Smart community infrastructures — Principles and requirements for performance metrics

ISO/TS 37151:2015 gives principles and specifies requirements for the · definition, · identification, · optimization, and · harmonization of community infrastructure performance metrics, and gives recommendations for analysis, including · smartness, · interoperability, · synergy, · resilience, · safety, and · security of community infrastructures. Community infrastructures include, but are not limited to, energy, water, transportation, waste, and ICT. The principles and requirements of ISO/TS 37151:2015 are applicable to communities of any size sharing geographic areas that are planning, commissioning, managing, and assessing all or any element of its community infrastructures. However, the selection and the importance of metrics or (key) performance indicators of community infrastructures is a result of the application of ISO/TS 37151:2015 and depends on the characteristics of each community. In ISO/TS 37151:2015, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities as defined in ISO/TC 268.

Infrastructures communautaires intelligentes — Principes et exigences pour la métrique des performances

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Publication Date
06-May-2015
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9092 - International Standard to be revised
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 37151
First edition
2015-05-01
Smart community infrastructures —
Principles and requirements for
performance metrics
Infrastructures communautaires intelligentes — Principes et
exigences pour la métrique des performances
Reference number
ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2 Possible use ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Support tool for community managers ........................................................................................................ 4

4.2.3 Facilitation tool ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Ideal properties to be achieved ................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Relating community issues onto community infrastructure performances ...................................... 6

5.4 Possible stakeholders to be considered ............................................................................................................................ 6

6 Requirements for common approach to identify metrics ......................................................................................... 7

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Requirements for understanding the perspectives of key stakeholders for

community infrastructures .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Residents perspective ........................................................................................................................................... ....10

6.2.3 Community managers perspective ...............................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Environmental perspective..................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Requirements for identifying needs ..................................................................................................................................10

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Needs from the residents perspective ........................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Needs from the community managers perspective ........................................................................10

6.3.4 Needs from the environmental perspective ..........................................................................................11

6.4 Guidance for translating needs into performance characteristics ..........................................................11

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 Performance characteristics from the residents perspective ................................................11

6.4.3 Performance characteristics from the community managers perspective ................12

6.4.4 Performance characteristics from the environmental perspective ..................................13

6.5 Requirements for identifying metrics ..............................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Examples of applicability of the step-wise approach in Clause 6 to

existing key performance indicators for particular types of community infrastructures ...16

Annex B (informative) Example of relating community issues onto community

infrastructure performances ................................................................................................................................................................49

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 268, Sustainable development in communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
Introduction

Communities have various goals to achieve, including, e.g. quality of life, economic growth, poverty

reduction, antipollution, congestion mitigation.

Community infrastructures such as energy, water, transportation, waste, information and communications

technology (ICT), etc. are fundamental to support the operations and activities of communities.

Investment in community infrastructures is an important enabler for communities in achieving the

internationally recognized community goals, e.g. the United Nations Millennium Development Goals

1) 2)

(MDGs) and promoting pro-poor growth. The demand for community infrastructures will continue

to expand significantly in the decades ahead, driven by major factors of change, such as population

growth, and urbanization. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

(OECD) report “Infrastructure 2030,” total cumulative infrastructure requirements amount to about

USD 53 trillion over 2010/2030.

It has long been argued that human activity is surpassing the capacity of the Earth. The imperative for

further infrastructure (e.g. improving living standards and addressing resource efficiency) sometimes

conflicts with a path to sustainability. As a result, there is a need for community infrastructures to

contribute to sustainability and resilience of communities more effectively and efficiently by balancing

multiple perspectives and integrating decision making. Such solutions are often referred to as “smart.”

A number of plans and projects to build “smart cities” are currently underway. In addition, there are

increases in international trade for community infrastructure products and services including solution-

providing services.

ISO deliverables are an important source of technological information. ISO deliverables help governments

and businesses of all shapes and sizes to work more efficiently, increase productivity, increase credibility

and confidence, and access new markets. For example, as they define the performances that products

and services have to meet in the global markets, ISO deliverables help developing countries or small and

medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) take part fairly in international trade.

The purpose of standardization in the field of smart community infrastructures is to promote the

international trade of community infrastructure products and services and disseminate information

about leading-edge technologies to improve sustainability in communities by establishing harmonized

product standards. The users and associated benefits of these metrics are illustrated in Figure 1.

This Technical Specification gives principles and specifies requirements for community infrastructure

performance metrics and gives recommendations for analysis of community infrastructures.

It is expected that this Technical Specification will be useful to the following individuals/groups:

— national and local governments;
— regional organizations;
— community planners;
— developers;

— community infrastructure operators (e.g. in the field of energy, water, transportation, waste, ICT);

— community infrastructure vendors (e.g. constructors, engineering firms, system integrators or

component manufacturers);
— non-governmental organizations (e.g. consumer groups).

