Ships and marine technology — Night vision equipment for high-speed craft — Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results

This document specifies operational and performance requirements and methods of testing for night vision equipment fitted to high-speed craft. NOTE In this document, the text identical to IMO Resolution MSC.94 (72) is printed in italics; references to the paragraphs concerned in the IMO Resolution are given in brackets.

Navires et technologie maritime — Équipement de vision nocturne pour navires à grande vitesse — Exigences opérationnelles et de performance, méthodes d'essai et résultats d'essai exigés

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Published
Publication Date
06-Sep-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
07-Sep-2020
Completion Date
07-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16273
Second edition
2020-09
Ships and marine technology — Night
vision equipment for high-speed
craft — Operational and performance
requirements, methods of testing and
required test results
Navires et technologie maritime — Équipement de vision nocturne
pour navires à grande vitesse — Exigences opérationnelles et de
performance, méthodes d'essai et résultats d'essai exigés
Reference number
ISO 16273:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Performance requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Functions and their availability ................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Continuous operation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Standard test target ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.4 Detection range ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Field of view .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.6 Pan and tilt ranges of the field of view ............................................................................................................................... 3

4.7 Speeds of panning of the field of view ................................................................................................................................ 4

4.8 Stabilisation of the field of view against the motions of the vessel ........................................................... 4

4.9 Heading marker indication ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.10 Clear view .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11 Roll and pitch ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.12 Optical interference ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.13 Line of sight ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.14 Controls and ergonomics ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.15 Presentation of information ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.16 Software ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.17 Durability and resistance to environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 6

4.18 Electrical and electromagnetic interference ................................................................................................................. 6

4.19 Power supply ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.20 Back up and fall back arrangements .................................................................................................................................... 6

4.21 Malfunctions, alerts and indications .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.22 Interfacing ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.23 Safety precautions ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.24 Acoustic noise and signals ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.25 Compass safe distance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.26 Active illumination for active image intensifier system ...................................................................................... 8

5 Methods of testing and required test results .......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.2 Performance test .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.3 Performance check ........................................................................................................................................... .............. 8

5.1.4 Performance check (EMC) ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Environmental tests ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.2 Sensor shock test ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.3 Roll and pitch test ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.4 Optical interference test .........................................................................................................................................10

5.2.5 Line of sight test ............................................................................................................................................................10

5.3 Interface test ..........................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Further laboratory tests ...............................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Test for all types of night vision equipment ..........................................................................................10

5.4.3 Test of thermal imaging systems ....................................................................................................................12

5.4.4 Test of active image-intensifier systems .................. .................................................................................13

5.5 Sea trials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16273:2020(E)

5.5.2 Standard test target ....................................................................................................................................................15

5.5.3 Test conditions................................................................................................................................................................15

5.5.4 Test procedures..............................................................................................................................................................15

6 Marking and identification .....................................................................................................................................................................17

7 Installation ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

9 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Range prediction calculation .......................................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Infrared illuminator, typical plots ..........................................................................................................21

Annex C (informative) Sea trial record ............................................................................................................................................................22

Annex D (normative) Measurement of MTDP (minimum temperature difference perceived)

of thermal imagers ..........................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex E (normative) Stabilisation test for thermal imaging systems ............................................................................28

Annex F (normative) Stabilisation test active image-intensifier systems ..................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Navigation and ship operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16273:2003), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— definitions 3.5 "performance check", 3.6 "performance check (EMC)", 3.7 "performance test" 3.8

"single operator action”, 3.9 “field of view" and 3.10 “instantaneous field of view" have been added;

— 4.8 "Stabilisation of the field of view against the motions of the vessel" has been added;

— 4.10 "Clear view", former 4.11, has been clarified;
— 4.13 "Line of sight" has been added;
— 4.15 "Presentation of information", former 4.16, has been modified;
— 4.22 "Interfacing" has been modified;
— 5.1.2 "Performance test" has been added;
— 5.1.3 "Performance check", former 6.3, has been modified;
— 5.1.4 "Performance check (EMC)" has been added;
— 5.2.3 "Roll and pitch test", former 6.2.2, has been modified;
— 5.4.2.8 "Wind endurance test" has been added;
— 5.4.3 "Test of thermal imaging systems", former 7.2, has been modified;
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)

