2 Wheel and tyre assembly — Clearance ...................................................................................................... 16

4.10.3 Wheel and tyre assembly — Static strength test ............................................................................... 16

4.10.4 Wheels — Wheel retention .................................................................................................................................... 16

4.10.5 Wheels — Quick-release devices — Operating features ............................................................. 17

4.10.6 Wheel and tyre assembly — Greenhouse effect test for composite wheels .............. 17

4.10.7 Wheel and tyre assembly — Heat resistance tests for composite rims used

in conjunction with rim brake............................................................................................................................. 18

4.10.8 Wheel and tyre assembly — Overpressure test ................................................................................. 18

4.10.9 Wheel and tyre assembly —Information for users .......................................................................... 19

4.11 Front mudguard ................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

4.12 Pedals and pedal/crank drive system ............................................................................................................................ 19

4.12.1 Pedal tread ............................................................................................................................................................................ 19

4.12.2 Pedal clearance .................................................................................................................................................................20

4.12.3 Pedal — Static strength test ................................................................................................................................. 21

4.12.4 Pedal — Impact test ..................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.12.5 Pedal — Dynamic durability test ..................................................................................................................... 21

4.12.6 Drive system — Static strength test .............................................................................................................. 21

4.12.7 Crank assembly — Fatigue test .......................................................................................................................... 22

4.13 Drive-chain and drive belt ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

4.13.1 Drive-chain ...........................................................................................................................................................................22

4.13.2 Drive belt ................................................................................................................................................................................22

4.14 Chain-wheel and belt-drive protective device ........................................................................................................ 22

4.14.1 Requirements .....................................................................................................................................................................22

4.14.2 Chain-wheel disc and drive pulley disc diameter ..............................................................................23

4.14.3 Chain and drive belt protective device ........................................................................................................ 24

4.14.4 Combined front gear-change guide ................................... .............................................................................. 25

4.15 Saddles and seat-posts .................................................................................................................................................................. 25

4.15.1 Limiting dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................25

4.15.2 Seat-post — Insertion-depth mark or positive stop ........................................................................ 25

4.15.3 Saddle/seat-post — Security test ..................................................................................................................... 26

4.15.4 Saddle and saddle rail — Static strength test ....................................................................................... 26

4.15.5 Saddle and seat-post assembly — Fatigue test ..................................................................................... 26

4.15.6 Seat-post — Fatigue test ........................................................................................................................................... 26

4.16 Spoke protector .................................................................................................................................................................................. 27

4.17 Luggage carriers ................................................................................................................................................................................ 27

4.18 Road test of a fully assembled bicycle............................................................................................................................. 27

4.19 Lighting systems and reflectors .......................................................................................................................................... 27

4.19.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.19.2 Wiring harness .................................................................................................................................................................. 27

4.19.3 Lighting systems .............................................................................................................................................................28

4.19.4 Reflectors ...............................................................................................................................................................................28

4.20 Warning device ...................................................................................................................................................................................28

5 Manufacturer's instructions ................................................................................................................................................................28

6 Marking ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................30

6.1 Requirement ..........................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.2 Durability test ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

Annex A (informative) Steering geometry .................................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 149, Cycles, Subcommittee SC 1, Cycles

and major sub-assemblies, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 333, Cycles, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 4210-2:2015), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes as follows:
— improvement of 4.3.2 Minimum failure torque;
— change in minimum braking performance value in Table 2 of 4.6.8.1.3;
— improvement of 4.6.9;
— improvement of 4.7.2;
— addition of a requirement for angle-adjustable handlebar stem in 4.7.6.3;
— addition of 4.8.7;
— addition of 4.9.8.3;
— addition of 4.9.9;

— re-arrangement of requirements for “Wheel and tyre assembly”, “Rims, tyres, and tubes”;

— improvement of 4.10.2;
— change in test force of 4.10.4.3;
— addition of 4.10.7;
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
— improvement of 4.11;
— change in option c) of 4.14;
— addition of 4.15.4.2;
— improvement of 4.15.6;
— addition of icons in Clause 6.
A list of all parts in the ISO 4210 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed in response to demand throughout the world, and the aim has been

to ensure that bicycles manufactured in conformity with this document will be as safe as is practically

possible. The tests have been designed to ensure the strength and durability of individual parts as well

as of the bicycle as a whole, demanding high quality throughout and consideration of safety aspects

from the design stage onwards.

The scope has been limited to safety considerations and has specifically avoided standardization of

components.

For the purpose of improving the safety of luggage carriers, revision work of ISO 11243, referenced

in 4.17, is in progress. In case this revision work involves requirements for the entire bicycle, this

document will incorporate those requirements in the next revision.
If the bicycle should be used on public roads, national regulations apply.
vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles —
Part 2:
Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain
and racing bicycles
1 Scope

This document specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, assembly, and testing of

bicycles and sub-assemblies, and lays down guidelines for manufacturer’s instructions on the use and

care of such bicycles.

