Environmental management — Water footprint — Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO 14046

ISO/TR 14073:2016 provides illustrative examples of how to apply ISO 14046, in order to assess the water footprint of products, processes and organizations based on life cycle assessment. The examples are presented to demonstrate particular aspects of the application of ISO 14046 and therefore do not present all of the details of an entire water footprint study report as required by ISO 14046. NOTE The examples are presented as different ways of applying ISO 14046 and do not preclude alternative ways of calculating the water footprint, provided they are in accordance with ISO 14046.

Management environnemental — Empreinte eau — Exemples illustrant l'application de l'ISO 14046

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
18-Aug-2016
Withdrawal Date
18-Aug-2016
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
24-Aug-2016
Completion Date
24-Aug-2016
Ref Project

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 14073
First edition
2016-09-01
Environmental management — Water
footprint — Illustrative examples on
how to apply ISO 14046
Management environnemental — Empreinte eau — Exemples
illustrant l’application de l’ISO 14046
Reference number
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Selection of the type of water footprint assessment ....................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Choice of the type of water footprint study ................................................................................................................... 6

6 Presentation of the examples .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Example A – Water footprint inventory of two power plants......................................................................... 7

6.1.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.2 Inventory ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1.3 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Example B - Water footprint inventory of rice cultivation ................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Inventory ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3 Example C – Water scarcity footprint of municipal water management ...........................................12

6.3.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Example D – Water scarcity footprint of rice cultivation (cradle-to-gate) .......................................14

6.4.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................14

6.5 Example E – Water scarcity footprint of a textile with life cycle stages in

different locations .............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Example F – Water scarcity footprint of reservoir operation, reflecting seasonality .............17

6.6.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7 Example G – Water scarcity footprint and water availability footprint of

packaging production ....................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................19

6.8 Example H – Water scarcity footprint differentiated by source of water ..........................................21

6.8.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................21

6.8.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.8.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................22

6.8.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................22

6.9 Example I – Variation of water scarcity by forest management and land use ...............................23

6.9.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................23

6.9.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

6.9.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................23

6.9.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10 Example J - Water eutrophication footprint of maize cultivation, calculated as one

or two indicator results ................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................25

6.11 Example K – Comprehensive water footprint profile of packaging production ..........................27

6.11.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12 Example L – Non-comprehensive weighted water footprint of cereal cultivation ....................30

6.12.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................30

6.13 Example M - Water footprint of packaging production as part of a life cycle assessment .32

6.13.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14 Example N – Non-comprehensive water footprint of textile production ..........................................33

6.14.1 Goal and Scope ................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................34

6.14.4 Discussion ...........................................................................................................................................................................36

6.14.5 Limitations .........................................................................................................................................................................36

6.15 Example O – Non-comprehensive weighted water footprint of municipal

water management ..........................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.15.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................40

6.16 Example P – Non-comprehensive water footprint of a company producing

chemicals (organization).............................................................................................................................................................41

6.16.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................41

6.16.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................42

6.16.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................43

6.16.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................45

6.17 Example Q – Water scarcity footprint of an aluminium company (organization) .....................46

6.17.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................46

6.17.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................47

6.17.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................47

6.17.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18 Example R – Non-comprehensive direct water footprint of a hotel (organization)

considering seasonality ................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................52

6.18.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................52

6.18.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................53

7 Issues arising in water footprint studies .................................................................................................................................53

7.1 Seasonality ...............................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2 Use of a baseline .................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.3 Evaporation, transpiration and evapotranspiration ............................................................................................55

7.4 Water quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................55

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................55

7.4.2 Relevant air and soil (and water) emissions ........................................................................................56

7.5 Choice of indicators along the environmental mechanism ...........................................................................57

iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

7.6 Identification of foreseen consequences of the excluded impacts ..........................................................58

7.7 Sensitivity analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................................58

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental

management, Subcommittee SC 5, Life cycle assessment.
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Introduction

Principles, requirements and guidelines for the quantification and reporting of a water footprint are

given in ISO 14046. The water footprint assessment according to ISO 14046 can be conducted as a

stand-alone assessment, where only impacts related to water are assessed, or as part of a life cycle

assessment. In addition, a variety of modelling choices and approaches are possible depending on the

goal and scope of the assessment. The water footprint can be reported as a single value or as a profile of

impact category indicator results.

