Corrugated fibreboard -- Determination of edgewise crush resistance -- Waxed edge method

This document specifies a method for the determination of the edgewise crush resistance of corrugated fibreboard. The force is applied in the direction of the flute axis. This method is applicable to single-wall (double-faced), double-wall, and triple-wall corrugated fibreboard. It may also be used to test samples taken from corrugated cases and other converted products. While the method is applicable to waxed corrugated fibreboard, care must be taken that the heat used in the waxing step does not affect the corrugated structure. This is controlled by observing that failure during the test still occurs away from the loaded edges.

Carton ondulé -- Détermination de la résistance à la compression sur chant -- Méthode du bord paraffiné

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Published
Publication Date
24-Jun-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Jun-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13821
Second edition
2020-06
Corrugated fibreboard —
Determination of edgewise crush
resistance — Waxed edge method
Carton ondulé — Détermination de la résistance à la compression sur
chant — Méthode du bord paraffiné
Reference number
ISO 13821:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13821:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13821:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus and test liquid ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Cutting the test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Waxing ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11.2 Precision data from TAPPI-CTS ................................................................................................................................................ 5

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13821:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6/SC 2, Test methods and quality

specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13821:2002), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Introduction of an additional group in the Introduction clause;

— Information on sampling of corrugated shipping containers are added in Clause 6;

— Information in 8.2 on the height of the test pieces;
— Introduction of precision data based on TAPPI comparative testing service.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13821:2020(E)
Introduction

A variety of methods for the determination of edgewise crush resistance are in use in different parts of

the world. These can be classified into four groups as follows:

a) Those in which a carefully cut rectangular test piece is tested without any special treatment or

modification.

b) Those in which the edges of the test piece to which the force is applied are waxed to prevent the

test result from being influenced by “edge effects”.

c) Those in which the test piece edges are not waxed but the shape of the test piece is such that the

length is substantially reduced at a point midway between the loading edges in order to induce the

failure to occur away from those edges.

d) Those in which carefully cut rectangular pieces are tested with edges clamped to prevent the test

result from being influenced by "edge effects".

The dimensions of the test piece vary from one group to the other and, in group c), the methods vary

according to the shape and method of reducing the length.

The methods may not give the same numerical results, but it can be shown that most of them can be

used to predict the top-to-bottom compression strength which will be achieved when the board is

properly converted into a transport package.

This document describes a method from group b) intended to be used for quality measurement and

quality specification purposes. This particular method is selected because it correlates well with the

top-to-bottom compression strength of the final transport package and provides significantly higher

results than unwaxed methods (a) because edge effects are avoided.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13821:2020(E)
Corrugated fibreboard — Determination of edgewise crush
resistance — Waxed edge method
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the determination of the edgewise crush resistance of corrugated

fibreboard. The force is applied in the direction of the flute axis.

This method is applicable to single-wall (double-faced), double-wall, and triple-wall corrugated

fibreboard. It may also be used to test samples taken from corrugated cases and other converted

products.

While the method is applicable to waxed corrugated fibreboard, care must be taken that the heat used

in the waxing step does not affect the corrugated structure. This is controlled by observing that failure

during the test still occurs away from the loaded edges.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples

ISO 13820, Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard — Description and calibration of compression-testing

equipment
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .o
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 13821
ISO/TC 6/SC 2
Corrugated fibreboard —
Secretariat: SIS
Determination of edgewise crush
Voting begins on:
2020­03­12 resistance — Waxed edge method
Voting terminates on:
Carton ondulé — Détermination de la résistance à la compression sur
2020­05­07
chant — Méthode du bord paraffiné
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus and test liquid ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Cutting of the test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8.3 Waxing ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11.2 Precision data from TAPPI­CTS ................................................................................................................................................ 5

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6/SC 2, Test methods and quality

specifications for paper and board.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
Introduction

A variety of methods for the determination of edgewise crush resistance are in use in different parts of

the world. These can be classified into three groups as follows:

a) Those in which a carefully cut rectangular test piece is tested without any special treatment or

modification.

b) Those in which the edges of the test piece to which the force is applied are waxed to prevent the

test result from being influenced by “edge effects”.

c) Those in which the test piece edges are not waxed but the shape of the test piece is such that the

length is substantially reduced at a point midway between the loading edges in order to induce the

failure to occur away from those edges.

d) Those in which carefully cut rectangular pieces are tested with edges clamped to prevent the test

result from being influenced by "edge effects".

The dimensions of the test piece vary from one group to the other and, in group c), the methods vary

according to the shape and method of reducing the length and to whether or not the test piece is held in

a clamp during crushing.

The methods may not give the same numerical results, but it can be shown that most of them can be

used to predict the top­to­bottom compression strength which will be achieved when the board is

properly converted into a transport package.

This International Standard describes a method from group b) intended to be used for quality

measurement and quality specification purposes. This particular method is selected because it

correlates well with the top-to-bottom compression strength of the final transport package and

provides significantly higher results than unwaxed methods (a) because edge effects are avoided.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 13821:2020(E)
Corrugated fibreboard — Determination of edgewise crush
resistance — Waxed edge method
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the determination of the edgewise crush resistance of corrugated

fibreboard. The force is applied in the direction of the flute axis.

This method is applicable to single­wall (double­faced), double­wall, and triple­wall corrugated

fibreboard. It may also be used to test samples taken from corrugated cases and other converted

products.

While the method is applicable to waxed corrugated fibreboard, care must be taken that the heat used

in the waxing step does not affect the corrugated structure. This is controlled by observing that failure

during the test still occurs away from the loaded edges.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples

ISO 13820, Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard — Description and calibration of compression-testing

equipment
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.
ISO and IEC maintain terminolo
...

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