— 5.4.3.2, Table 2 "Atmospheric extinction coefficients for different wavelength ranges" values have

been adjusted;

— 5.4.4 "Test of active image-intensifier systems", former 7.3, has been modified and testing of non-

visible illumination has been added;

— 5.5 "Sea trials", former Clause 8, has been modified, the surface of test specimen has been specified;

— Annex D (normative) "Measurement of MTDP (minimum temperature difference perceived) of

thermal imagers" has been added;

— Annex E (normative) "Stabilisation test for thermal imaging systems" has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html..
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed to support the implementation of the International Code of Safety

for High-Speed Craft (HSC code), Chapter 13, of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), and

the IMO performance standards for night vision equipment for high-speed craft in the IMO Resolution

MSC.94 (72)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16273:2020(E)
Ships and marine technology — Night vision equipment
for high-speed craft — Operational and performance
requirements, methods of testing and required test results
1 Scope

This document specifies operational and performance requirements and methods of testing for night

vision equipment fitted to high-speed craft.

NOTE In this document, the text identical to IMO Resolution MSC.94 (72) is printed in italics; references to

the paragraphs concerned in the IMO Resolution are given in brackets.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9335, Optics and photonics — Optical transfer function — Principles and procedures of measurement

ISO 15529, Optics and photonics — Optical transfer function — Principles of measurement of modulation

transfer function (MTF) of sampled imaging systems

IEC 60945, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — General

requirements — Methods of testing and required test results

IEC 61162, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Digital Interfaces

IEC 62288:2014, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Presentation

of navigation-related information on shipborne navigational displays — General requirements, methods of

testing and required test results

IEC 62388:2013, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Shipborne

radar — Performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results

IEC 62923, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Bridge alert

management (all parts)

IMO Resolution A.694(17), General requirements for shipborne radio equipment forming part of the global

maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) and for electronic navigational aids

IMO Resolution MSC.94(72), Performance standards for night vision equipment for high speed craft

IMO Resolution MSC.191(79), Performance standards for the presentation of navigation-related

information on shipborne navigational displays

IMO Resolution MSC.302(87), Adoption of performance standards for Bridge Alert Management

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
night vision equipment

technical fixed means enabling the position and aspect of objects above the water surface relative to one's

own craft to be detected at night
[SOURCE: IMO MSC.94(72) 4]
3.2
high-speed craft
HSC
0,1667

craft capable of a maximum speed in metres per second (m/s) equal to or exceeding 3,7V , where V

is the displacement corresponding to the design waterline
[SOURCE: IMO HSC Code 2000]
3.3
test target for sea trials

target that simulates the real hazard of a surface object that can be found at sea such as, small unlit boats,

floating logs, oil drums, containers, buoys, ice, hazardous waves and whales
[SOURCE: IMO MSC.94(72) 4]
3.4
lit vessel

vessel that, in addition to the standard navigation lights, has a row of five unshielded lamps with a

luminous flux of 460 lm at 1 m horizontal spacing and 4 m above sea level
Note 1 to entry: This is equivalent to e.g. 21 W, 12 V.
3.5
performance check

short functional test carried out during or after a technical test to confirm that the equipment operates

[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.4]
3.6
performance check (EMC)

short functional test carried out during or after an EMC test to confirm that the equipment complies

with the required immunity performance criteria
[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.5]
3.7
performance test

measurement or a group of measurements carried out during or after a technical test to confirm that

the equipment complies with selected parameters as defined in the equipment standard

[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.6]
3.8
single operator action

procedure achieved by no more than one hard-key or soft-key action, excluding any necessary cursor

movements, or voice actuation using programmed codes
[SOURCE: MSC.252(83), Appendix 1]
3.9
field of view
FoV

solid angle through which a detector with mounted optic is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16273:2020(E)
3.10
instantaneous field of view
iFoV
angle subtended by a single detector element on the axis of the optical system

Note 1 to entry: iFoV is used as measure of the spatial resolution of a remote sensing imaging system.

4 Performance requirements
4.1 Functions and their availability

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.1] At night, night vision equipment shall be capable of detecting objects at least each

second above the water’s surface within a certain distance from one's own craft, and of displaying the

information pictorially in real time, at least each second, to assist in collision avoidance and safe navigation.

This requirement is fulfilled if the sea trials in 5.5 and the requirement in 4.4 are met.

