Management of terminology resources -- TermBase eXchange (TBX)

This document explains fundamental concepts and describes the metamodel, data categories, and XML styles: DCA (Data Category as Attribute) and DCT (Data Category as Tag). It also specifies the methodology for defining TBX dialects. The audience for this document is anyone wishing to create a new dialect compliant with TBX. This document can also be used to analyze and to understand a terminological data collection or to design a new terminology database that complies with international standards and best practices. Typical users are programmers, software developers, terminologists, analysts, and other language professionals. Intended application areas include translation and authoring. The TBX-Core dialect is described in detail in this document. All other industry-supported dialects are out of the scope of this document. NOTE TBX dialects are defined by industry stakeholders. Any materials needed to implement currently shared dialects are publicly available as self-contained industry specifications (see for instance the TBX Info website[15]).

Gestion des ressources terminologiques -- TermBase eXchange (TBX)

Upravljanje terminoloških virov - TermBase eXchange (TBX)

Ta dokument razlaga temeljne koncepte in opisuje metamodel, podatkovne kategorije ter sloge XML: DCA (podatkovna kategorija kot atribut) in DCT (podatkovna kategorija kot oznaka). Prav tako določa metodologijo za opredeljevanje formata TBX.
Dokument je namenjen vsem, ki želijo ustvariti nov format, skladen s TBX. Ta dokument je mogoče uporabiti tudi za analizo in razumevanje zbiranja terminoloških podatkov ali za oblikovanje nove terminološke zbirke podatkov, ki je v skladu z mednarodnimi standardi in dobro prakso. Tipični uporabniki dokumenta so programerji, razvijalci programske opreme, terminologi, analitiki in drugi jezikovni strokovnjaki. Predvidena področja uporabe vključujejo prevajanje in avtorska dela.
V tem dokumentu je podrobno opisan format TBX-Core. Vsi drugi formati, ki jih podpira industrija, ne spadajo na področje uporabe tega dokumenta.
OPOMBA: Format TBX opredeljujejo zainteresirane strani v industriji. Vsa gradiva, potrebna za uvedbo formatov v skupni rabi, so javno dostopna kot samostojne industrijske specifikacije (glej na primer spletno mesto TBX Info[15]).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Mar-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
01-Feb-2019
Completion Date
01-Apr-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 30042
Second edition
2019-04
Management of terminology
resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
Reference number
ISO 30042:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamental principles and concepts ........................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Data categories specified in the core structure module ...................................................................................... 6

5.3 Data categories specified in the data category modules ..................................................................................... 6

6 DCA and DCT styles ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Dialects ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Dialect naming ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Example of a dialect ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.4 Requirements for a dialect to be TBX-compliant ....................................................................................................... 8

7.5 Validating a TBX document instance.................................................................................................................................... 9

7.6 Requirements for compliant TBX agents.......................................................................................................................10

8 The core structure ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Metamodel ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.3 Position of elements within a concept entry ..............................................................................................................12

8.3.1 Elements that may appear at multiple levels .......................................................................................12

8.3.2 Elements that occur only at the term level .............................................................................................14

8.4 Typology of elements .....................................................................................................................................................................14

8.4.1 Elements that play a classification or grouping role ......................................................................14

8.4.2 Elements that represent data categories .................................................................................................15

8.4.3 Inline markup elements ..........................................................................................................................................15

8.5 Attributes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.1 type ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.2 xml: lang ................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.3 id and target ......................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.4 module ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.6 Types of text ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.7 Character sets and encoding ....................................................................................................................................................19

9 Defining data category modules........................................................................................................................................................19

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2 Naming the module ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

9.3 Selecting data categories .............................................................................................................................................................19

9.4 Defining data category properties ......................................................................................................................................20

9.5 Defining data category constraints.....................................................................................................................................20

9.6 Using modules ......................................................................................................................................................................................20

10 Referencing objects ........................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.2 Referencing a file that is embedded in the back matter ...................................................................................21