1) All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve

these goals by 2015. One of the main outcomes of the Rio+20 Conference was the agreement by member States to

launch a process to develop a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will build upon the Millennium

Development Goals and converge with the post 2015 development.

2) Stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty).

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Contribution
ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)

Using a model of the community functions in Table 1, this Technical Specification focuses on assessing

the performance of infrastructure layer and respects the societal or cultural diversity of communities

as traits of each community.
As illustrated in Table 1:

— Functions of community infrastructures are fundamental to support the other two layers.

— Products and services of community infrastructures are more technology-oriented and more

internationally-tradable than those in other layers and therefore appropriate for international

standardization.
Table 1 — Layers of a community
Layers Examples of functions
education, healthcare, public safety and security, tourism,
Community services
etc.
residences, commercial buildings, ofice buildings,
Community facilities
factories, hospitals, schools, recreation facilities, etc.
Community infrastructures energy, water, transportation, waste, ICT, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 37150:2014, Introduction]

NOTE 1 Because of the diversity of communities, it is not realistic to apply ‘one-size-fits-all’ solutions.

NOTE 2 This Technical Specification considers not only built or constructed community infrastructures but

also utilization of natural systems (e.g. green infrastructure which uses natural hydrologic features to manage

water and provide environmental and community benefits).

NOTE 3 This Technical Specification recognizes two types of ICT: The first type is the ICT as community

infrastructures, e.g. telecommunication, common database, etc. The second type is the ICT which are integrated

within a facility or equipment as a means for control. This Technical Specification is focused on the former type

of ICT although the latter type of ICT is often a useful means to achieve smart communities or smart community

infrastructures.
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
Beneits:
Owners and operators
-Easier planning;
Countries, nations, governments,
-Easier infrastructure procurement;
-Easier purchase decision;
investors, developers, etc.
-Easier management of multiple providers
Standardized metrics
Facilitation
Community infrastructures
interaction
as integrable and scalable
products
Beneits:
Providers
-Better understanding of owner needs;
Vendors,
-More eficient and effective global sales;
consultants, etc
-More eficient and effective R&D
NOTE SOURCE: ISO/TR 37150:2014, “Introduction”, modified.
Figure 1 — Users of the metrics and associated benefits
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Principles and
requirements for performance metrics
1 Scope
This Technical Specification gives principles and specifies requirements for the
— definition,
— identification,
— optimization, and
— harmonization

of community infrastructure performance metrics, and gives recommendations for analysis, including

— smartness,
— interoperability,
— synergy,
— resilience,
— safety, and
— security
of community infrastructures.

Community infrastructures include, but are not limited to, energy, water, transportation, waste, and ICT.

The principles and requirements of this Technical Specification are applicable to communities of any

size sharing geographic areas that are planning, commissioning, managing, and assessing all or any

element of its community infrastructures. However, the selection and the importance of metrics or (key)

performance indicators of community infrastructures is a result of the application of this Technical

Specification and depends on the characteristics of each community.

In this Technical Specification, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant

to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience

of communities as defined in ISO/TC 268.

NOTE 1 This Technical Specification recognizes that solutions for similar problems in communities in different

economic situations (e.g. developed and developing countries) can call for different importance of metrics or

performance indicators of community infrastructures. This Technical Specification is not a recommendation

document for best practices. This Technical Specification does not recommend, e.g. replicating existing specific

smart infrastructures or leveling them up to the standards of such model projects at a large scale. It is left to the

users whether setting targets or not when applying this Technical Specification.

NOTE 2 Though this Technical Specification does not address principles or requirements specific to a

particular type of community infrastructures, compatibility of this Technical Specification with existing

International Standards for a particular type of community infrastructure (e.g. ISO 24510:2007, ISO 24511:2007,

and ISO 24512:2007) was considered.

NOTE 3 This Technical Specification does not address measurement, reporting or verification. For possible

deliverables related to this Technical Specification, see ISO/TR 37150:2014, Clause 6. This Technical Specification

is not into comparing different communities, but to allow communities to assess community infrastructures

more effectively.
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
2 Normative references
There are no normative references.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
community

group of people with an arrangement of responsibilities, activities and relationships

Note 1 to entry: In the context of this Technical Specification, a community shares geographic areas.

[SOURCE: ISO 24510:2007, 2.7, modified and adapted to sustainable development and resilience of

communities.]
3.2
community infrastructure

system of facilities, equipment and services that support the operations and activities of communities

Note 1 to entry: Such community infrastructures include, but are not limited to, energy, water, transportation,

waste and information and communication technologies (ICT).