4.2 Continuous operation

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.1] Night vision equipment on board HSC, while navigating at sea, shall be capable of

continuous operation from after sunset until before sunrise. After the equipment has been switched on it

shall be operational in less than 15 minutes.
See 5.4.2.4.
4.3 Standard test target

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.2] The standard test target shall be a black metal target of such a size that when at

least 50 % is immersed, 1,5 m long and 0,5 m high remains above the water at right angles to the desired

direction of detection. Administration may use other smaller targets to reflect local conditions.

See 5.5.2 for more detailed specification of the standard test target.
4.4 Detection range

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.3] With the required field of view, the equipment shall detect the standard test

target at a distance of not less than 600 m with a minimum probability of 90 %, when the target has been

immersed in the sea for at least 24 hours under mean starlight conditions without clouds and without moon.

See 5.4.3.2, 5.4.4.5 and 5.5.4.2.
4.5 Field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.4] The required horizontal field of view shall be at least 20°, 10° on either side of the

bow. The vertical field of view shall be at least 12° and shall be sufficient to enable the equipment to fulfill

the performance requirements of MSC.94(72) as well as being able to see the horizon.

Optionally other fields of view may be provided. Their selection shall be made with a non‑locking switch,

which returns to the required field of view when released.
See 5.4.2.5.
4.6 Pan and tilt ranges of the field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.5] The axis of the field of view of the equipment shall be capable of being moved at

least 20° horizontally to either side.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16273:2020(E)

The elevation axis of the field of view shall be capable of being adjusted of at least 10° to compensate for the

trim of the craft.
See 5.4.2.6.
4.7 Speeds of panning of the field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.6] By activation of a single control element, the axis of the field of view shall be

capable of being returned automatically to the ahead position at a minimum angular speed of 30°/s. The

system shall be capable of panning at a minimum angular speed of 30°/s.

The minimum angular speed shall be at least 30°/s. The operational angular speed may be lower.

See 5.4.2.6.
4.8 Stabilisation of the field of view against the motions of the vessel

The imaging system shall not show a shift of more than the instantaneous field of view (iFoV) (e.g. 0,83

mrad) when looking onto a fixed onshore target under ship's movement at sea. Ship movement at sea as

defined in 4.11.
See 5.2.3.
4.9 Heading marker indication

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.7] When inside the field of view, the graphical ahead mark of the craft shall be

indicated on the display with an error not greater than ±1°.

When the sensor/camera is orientated right ahead, the graphical heading marker shall be displayed in

the centre with an error not greater than +/-1°.

When outside the field of view, a visual indication of relative bearing with an error not greater than ±1°

shall be provided.
See 5.4.2.6.
4.10 Clear view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.9] Arrangement shall be provided to ensure efficient cleaning of the sensor head/

lens from the operating position. Administration may require some additional facilities such as de-icing.

Essential cleaning of the sensor head and/or lens shall be performed before the use of the night vision

equipment. During operation, mainly dried salt mist and spray can occur that shall be removed by

a cleaning device to get back a clear view. The technical way how to achieve that result is left to the

discretion of the manufacturer of the device.
See 5.4.2.7.
4.11 Roll and pitch

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.8] The performance of the night vision equipment shall be such that when the craft is

rolling and/or pitching up to ±10°, the performance requirements in this document shall be complied with.

See 5.2.3.
4.12 Optical interference

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.10] Measures shall be taken, to ensure that objects commonly encountered at sea

and in ports shall not be displayed less clearly on the monitor of the night vision equipment because of

dazzle effects, reflection, blooming, or any other effects due to the surroundings.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 16273:2020(E)
See 5.2.4.
4.13 Line of sight
Vibrations shall not disturb the created image for the operator.
See 5.2.5.
4.14 Controls and ergonomics

[IMO MSC.94(72), 6] The night vision equipment shall be designed in accordance with sound ergonomic

principles.

The number of operational controls shall be limited to the minimum required for operation.

Whilst in operational mode, double functions of controls shall be avoided on such controls as for pan,

vertical trim, field of view and other essential functions.
The functions of the individual operational controls shall be clearly labelled.

The operational functions of night vision equipment shall be activated directly through the operational

controls; menu-driven controls shall be avoided.