10.3 Referencing a file from the back matter .........................................................................................................................21

10.4 Referencing a file directly in the entry ............................................................................................................................21

10.5 Referencing an external source .............................................................................................................................................22

10.6 Referencing and documenting a bibliographic source ......................................................................................22

10.7 Referencing and documenting information about a person or organization ................................23

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 30042:2019(E)

10.8 Referencing original data from noteText entities ..................................................................................................23

Annex A (normative) Descriptions of the core-structure elements and attributes..........................................25

Annex B (informative) Data category names ............................................................................................................................................37

Annex C (informative) RelaxNG schemas for the core structure and TBX Module Description

(TBXMD) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 30042:2008), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— industry-defined dialects consisting of data category selections corresponding to the needs of

specific communities have been introduced;

— the XCS formalism has been removed and replaced with the requirement that the dialect be described

and its name be declared on the root element of every TBX document instance;

— the DTD for the core structure has been replaced with a schema language-neutral definition;

— this document, containing the essential core and normative content, has been separated from

ancillary content produced and distributed publicly by stakeholders;

— a simplified DCT (Data Category as Tag) style has been added alongside the traditional TBX style of

DCA (Data Category as Attribute);

— xml namespaces have been introduced as a means for declaring the data categories used in a given

TBX dialect (for DCT style).
[15]

NOTE Additional details about these and other changes are available on the TBX Info website .

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Introduction

This document defines a framework for representing structured terminological data, referred to as

TermBase eXchange (TBX). Within this framework, a variety of industry standards, known as dialects,

for specific types of terminology interchange scenarios and terminological data collections can be

defined.

TBX is designed to support various types of processes involving terminological data, including analysis,

descriptive representation, dissemination, and exchange in various computer environments. The

primary purpose of TBX is the exchange of terminological data. For example, it facilitates:

— integrating or converting terminological data from multiple sources;
— comparing the contents of various terminological data collections;

— querying multiple terminological data collections by passing data through a common intermediate

format on a batch or dynamic basis;
— placing data on an online site for download or public feedback;

— making terminology available dynamically in networked applications through a web service.

A TBX-compliant dialect can facilitate the exchange of terminological data between users, which

include people such as translators and writers, as well as applications and systems, such as computer

assisted translation tools and controlled authoring software. Therefore, it can be used for both human-

oriented and machine-oriented terminological data processing. In this manner, it can enable the flow of

terminological information between technologies and systems throughout the information production

cycle, both inside an organization and with outside service providers.

TBX document instances of the same defined TBX dialect are interoperable and exchangeable with

minimal loss or minimal need for negotiation, because they:
— adhere to the core structure;
— use, or have access to, the same data categories; and

— comply with the same dialect-specific constraints as other instances of the same dialect.

TBX document instances developed according to ISO 30042:2008 can be converted to comply with

the current version of TBX by identifying a dialect with which the document instance complies and

implementing the other changes in accordance with this document. A converter is available on the TBX

[15]
Info website for such purposes .

NOTE Supplemental resources are available to assist implementers and users of TBX dialects on the TBX

[15]
Info website .

TBX is limited in its ability to represent presentational markup (such as bold or italics). However,

presentational markup can be autogenerated from descriptive markup in a TBX document instance.

vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 30042:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — TermBase
eXchange (TBX)
1 Scope

This document explains fundamental concepts and describes the metamodel, data categories, and

XML styles: DCA (Data Category as Attribute) and DCT (Data Category as Tag). It also specifies the

methodology for defining TBX dialects.

The audience for this document is anyone wishing to create a new dialect compliant with TBX. This

document can also be used to analyze and to understand a terminological data collection or to design a

new terminology database that complies with international standards and best practices. Typical users

are programmers, software developers, terminologists, analysts, and other language professionals.

Intended application areas include translation and authoring.

The TBX-Core dialect is described in detail in this document. All other industry-supported dialects are

out of the scope of this document.