This document provides illustrative examples on the application of ISO 14046 to further enhance

understanding of ISO 14046 and to facilitate its widespread application.

At the time of the publication of this document, water footprint assessment methods are developing

rapidly. Practitioners are encouraged to be aware of the latest developments when undertaking water

footprint studies.

These examples are for illustrative purposes only and some of the data used are fictitious. The data are

not intended be used outside of the context of this document.

The Bibliography might contain references to methods that are not fully compliant with ISO 14046:2014.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Environmental management — Water footprint —
Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO 14046
1 Scope

This document provides illustrative examples of how to apply ISO 14046, in order to assess the water

footprint of products, processes and organizations based on life cycle assessment.

The examples are presented to demonstrate particular aspects of the application of ISO 14046 and

therefore do not present all of the details of an entire water footprint study report as required by

ISO 14046.

NOTE The examples are presented as different ways of applying ISO 14046 and do not preclude alternative

ways of calculating the water footprint, provided they are in accordance with ISO 14046.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14046:2014, Environmental management — Water footprint — Principles, requirements and guidelines

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14046:2014 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
α characterization factor
C concentration
E emission
F footprint
R rainfall
V volume
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
4.2 Abbreviated terms
1,4-DB 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4-D 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
APSIM Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 means “measured during 5 days”)
CF Characterization Factor
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CTU Comparative Toxic Unit
NOTE 1 “CTU ” for ecosystems; “CTU ” for humans; “CTU ” for cancer; “CTU ” for
e h c n-c
non-cancer.
CWU Consumptive Water Use
CWV Critical Water Volume
DALY Disability Adjusted Life Years
DWU Degradative Water Use

DWCM-AgWU Distributed Water Circulation Model Incorporating Agricultural Water Use

ET Evapotranspiration
FU Functional Unit
H O-eq Water “equivalent”

NOTE 2 Typical unit to express the impact score associated with water scarcity. Some-

times the term H O-eq is written H O eq, or H Oe.
2 2 2
LCA Life Cycle Assessment
LCI Life Cycle Inventory
LCIA Life Cycle Impact Assessment
OEF Organization Environmental Footprint
PEF Product Environmental Footprint
PDF Potentially Disappeared Fraction of species
PAF Potentially Affected Fraction of species
RU Reporting Unit
TOC Total Organic Carbon
WSI Water Scarcity Index
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

NOTE 3 Sometimes the term water stress index (also abbreviated as WSI) is used in the

literature for what is termed a water scarcity index in this document.
WSF Water Scarcity Footprint
WULCA Water Use in LCA
5 Selection of the type of water footprint assessment
5.1 General
The water footprint assessment conducted according to ISO 14046 can be:
— a stand-alone assessment where only impacts related to water are assessed;

— a part of a life cycle assessment (LCA) where consideration is given to a comprehensive set of

environmental impacts, which are not only impacts related to water.

Table 1 lists the illustrative examples in this document and the different topics that are highlighted in

each example.
Table 1 — Types of water footprint assessment shown in the examples
Product/
Case study Impact
process or Topic highlight- Type of footprint System
Example used in the assessment
a a
organization ed boundary
example method
focus
n/a (Water foot-
Product/ Water footprint n/a (inventory
A Power plant print inventory Gate-to-gate
Process inventory only)
only)
Water footprint n/a (Water foot-
Product/ Rice cultiva- n/a (inventory
B inventory using a print inventory Gate-to-gate
Process tion only)
baseline only)
Boulay et al.
Option com- Municipal
Product/ Water scarcity
(2016) (WU
C parison using water manage- Gate-to-gate
Process footprint
scarcity ment
[5]
LCA)
Application of Ridoutt and
Product/ Water scarcity
D water scarcity Rice Gate-to-gate Pfister (2010)
Process footprint
[6]
footprint method
Boulay et
al. (2016)
(WULCA)
[5]
; Pfister et
[7]
al. (2009) ;
Frischknecht
et al. (2008)
Influence of im-
[8]
; EU (2013)
Product/ pact assessment Water scarcity Cradle-to-
[9]
E Textile (PEF/OEF) ;
Process method chosen footprint grave
Boulay et al.
for scarcity
[10]
(2011a) ;
Hoekstra et al.
(2012) (Water
Footprint Net-
work - WFN)
[11]
; Berger et
[12]
al. (2014)
All examples explicitly or implicitly contain a water footprint inventory.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Product/
Case study Impact
process or Topic highlight- Type of footprint System
Example used in the assessment
a a
organization ed boundary
example method
focus
Pfister and
Product/ Reservoir Water scarcity
F Seasonality Gate-to
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 14073
First edition
Environmental management — Water
footprint — Illustrative examples on
how to apply ISO 14046
Management environnemental — Empreinte eau — Exemples
illustrant l’application de l’ISO 14046
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Selection of the type of water footprint assessment ....................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Choice of the type of water footprint study ................................................................................................................... 6