The operational controls shall be clearly identifiable in the dark. If illumination is used, the brightness shall

be adjustable.

The operational controls of night vision equipment shall meet the requirements of IMO Resolution A.694(17)

as well as applicable requirements of IEC 60945 and IEC 60447.
4.15 Presentation of information

[IMO MSC.94(72), 6.3] the status of operation of the equipment shall be continuously displayed.

The display shall be non‑dazzling and non‑flickering. The display shall be capable of displaying

...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 16273
ISO/TC 8/SC 6 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-12-06 2020-02-28
Ships and marine technology — Night vision equipment
for high-speed craft — Operational and performance
requirements, methods of testing and required test results

Navires et technologie maritime — Équipement de vision nocturne pour navires à grande vitesse —

Exigences opérationnelles et de performance, méthodes d'essai et résultats d'essai exigés

ICS: 47.020.70
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Performance Requirements...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Functions and their availability ................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Continuous operation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Standard test target ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.4 Detection range ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Field of view .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.6 Pan and tilt ranges of the field of view ............................................................................................................................... 3

4.7 Speeds of panning of the field of view ................................................................................................................................ 4

4.8 Stabilization of the field of view against the motions of the vessel ........................................................... 4

4.9 Heading marker indication ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.10 Clear view .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.11 Roll and pitch ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.12 Optical interference ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.13 Line of sight ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.14 Controls and ergonomics ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.15 Presentation of information ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.16 Software ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.17 Durability and resistance to environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 6

4.18 Electrical and electromagnetic interference ................................................................................................................. 6

4.19 Power supply ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.20 Back up and fall back arrangements .................................................................................................................................... 6

4.21 Malfunctions, alerts and indications .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.22 Interfacing ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.23 Safety precautions ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.24 Acoustic noise and signals ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.25 Compass safe distance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Compass safe distance shall be determined according to IEC 60945 and the device

shall be marked accordingly. Methods of testing and required test results ...........................................7

5.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Performance test .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.2 Performance check ........................................................................................................................................... .............. 8

5.1.3 Performance check (EMC) ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Environmental tests ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.2 Sensor shock test ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2.3 Roll and pitch test ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.4 Optical interference test ............................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.5 Line of sight test ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Interface test ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Laboratory tests ..................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Test for all types of night vision equipment ..........................................................................................10

5.4.3 Test of thermal imaging systems ....................................................................................................................11

5.4.4 Test of active image-intensifier systems .................. .................................................................................12

5.5 Sea trials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................14

5.5.2 Standard test target ....................................................................................................................................................14

5.5.3 Test conditions................................................................................................................................................................15

5.5.4 Test procedures..............................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)

6 Marking and identification .....................................................................................................................................................................17

7 Installation ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

9 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Range prediction calculation .......................................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Infrared illuminator, typical plots ..........................................................................................................21

Annex C (informative) Sea trial record ............................................................................................................................................................22

Annex D (normative) Measurement of MTDP (Minimum Temperature Difference

Perceived) of thermal imagers ............................................................................................................................................................24

Annex E (normative) Stabilization Test ..........................................................................................................................................................28

Annex F (normative) Test for stabilization of the field of view against the motions of the vessel ....29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Navigation and ship operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16273:2003), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Definitions 3.5 "performance check", 3.6 "performance check (EMC)", 3.7 "performance test" and

3.8 "single operation" have been added,

— 4.8 "Stabilization of the field of view against the motions of the vessel" has been added,

— 4.10 "Clear view", former 4.11, has been clarified,
— 4.13 "Line of sight" has been added,
— 4.15 "Presentation of information", former 4.16" has been modified,
— 4.22 "Interfacing" has been modified,
— 5.1.2 "Performance check", former 6.3, has been modified,
— 5.1.3 "Performance check (EMC)" has been added,
— 5.1.1 "Performance test" has been added,
— 5.2.3 "Roll and pitch test", former 6.2.2, has been modified,
— 5.4.3 Test of thermal imaging systems, former 7.2, has been modified,

— 5.4.4 "Test of actife image-intensifier systems", former 7.3, has been modified and testing of non-

visible illumination has been added,
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ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)

— 5.5 "Sea trials", former clause 8, have been modified, the surface of test specimen has benn specified,

— Annex D (normative) "Measurement of MTDP (Minimum Temperature Difference Perceived) of

thermal imagers" has been added,
— Annex E (normative) "Stabilization test" has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html..
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
Ships and marine technology — Night vision equipment
for high-speed craft — Operational and performance
requirements, methods of testing and required test results
1 Scope

This International Standard applies to operational and performance requirements and methods of

testing for night vision equipment fitted to high-speed craft in accordance with the International Code

of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC code), Chapter 13, of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

and the IMO performance standards MSC.94 (72) for night vision equipment for HSC.