NOTE TBX dialects are defined by industry stakeholders. Any materials needed to implement currently

shared dialects are publicly available as self-contained industry specifications (see for instance the TBX Info

[15]
website ).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8601-1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

ISO 8601-2, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 2: Extensions

ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 21720, XLIFF (XML Localisation interchange file format)
ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at: http: //www .electropedia .org
3.1
attribute class
group of one or more related attributes
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 30042:2019(E)
3.2
child element
element that is subordinate to another element
3.3
classification element

element used to group data categories according to their function in a concept entry (3.5)

EXAMPLE , which expresses data categories for administrative information, such as type="originatingPerson">.

Note 1 to entry: Data categories are instantiated as the value of the type attribute used with a given classification

element.
3.4
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.5) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.29)
3.5
concept entry
terminological entry
entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.29) which contains the terminological data related to one concept

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified – new terms “concept entry” and “entry” added, synonym

“TE” deleted, preferred term now is “concept entry” instead of “terminological entry”, Note 1 to entry

deleted.]
3.6
core structure

common structure and data categories (3.8) that are used in all TBX dialects (3.12)

Note 1 to entry: The core structure is compliant with ISO 16642 (TMF).
3.7
core structure module
core module
TBX-Core module

data category module (3.9) that contains only those data categories (3.8) that are part of the core

structure (3.6)
3.8
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
3.9
data category module
module

list of permissible data categories (3.8) and constraints on them that are used in the design of a TBX-

compliant terminological data collection (3.29)

EXAMPLE The TBX-Core module, which includes the data categories and structure common to all TBX

dialects, the TBX-Min module, which adds a minimum number of data categories needed for simple glossaries,

and the TBX-Basic module, which provides for a richer set of data categories.
3.10
DCA
data category as attribute

style of representing TBX data whereby most data categories (3.8) are expressed as the value of a type

attribute on an XML element declared in the corresponding schema
EXAMPLE adjective.
3.11
DCT
data category as tag

style of representing TBX data whereby most data categories (3.8) are expressed as XML generic

identifiers
EXAMPLE adjective.
3.12
dialect

XML markup language that validates according to the core structure (3.6) of TBX and allows exactly

those data categories (3.8) at those levels specified by a particular data category module (3.9) or set of

data category modules and complies with all other relevant constraints

Note 1 to entry: “All other relevant constraints” refers to constraints that are necessary for the dialect in question

but that are not expressible in either the core structure or the data category modules, such as date formats or

conditional constraints. An example of this occurs in the dialect TBX-Basic, which requires a /definition/ OR a

/context/.
3.13
display name

name of a data category (3.8) as it appears on a software user interface or other medium

3.14
document instance
file containing concept entries (3.5) represented in a TBX dialect (3.12)
3.15
exchange
interchange

transaction involving exporting data from one termbase (3.28) and importing it into another termbase

3.16
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.29)

3.17
grouping element
XML element whose purpose is to group together a set of child elements (3.2)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 30042:2019(E)
3.18
object language
language being described
3.19
PID
persistent identifier

unique identifier that ensures permanent access for a digital object by providing access to it

independently of its physical location or current ownership

[SOURCE: ISO 24619:2011, 3.2.4, modified – “persistent identifier” made second preferred term, Note 1

to entry deleted.]
3.20
private dialect

dialect (3.12) intended for private use that has not been described on a publicly accessible website

3.21
public dialect
dialect (3.12) that has been described on a publicly accessible website
[15]
Note 1 to entry: An example of a publicly accessible website is TBX Info .
3.22
root element
first element in a TBX document instance (3.14)
Note 1 to entry: The root element is .
3.23
TBX agent

program or utility which generates, reads, edits, writes, processes, stores, renders or otherwise

manipulates TBX-compliant document instances (3.14)
3.24
TBX export

process of creating a TBX dialect (3.12) document instance (3.14) from a termbase (3.28) or its subset

3.25
TBX import

process of inserting terminological data from one TBX document instance (3.14) into an existing

termbase (3.29)

Note 1 to entry: The existing termbase can be empty or can already contain terminological entries.