6 Presentation of the examples .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Example A – Water footprint inventory of two power plants......................................................................... 7

6.1.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.2 Inventory ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1.3 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Example B - Water footprint inventory of rice cultivation ................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Inventory ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3 Example C – Water scarcity footprint of municipal water management ...........................................12

6.3.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Example D – Water scarcity footprint of rice cultivation (cradle-to-gate) .......................................14

6.4.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................14

6.5 Example E – Water scarcity footprint of a textile with life cycle stages in

different locations .............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Example F – Water scarcity footprint of reservoir operation, reflecting seasonality .............17

6.6.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................17

6.6.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7 Example G – Water scarcity footprint and water availability footprint of

packaging production ....................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.7.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................19

6.8 Example H – Water scarcity footprint differentiated by source of water ..........................................21

6.8.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................21

6.8.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.8.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................22

6.8.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................22

6.9 Example I – Variation of water scarcity by forest management and land use ...............................23

6.9.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................23

6.9.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

6.9.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................23

6.9.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10 Example J - Water eutrophication footprint of maize cultivation, calculated as one

or two indicator results ................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.10.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................25

6.11 Example K – Comprehensive water footprint profile of packaging production ..........................27

6.11.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................27

6.11.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12 Example L – Non-comprehensive weighted water footprint of cereal cultivation ....................30

6.12.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................30

6.12.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................30

6.13 Example M - Water footprint of packaging production as part of a life cycle assessment .32

6.13.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................32

6.13.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14 Example N – Non-comprehensive water footprint of textile production ..........................................33

6.14.1 Goal and Scope ................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................33

6.14.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................34

6.14.4 Discussion ...........................................................................................................................................................................36

6.14.5 Limitations .........................................................................................................................................................................36

6.15 Example O – Non-comprehensive weighted water footprint of municipal

water management ..........................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................37

6.15.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................38

6.15.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................40

6.16 Example P – Non-comprehensive water footprint of a company producing

chemicals (organization).............................................................................................................................................................41

6.16.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................41

6.16.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................42

6.16.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................43

6.16.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................45

6.17 Example Q – Water scarcity footprint of an aluminium company (organization) .....................46

6.17.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................46

6.17.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................47

6.17.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................47

6.17.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18 Example R – Non-comprehensive direct water footprint of a hotel (organization)

considering seasonality ................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18.1 Goal and scope ................................................................................................................................................................51

6.18.2 Inventory .............................................................................................................................................................................52

6.18.3 Impact assessment ......................................................................................................................................................52

6.18.4 Interpretation ..................................................................................................................................................................53

7 Issues arising in water footprint studies .................................................................................................................................53

7.1 Seasonality ...............................................................................................................................................................................................53

7.2 Use of a baseline .................................................................................................................................................................................54

7.3 Evaporation, transpiration and evapotranspiration ............................................................................................55

7.4 Water quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................55

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................55

7.4.2 Relevant air and soil (and water) emissions ........................................................................................56

7.5 Choice of indicators along the environmental mechanism ...........................................................................57

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

7.6 Identification of foreseen consequences of the excluded impacts ..........................................................58

7.7 Sensitivity analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................................58

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental

management, Subcommittee SC 5, Life cycle assessment.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Introduction

Principles, requirements and guidelines for the quantification and reporting of a water footprint are

given in ISO 14046. The water footprint assessment according to ISO 14046 can be conducted as a

stand-alone assessment, where only impacts related to water are assessed, or as part of a life cycle

assessment. In addition, a variety of modelling choices and approaches are possible depending on the

goal and scope of the assessment. The water footprint can be reported as a single value or as a profile of

impact category indicator results.

This document provides illustrative examples on the application of ISO 14046 to further enhance

understanding of ISO 14046 and to facilitate its widespread application.

At the time of the publication of this document, water footprint assessment methods are developing

rapidly. Practitioners are encouraged to be aware of the latest developments when undertaking water

footprint studies.