NOTE All texts of this International Standard, whose wording is identical to that in IMO MSC.94 (72), are

printed in italics, and the resolution and paragraph numbers are indicated in brackets.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60945, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — General

requirements — Methods of testing and required test results

IEC 61162, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Digital Interfaces

IEC 61924-2, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Integrated

navigation systems — Part 2: Modular structure for INS - Operational and performance requirements,

methods of testing and required test results

IEC 62388:2013, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Shipborne

radar — Performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results

IEC 62288, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Presentation of

navigation-related information on shipborne navigational displays — General requirements, methods of

testing and required test results

IEC 62923, Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems — Bridge alert

management (all parts)

IMO Resolution A., 694 (17), General requirements for shipborne radio equipment forming part of the

global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) and for electronic navigational aids

IMO Resolution MSC, 302(87), Adoption of performance standards for Bridge Alert Management

IMO Resolution MSC, 94(72), Performance standards for night vision equipment for high speed craft

IMO Resolution MSC, 191(79), Performance standards for the presentation of navigation-related

information on shipborne navigational displays

ISO 9335, Optics and photonics — Optical transfer function — Principles and procedures of measurement

ISO 15529, Optics and photonics — Optical transfer function — Principles of measurement of modulation

transfer function (MTF) of sampled imaging systems
International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code)
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ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
STANAG 4349 (MAS/186-Land/4349, 19 June 1996)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
night vision equipment

any technical fixed means enabling the position and aspect of objects above the water surface relative to

one's own craft to be detected at night
[SOURCE: IMO MSC.94(72) 4]
3.2
high-speed craft
any craft to which the definition in chapter 1 of the HSC Code applies
[SOURCE: IMO MSC.94(72) 4]
3.3
test target for sea trials

a target that simulates the real hazard of a surface object that can be found at sea such as, small unlit boats,

floating logs, oil drums, containers, buoys, ice, hazardous waves and whales
[SOURCE: IMO MSC.94(72) 4]
3.4
lit vessel

a vessel that, in addition to the standard navigation lights, has a row of five unshielded lamps with a

luminous flux of 460 lm at 1 m horizontal spacing and 4 m above sea level
Note 1 to entry: This is equivalent to e.g. 21 W, 12 V.
3.5
performance check

a short functional test carried out during or after a technical test to confirm that the equipment operates

[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.4]
3.6
performance check (EMC)

a short functional test carried out during or after an EMC test to confirm that the equipment complies

with the required immunity performance criteria
[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.5]
3.7
performance test

a measurement or a group of measurements carried out during or after a technical test to confirm that

the equipment complies with selected parameters as defined in the equipment standard

[SOURCE: IEC 60945:2002, 3.1.6]
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ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
3.8
single operator action

procedure achieved by no more than one hard-key or soft-key action, excluding any necessary cursor

movements, or voice actuation using programmed codes
[SOURCE: MSC.252(83), Appendix 1]
4 Performance Requirements
4.1 Functions and their availability

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.1] At night, night vision equipment shall be capable of detecting objects at least each

second above the water’s surface within a certain distance from one's own craft, and of displaying the

information pictorially in real time, at least each second, to assist in collision avoidance and safe navigation.

This requirement is fulfilled, if the sea trials in 5.5 and the requirement 4.4 have been met.

4.2 Continuous operation

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.1] Night vision equipment on board HSC, while navigating at sea, shall be capable of

continuous operation from after sunset until before sunrise. After the equipment has been switched on it

shall be operational in less than 15 minutes.
See 5.4.2.5.
4.3 Standard test target

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.2] The standard test target shall be a black metal target of such a size that when at

least 50 % is immersed, 1,5 m long and 0,5 m high remains above the water at right angles to the desired

direction of detection. Administration may use other smaller targets to reflect local conditions.