3.26
TBX Module Description
TBXMD

formalism for identifying a set of data categories (3.8) and their constraints for a specific data category

module (3.9)
3.27
term component

one of the words of a multi-word term, or one of the components of a single-word term (such as a

morpheme)
3.28
termbase
terminology database
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.29)
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 30042:2019(E)
3.29
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.5) with associated metadata and documentary information

EXAMPLE A TBX document instance, ISO 1087.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified – in the definition, “concept entries” used instead of

“terminological entries”, Example added.]
3.30
working language

metalanguage used in concept entries (3.5) to describe object language (3.18) content

4 Fundamental principles and concepts

TBX refers to a framework consisting of two interacting components: a core structure and a formalism

for defining data category modules. The core structure is expressed in a schema definition language

such as RelaxNG (RNG). (The core is also represented by its own data category module.) This

component-based approach supports the varying types of terminological data, or data categories, that

are included in different terminological data collections. The approach mirrors the terminological

markup framework (TMF) in that the core structure shall reflect the abstract data model of TMF in

accordance with ISO 16642. In addition, it facilitates an explicit description of what any two dialects

within the TBX framework have in common (the core structure) and how they differ (expressed in their

respective data category modules). The combination of these two components defines a particular

dialect. “TBX” without a dialect indicator is not a file format, it is not a terminology markup language,

and it is not itself a dialect.

The TBX framework assumes that, because terminological data collections vary significantly, no one

dialect would satisfy all user requirements. All dialects within the TBX framework adhere to the core

structure, which is described in Clause 8. A RelaxNG schema for the core structure is referenced in

Annex C, and the elements and attributes are described in Annex A.

Dialects can differ with respect to which data categories are allowed, and at what levels of a concept

entry these data categories may occur. These constraints on the core structure are formally represented

in one or more data category modules.

A data category module, or simply module, is a list of permissible data categories and constraints on

them that are used in the design of a TBX-compliant dialect. Constraints are the permissible content of a

data category (including subsets of a standard picklist value domain) and the levels of the concept entry

where the data category may occur (see Clause 8).
[15]
NOTE Sample data category modules are available on the TBX Info website .

It is recommended that implementers of TBX adhere to ISO standards and industry guidelines

governing the principles and methodologies of terminology management and the content and quality of

terminological data collections, such as those described in Clause 2 and the Bibliography.

The information represented in a TBX document instance should be concept-oriented. The terms in a

single entry are assumed to be synonymous unless otherwise noted.

Furthermore, if two systems both fully support a given TBX dialect, then information in that dialect

can be preserved when terminological data is exported from one and imported into the other. In the

context of TBX, interoperability implies this preservation of data. When different dialects of TBX are

used by two systems, interoperability is reduced, and loss of data categories and their content can

occur. Thus, claiming compliance to TBX without indicating the dialect does not guarantee any degree

of interoperability.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 30042:2019(E)
5 Data categories
5.1 General
Data categories represent information abo
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 30042:2019
01-oktober-2019
Upravljanje terminoloških virov - TermBase eXchange (TBX)
Management of terminology resources -- TermBase eXchange (TBX)

Systèmes de gestion de la terminologie, de la connaissance et du contenu -- TermBase

eXchange (TBX)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 30042:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 30042:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 30042:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 30042:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 30042
Second edition
2019-04
Management of terminology
resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
Reference number
ISO 30042:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 30042:2019
ISO 30042:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 30042:2019
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamental principles and concepts ........................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Data categories ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Data categories specified in the core structure module ...................................................................................... 6

5.3 Data categories specified in the data category modules ..................................................................................... 6

6 DCA and DCT styles ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Dialects ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Dialect naming ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Example of a dialect ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.4 Requirements for a dialect to be TBX-compliant ....................................................................................................... 8

7.5 Validating a TBX document instance.................................................................................................................................... 9

7.6 Requirements for compliant TBX agents.......................................................................................................................10