These examples are for illustrative purposes only and some of the data used are fictitious. The data are

not intended be used outside of the context of this document.

The Bibliography might contain references to methods that are not fully compliant with ISO 14046:2014.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Environmental management — Water footprint —
Illustrative examples on how to apply ISO 14046
1 Scope

This document provides illustrative examples of how to apply ISO 14046, in order to assess the water

footprint of products, processes and organizations based on life cycle assessment.

The examples are presented to demonstrate particular aspects of the application of ISO 14046 and

therefore do not present all of the details of an entire water footprint study report as required by

ISO 14046.

NOTE The examples are presented as different ways of applying ISO 14046 and do not preclude alternative

ways of calculating the water footprint, provided they are in accordance with ISO 14046.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14046:2014, Environmental management — Water footprint — Principles, requirements and guidelines

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14046:2014 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
α characterization factor
C concentration
E emission
F footprint
R rainfall
V volume
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ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
4.2 Abbreviated terms
1,4-DB 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4-D 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
APSIM Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 means “measured during 5 days”)
CF Characterization Factor
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CTU Comparative Toxic Unit
NOTE 1 “CTU ” for ecosystems; “CTU ” for humans; “CTU ” for cancer; “CTU ” for
e h c n-c
non-cancer.
CWU Consumptive Water Use
CWV Critical Water Volume
DALY Disability Adjusted Life Years
DWU Degradative Water Use

DWCM-AgWU Distributed Water Circulation Model Incorporating Agricultural Water Use

ET Evapotranspiration
FU Functional Unit
H O-eq Water “equivalent”

NOTE 2 Typical unit to express the impact score associated with water scarcity. Some-

times the term H O-eq is written H O eq, or H Oe.
2 2 2
LCA Life Cycle Assessment
LCI Life Cycle Inventory
LCIA Life Cycle Impact Assessment
OEF Organization Environmental Footprint
PEF Product Environmental Footprint
PDF Potentially Disappeared Fraction of species
PAF Potentially Affected Fraction of species
RU Reporting Unit
TOC Total Organic Carbon
WSI Water Scarcity Index
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ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)

NOTE 3 Sometimes the term water stress index (also abbreviated as WSI) is used in the

literature for what is termed a water scarcity index in this document.
WSF Water Scarcity Footprint
WULCA Water Use in LCA
5 Selection of the type of water footprint assessment
5.1 General
The water footprint assessment conducted according to ISO 14046 can be:
— a stand-alone assessment where only impacts related to water are assessed;

— a part of a life cycle assessment (LCA) where consideration is given to a comprehensive set of

environmental impacts, which are not only impacts related to water.

Table 1 lists the illustrative examples in this document and the different topics that are highlighted in

each example.
Table 1 — Types of water footprint assessment shown in the examples
Product/
Case study Impact
process or Topic highlight- Type of footprint System
Example used in the assessment
a a
organization ed boundary
example method
focus
n/a (Water foot-
Product/ Water footprint n/a (inventory
A Power plant print inventory Gate-to-gate
Process inventory only)
only)
Water footprint n/a (Water foot-
Product/ Rice cultiva- n/a (inventory
B inventory using a print inventory Gate-to-gate
Process tion only)
baseline only)
Boulay et al.
Option com- Municipal
Product/ Water scarcity
(2016) (WU
C parison using water manage- Gate-to-gate
Process footprint
scarcity ment
[5]
LCA)
Application of Ridoutt and
Product/ Water scarcity
D water scarcity Rice Gate-to-gate Pfister (2010)
Process footprint
[6]
footprint method
Boulay et
al. (2016)
(WULCA)
[5]
; Pfister et
[7]
al. (2009) ;
Frischknecht
et al. (2008)
Influence of im-
[8]
; EU (2013)
Product/ pact assessment Water scarcity Cradle-to-
[9]
E Textile (PEF/OEF) ;
Process method chosen footprint grave
Boulay et al.
for scarcity
[10]
(2011a) ;
Hoekstra et al.
(2012) (Water
Footprint Net-
work - WFN)
[11]
; Berger et
[12]
al. (2014)
All examples explicitly or implicitly contain a water footprint inventory.
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ISO/TR 14073:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Product/
Case study Impact
process or Topic highlight- Type of footprint System
Example used in the assessment
a a
organization
...

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