This document applies to young adult bicycles with maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more and less

than 750 mm, city and trekking bicycles, mountain bicycles, and racing bicycles that have a maximum

saddle height of 635 mm or more including folding bicycles.

This document does not apply to specialized types of bicycle, such as delivery bicycles, recumbent

bicycles, tandems, BMX bicycles, and bicycles designed and equipped for use in severe applications such

as sanctioned competition events, stunting, or aerobatic manoeuvres.

NOTE For bicycles with a maximum saddle height of 435 mm or less, see national regulations for ride-on

[8]

toys, and with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less than 635 mm, see ISO 8098 .

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4210-1, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 1: Vocabulary

ISO 4210-3:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 3: Common test methods

ISO 4210-4:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 4: Braking test methods

ISO 4210-5:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 5: Steering test methods

ISO 4210-6:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 6: Frame and fork test methods

ISO 4210-7:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 7: Wheels and rims test methods

ISO 4210-8:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 8: Pedal and drive system test methods

ISO 4210-9:2023, Cycles — Safety requirements for bicycles — Part 9: Saddles and seat-post test methods

ISO 6742-1, Cycles — Lighting and retro-reflective devices — Part 1: Lighting and light signalling devices

ISO 6742-2, Cycles — Lighting and retro-reflective devices — Part 2: Retro-reflective devices

ISO 6742-3, Cycles — Lighting and retro-reflective devices — Part 3: Installation and use of lighting and

retro-reflective devices
ISO 9633, Cycle chains — Characteristics and test methods
ISO 11243, Cycles — Luggage carriers for bicycles —Requirements and test methods
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)

ISO 14878, Cycles — Audible warning devices — Technical specification and test methods

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4210-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Requirements
4.1 Toxicity

Any items which come into intimate contact with the rider (i.e. causing any hazard due to sucking or

licking) shall conform with any national regulations specific to children's products.

4.2 Sharp edges

Exposed edges that could come into contact with the rider's hands, legs, etc., during normal riding or

normal handling and normal maintenance shall not be sharp, e.g. deburred, broken, rolled, or processed

with comparable techniques.
[9]
NOTE See ISO 13715 .
4.3 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners
4.3.1 Security of screws

Any screws used in the assembly of suspension systems, brackets attached to electric generators, brake

mechanisms and mudguards to the frame or fork shall be provided with suitable locking devices, e.g.

lock-washers, lock-nuts, thread locking compound, or stiff nuts. Fasteners used to assemble hub and

disc brakes shall have heat-resistant locking devices.
[1]

NOTE For example, mechanical and physical properties of bolts are specified in ISO 898-1 .

4.3.2 Minimum failure torque

The minimum failure torque of bolted joints for the fastening of handle bars, handlebar stems, bar ends,

saddle and seat-posts shall be at least 20 % greater than the manufacturer's maximum recommended

tightening torque.
4.3.3 Folding bicycle mechanism

If folding bicycle mechanism is provided, it shall be designed so that the bicycle can be locked for use in

a simple, stable, safe way, and when folded, no damage shall occur to any cables. No locking mechanism

shall contact the wheels or tyres during riding, and it shall be impossible to unintentionally loosen or

unlock the folding mechanisms during riding.
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ISO 4210-2:2023(E)
4.4 Crack detection methods

Standardized methods should be used to emphasize the presence of cracks where visible cracks are

specified as criteria of failure in tests specified in this document.
[2] [3]

NOTE For example, suitable dye-penetrant methods are specified in ISO 3452-1 , ISO 3452-2 ,

[4] [5]

ISO 3452-3 , and ISO 3452-4 . In addition, white paint or surface treatment can be used to aid in detection for

composite materials.
4.5 Exposed protrusions

This requirement is intended to address the hazards associated with the users of bicycles falling on

projections or rigid components (e.g. handlebars, levers) on a bicycle, possibly causing internal injury or

skin puncture.

Tubes and rigid components in the form of projections which constitute a puncture hazard to the user

should be protected. The size and shape of the end protection has not been stipulated, but an adequate

shape shall be given to avoid puncturing of the body. Screw threads which constitute a puncture

hazard shall be limited to a protrusion length of one major diameter of the screw beyond the internally

threaded mating part.
NOTE Handlebar ends are covered in 4.7.2.
4.6 Brakes
4.6.1 Braking systems

A bicycle shall be equipped with at least two independently actuated braking systems. At least one

shall operate on the front wheel and one on the rear wheel. The braking systems shall operate without

binding and shall be capable of meeting the braking performance requirements of 4.6.8.

Brake blocks containing asbestos shall not be permitted.
4.6.2 Hand-operated brakes
4.6.2.1 Brake lever position

The brake levers for front and rear brakes shall be positioned according to the legislation or custom and

practice of the country in which the bicycle is to be sold, and t
...

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