8 The core structure ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Metamodel ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.3 Position of elements within a concept entry ..............................................................................................................12

8.3.1 Elements that may appear at multiple levels .......................................................................................12

8.3.2 Elements that occur only at the term level .............................................................................................14

8.4 Typology of elements .....................................................................................................................................................................14

8.4.1 Elements that play a classification or grouping role ......................................................................14

8.4.2 Elements that represent data categories .................................................................................................15

8.4.3 Inline markup elements ..........................................................................................................................................15

8.5 Attributes ..................................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.1 type ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.2 xml: lang ................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.3 id and target ......................................................................................................................................................................18

8.5.4 module ...................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.6 Types of text ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.7 Character sets and encoding ....................................................................................................................................................19

9 Defining data category modules........................................................................................................................................................19

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

9.2 Naming the module ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

9.3 Selecting data categories .............................................................................................................................................................19

9.4 Defining data category properties ......................................................................................................................................20

9.5 Defining data category constraints.....................................................................................................................................20

9.6 Using modules ......................................................................................................................................................................................20

10 Referencing objects ........................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

10.2 Referencing a file that is embedded in the back matter ...................................................................................21

10.3 Referencing a file from the back matter .........................................................................................................................21

10.4 Referencing a file directly in the entry ............................................................................................................................21

10.5 Referencing an external source .............................................................................................................................................22

10.6 Referencing and documenting a bibliographic source ......................................................................................22

10.7 Referencing and documenting information about a person or organization ................................23

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 30042:2019
ISO 30042:2019(E)

10.8 Referencing original data from noteText entities ..................................................................................................23

Annex A (normative) Descriptions of the core-structure elements and attributes..........................................25

Annex B (informative) Data category names ............................................................................................................................................37

Annex C (informative) RelaxNG schemas for the core structure and TBX Module Description

(TBXMD) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................43

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 30042:2019
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 30042:2008), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— industry-defined dialects consisting of data category selections corresponding to the needs of

specific communities have been introduced;

— the XCS formalism has been removed and replaced with the requirement that the dialect be described

and its name be declared on the root element of every TBX document instance;

— the DTD for the core structure has been replaced with a schema language-neutral definition;

— this document, containing the essential core and normative content, has been separated from

ancillary content produced and distributed publicly by stakeholders;

— a simplified DCT (Data Category as Tag) style has been added alongside the traditional TBX style of

DCA (Data Category as Attribute);

— xml namespaces have been introduced as a means for declaring the data categories used in a given

TBX dialect (for DCT style).
[15]

NOTE Additional details about these and other changes are available on the TBX Info website .

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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SIST ISO 30042:2019
ISO 30042:2019(E)
Introduction

This document defines a framework for representing structured terminological data, referred to as

TermBase eXchange (TBX). Within this framework, a variety of industry standards, known as dialects,

for specific types of terminology interchange scenarios and terminological data collections can be

defined.

TBX is designed to support various types of processes involving terminological data, including analysis,

descriptive representation, dissemination, and exchange in various computer environments. The

primary purpose of TBX is the exchange of terminological data. For example, it facilitates:

— integrating or converting terminological data from multiple sources;
— comparing the contents of various terminological data collections;

— querying multiple terminological data collections by passing data through a common intermediate

format on a batch or dynamic basis;
— placing data on an online site for download or public feedback;

— making terminology available dynamically in networked applications through a web service.

A TBX-compliant dialect can facilitate the exchange of terminological data between users, which

include people such as translators and writers, as well as applications and systems, such as computer

assisted translation tools and controlled authoring software. Therefore, it can be used for both human-

oriented and machine-oriented terminological data processing. In this manner, it can enable the flow of

terminological information between technologies and systems throughout the information production

cycle, both inside an organization and with outside service providers.

TBX document instances of the same defined TBX dialect are interoperable and exchangeable with

minimal loss or minimal need for negotiation, because they:
— adhere to the core structure;
— use, or have access to, the same data categories; and

— comply with the same dialect-specific constraints as other instances of the same dialect.