See 5.5.2. for more detailed specification of the standard test target.
4.4 Detection range

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.3] With the required field of view, the equipment shall detect the standard test

target at a distance of not less than 600 m with a minimum probability of 90 %, when the target has been

immersed in the sea for at least 24 hours under mean starlight conditions without clouds and without moon.

See 5.4.3.2, 5.4.4.5 and 5.5.4.2.
4.5 Field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.4] The required horizontal field of view shall be at least 20°, 10° on either side of the

bow. The vertical field of view shall be at least 12° and shall be sufficient to enable the equipment to fulfill

the performance requirements of MSC.94(72) as well as being able to see the horizon.

Optionally other fields of view may be provided. Their selection shall be made with a non‑locking switch,

which returns to the required field of view when released.
See 5.4.2.5.
4.6 Pan and tilt ranges of the field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.5] The axis of the field of view of the equipment shall be capable of being moved at

least 20° horizontally to either side.
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ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)

The elevation axis of the field of view shall be capable of being adjusted of at least 10° to compensate for the

trim of the craft.
See 5.4.2.6.
4.7 Speeds of panning of the field of view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.6] By activation of a single control element, the axis of the field of view shall be

capable of being returned automatically to the ahead position at a minimum angular speed of 30°/s. The

system shall be capable of panning at a minimum angular speed of 30°/s.

The maximum angular speed shall be at least 30°/s. The operational angular speed may be lower.

See 5.4.2.6.
4.8 Stabilization of the field of view against the motions of the vessel

The imaging system shall not show a shift of more than iFoV (e.g 0,83 mrad) when looking onto a fixed

onshore target under ship's movement at sea.
See 5.2.3.
4.9 Heading marker indication

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.7] When inside the field of view, the graphical ahead mark of the craft shall be

indicated on the display with an error not greater than ± 1°.

When the sensor/camera is orientated right ahead, the graphical heading marker shall be displayed in

the centre with an error not greater than +/- 1°.

When outside the field of view, a visual indication of relative bearing with an error not greater than ± 1°

shall be provided.
See 5.4.2.6.
4.10 Clear view

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.9] Arrangement shall be provided to ensure efficient cleaning of the sensor head/

lens from the operating position. Administration may require some additional facilities such as de-icing.

Essential cleaning of the sensor head and/or lens needs to be performed before the use of the night

vision equipment. During operation mainly dried salt mist and spray could occur and needs to be

removed by a cleaning device to get back a clear view. The technical way how to achieve that result shall

not be described in any ISO standard.
See 5.4.2.8.
4.11 Roll and pitch

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.8] the performance of the night vision equipment shall be such that when the craft

is rolling and/or pitching up to ± 10°, the performance requirements in this International Standard shall be

complied with.
See 5.2.3.
4.12 Optical interference

[IMO MSC.94(72), 5.2.10] Measures shall be taken, to ensure that objects commonly encountered at sea

and in ports shall not be displayed less clearly on the monitor of the night vision equipment because of

dazzle effects, reflection, blooming, or any other effects due to the surroundings.

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ISO/DIS 16273:2019(E)
See 5.2.4.
4.13 Line of sight
Vibrations shall not disturb the created image for the operator.
See 5.2.5.
4.14 Controls and ergonomics

[IMO MSC.94(72), 6] the night vision equipment shall be designed in accordance with sound ergonomic

principles.

The number of operational controls shall be limited to the minimum required for operation.

Whilst in operational mode, double functions of controls shall be avoided on such controls as for pan,

vertical trim, field of view and other essential functions.
The functions of the individual operational controls shall be clearly labelled.

The operational functions of night vision equipment shall be activated directly through the operational

controls; menu-driven controls shall be avoided.

The operational controls shall be clearly identifiable in the dark. If illumination is used, the brightness shall

be adjustable.

The operational controls of night vision equipment shall meet the requirements of IMO Resolution A.694(17)

as well as applicable requirements of IEC 60945.
4.15 Presentation of information

[IMO MSC.94(72), 6.3] the status of operation of the equipment shall be continuously displayed.

The display shall be non‑dazzling and non‑flickering. The display shall be capable of displaying a visible

image of at least 180 mm in diagonal.

The selected field of view, if more than one is provided, (see 4.7) shall be continuously indicated at the

operating position.
The image shall be presented on the display, with the same a
...

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