TBX document instances developed according to ISO 30042:2008 can be converted to comply with

the current version of TBX by identifying a dialect with which the document instance complies and

implementing the other changes in accordance with this document. A converter is available on the TBX

[15]
Info website for such purposes .

NOTE Supplemental resources are available to assist implementers and users of TBX dialects on the TBX

[15]
Info website .

TBX is limited in its ability to represent presentational markup (such as bold or italics). However,

presentational markup can be autogenerated from descriptive markup in a TBX document instance.

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SIST ISO 30042:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 30042:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — TermBase
eXchange (TBX)
1 Scope

This document explains fundamental concepts and describes the metamodel, data categories, and

XML styles: DCA (Data Category as Attribute) and DCT (Data Category as Tag). It also specifies the

methodology for defining TBX dialects.

The audience for this document is anyone wishing to create a new dialect compliant with TBX. This

document can also be used to analyze and to understand a terminological data collection or to design a

new terminology database that complies with international standards and best practices. Typical users

are programmers, software developers, terminologists, analysts, and other language professionals.

Intended application areas include translation and authoring.

The TBX-Core dialect is described in detail in this document. All other industry-supported dialects are

out of the scope of this document.

NOTE TBX dialects are defined by industry stakeholders. Any materials needed to implement currently

shared dialects are publicly available as self-contained industry specifications (see for instance the TBX Info

[15]
website ).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8601-1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

ISO 8601-2, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 2: Extensions

ISO 12620, Management of terminology resources — Data category specifications

ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 21720, XLIFF (XML Localisation interchange file format)
ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at: http: //www .electropedia .org
3.1
attribute class
group of one or more related attributes
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ISO 30042:2019(E)
3.2
child element
element that is subordinate to another element
3.3
classification element

element used to group data categories according to their function in a concept entry (3.5)

EXAMPLE , which expresses data categories for administrative information, such as type="originatingPerson">.

Note 1 to entry: Data categories are instantiated as the value of the type attribute used with a given classification

element.
3.4
complementary information

information supplementary to that described in concept entries (3.5) and shared across the

terminological data collection (3.29)
3.5
concept entry
terminological entry
entry

part of a terminological data collection (3.29) which contains the terminological data related to one concept

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.22, modified – new terms “concept entry” and “entry” added, synonym

“TE” deleted, preferred term now is “concept entry” instead of “terminological entry”, Note 1 to entry

deleted.]
3.6
core structure

common structure and data categories (3.8) that are used in all TBX dialects (3.12)

Note 1 to entry: The core structure is compliant with ISO 16642 (TMF).
3.7
core structure module
core module
TBX-Core module

data category module (3.9) that contains only those data categories (3.8) that are part of the core

structure (3.6)
3.8
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
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3.9
data category module
module

list of permissible data categories (3.8) and constraints on them that are used in the design of a TBX-

compliant terminological data collection (3.29)

EXAMPLE The TBX-Core module, which includes the data categories and structure common to all TBX

dialects, the TBX-Min module, which adds a minimum number of data categories needed for simple glossaries,

and the TBX-Basic module, which provides for a richer set of data categories.
3.10
DCA
data category as attribute

style of representing TBX data whereby most data categories (3.8) are expressed as the value of a type

attribute on an XML element declared in the corresponding schema
EXAMPLE adjective.
3.11
DCT
data category as tag

style of representing TBX data whereby most data categories (3.8) are expressed as XML generic

identifiers
EXAMPLE adjective.
3.12
dialect

XML markup language that validates according to the core structure (3.6) of TBX and allows exactly

those data categories (3.8) at those levels specified by a particular data category module (3.9) or set of

data category modules and complies with all other relevant constraints

Note 1 to entry: “All other relevant constraints” refers to constraints that are necessary for the dialect in question

but that are not expressible in either the core structure or the data category modules, such as date formats or

conditional constraints. An example of this occurs in the dialect TBX-Basic, which requires a /definition/ OR a

/context/.
3.13
display name

name of a data category (3.8) as it appears on a software user interface or other medium

3.14
document instance
file containing concept entries (3.5) represented in a TBX dialect (3.12)
3.15
exchange
interchange

transaction involving exporting data from one termbase (3.28) and importing it into another termbase

3.16
global information

technical and administrative information applying to the entire terminological data collection (3.29)

3.17
grouping element
XML element whose purpose is to group together a set of child elements (3.2)
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3.18
object language
language being described
3.19
PID
persistent identifier

unique identifier that ensures permanent access for a digital object by providing access to it

independently of its physical location or current ownership

[SOURCE: ISO 24619:2011, 3.2.4, modified – “persistent identifier” made second preferred term, Note 1

to entry deleted.]
3.20
private dialect

dialect (3.12) intended for private use that has not been described on a publicly accessible website

3.21
public dialect
dialect (3.12) that has been described on a publicly accessible website
[15]
Note 1 to entry: An example of a publicly accessible website is TBX Info .
3.22
root element
first element in a TBX document instance (3.14)
Note 1 to entry: The root element is .
3.23
TBX agent

program or utility which generates, reads, edits, writes, processes, stores, renders or otherwise

manipulates TBX-compliant document instances (3.14)
3.24
TBX export

process of creating a TBX dialect (3.12) document instance (3.14) from a termbase (3.28) or its subset

3.25
TBX import

process of inserting terminological data from one TBX document instance (3.14) into an existing

termbase (3.29)

Note 1 to entry: The existing termbase can be empty or can already contain terminological entries.

3.26
TBX Module Description
TBXMD

formalism for identifying a set of data categories (3.8) and their constraints for a specific data category

module (3.9)
3.27
term component

one of the words of a multi-word term, or one of the components of a single-word term (such as a

morpheme)
3.28
termbase
terminology database
database comprising a terminological data collection (3.29)
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3.29
terminological data collection
TDC

resource consisting of concept entries (3.5) with associated metadata and documentary information

EXAMPLE A TBX document instance, ISO 1087.

[SOURCE: ISO 16642:2017, 3.21, modified – in the definition, “concept entries” used instead of

“terminological entries”, Example added.]
3.30
working language

metalanguage used in concept entries (3.5) to describe object language (3.18) content

4 Fundamental principles and concepts

TBX refers to a framework consisting of two interacting components: a core structure and a formalism

for defining data category modules. The core structure is expressed in a schema definition language

such as RelaxNG (RNG). (The core is also represented by its own data category module.) This

component-based approach supports the varying types of terminological data, or data categories, that

are included in different terminological data collections. The approach mirrors the terminological

markup framework (TMF) in that the core structure shall reflect the abstract data model of TMF in

accordance with ISO 16642. In addition, it facilitates an explicit description of what any two dialects

within the TBX framework have in common (the core structure) and how they differ (expressed in their

respective data category modules). The combination of these two components defines a particular

dialect. “TBX” without a dialect indicator is not a file format, it is not a terminology markup language,

and it is not itself a dialect.

The TBX framework assumes that, because terminological data collections vary significantly, no one

dialect would satisfy all user requirements. All dialects within the TBX framework adhere to the core

structure, which is described in Clause 8. A RelaxNG schema for the core structure is referenced in

Annex C, and the elements and attributes are described in Annex A.

Dialects can differ with respect to which data categories are allowed, and at what levels of a concept

entry these data categories may occur. These constraints on the core structure are formally represented

in one or more data category modules.

A data category module, or simply module, is a list of permissible data categories and constraints on

them that are used in the design of a TBX-compliant dialect. Constraints are the permissible content of a

data category (including subsets of a standard picklist value domain) and the levels of the concept entry

where the data category may occur (see Clause 8).
[15]
NOTE Sample data category modules are available on the TBX Info website .

It is recommended that implementers of TBX adhere to ISO standards and industry guidelines

governing th
...

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