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2005, 3.3.3 “infrastructure,” modified and adapted to communities.]

3.3
smart community infrastructure

community infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated, and

maintained to contribute to sustainable development and resilience of the community

Note 1 to entry: It is the community infrastructure that is considered to be “smart” in this Technical Specification

and not the community.

Note 2 to entry: Sustainable development tends to require community infrastructures that meet multiple, often

contradictory, needs at a same time.

Note 3 to entry: Information and communication technologies (ICT) is an enabler but not a precondition for

achieving smart community infrastructures.
3.4
sustainability

state of the global system, including environmental, social and economic aspects, in which the needs

of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

Note 1 to entry: The environmental, social, and economic aspects interact, are interdependent and are often

referred to as the three dimensions of sustainability.
Note 2 to entry: Sustainability is the goal of sustainable development (3.5).
[SOURCE: ISO Guide 82:2014, 3.1]
3.5
sustainable development

development that meets the environmental, social, and economic needs of the present without

compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Note 1 to entry: Derived from the Brundtland Report.
[SOURCE: ISO Guide 82:2014, 3.2]
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
3.6
environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora,

fauna, humans, and their interrelation

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2009, 3.1]
3.7
environmental impact

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an

organization’s environmental aspects
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2004, 3.7]
3.8
interoperability

ability of systems to provide services to and accept services from other systems and to use the services

so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together
[SOURCE: ISO 21007-1:2005, 2.30]
3.9
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation

from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1]
3.10
life-cycle cost

total investment in product development, manufacturing, test, distribution, operation, support,

training, and disposal
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 26702:2007, 3.1.21]
3.11
metric
the defined measurement method and the measurement scale

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14598-1:1999, 4.20, modified — Note 1 and Note 2 have been removed.]

3.12
pro-poor growth

stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty)

Note 1 to entry: Pro-poor growth can be defined as absolute, where the benefits from overall growth in the

economy, or relative, which refers to targeted efforts to increase the growth specifically among poor people.

EXAMPLE A pace and pattern of economic growth that helps poor women and men to participate in, contribute

to and benefit from.
[SOURCE: OECD, 2008]
3.13
provider

person or organization involved in or associated with the delivery of products and/or services

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 12773-1:2009, 2.40, modified.]
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)
3.14
safety
freedom from unacceptable risk
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.14, modified.]
4 Overview
4.1 Outline

This subclause provides an overview of Clause 4 to Clause 6 and annexes of this Technical Specification.

4.2 indicates possible uses of this Technical Specification.

Clause 5 specifies the principles which provide the conceptual backbone to the definition, identification,

optimization, and harmonization of community infrastructure performance metrics. In the

understanding of requirements and guidance described in Clause 6, these principles shall be read first

by all readers of this Technical Specification because this clause is the conceptual backbone to the whole

document including requirements.

Clause 6 provides the requirements and guidance for defining, identifying, optimizing and harmonizing

smart community infrastructure performance metrics. 6.1 introduces a step-wise approach to identify

community infrastructure performance metrics as a requirement. 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, and 6.5 provide

requirements and guidance of conducting each step of the approach required in 6.1.

Annex A provides examples of the applicability of the step-wise approach to existing key performance

indicators for specific types of community infrastructures.

Annex B provides an example of relating community issues onto community infrastructure performances.

4.2 Possible use
4.2.1 General

This subclause describes non-exhaustive possible uses of this Technical Specification. The users and

associated benefits of these metrics are illustrated in Figure 1.
4.2.2 Support tool for community managers

This Technical Specification is intended to be used as a support tool for community managers, e.g.:

— to align the relationship between community issues and infrastructure performances;

— to prioritize investments in new community infrastructure and areas for improvement in existing

community infrastructures among the different types of community infrastructures (e.g. to point

out where to reach the highest effectiveness for investments in the community infrastructure by

taking multiple perspectives into account);

— to identify metrics applied for the purpose of measurements of dynamic data that allow management

and feedback to improve the community in terms of utilization and sustainability.

4.2.3 Facilitation tool

This Technical Specification is intended to be used as a facilitation tool for both owners and operators,

and providers of community infrastructure products and services, e.g.:

— to serve as a framework for discussion on the performances of community infrastructures to be

introduced;
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ISO/TS 37151:2015(E)

— to provide a common language among multiple stakeholders, including owners and operators, and

providers of community infrastructure products and services, by helping identify performance

characteristics of community infrastructures to contribute to community priorities when they

discuss community issues and the introduction or improvement of community infrastructures;

— to help owners and operators compare multiple proposals of the introduction or improvement of

community infrastructure products and services from multiple providers in terms of performances;

NOTE This Technical Specification does not require its users to set targets.
5 Principles
5.1 General

This clause specifies the principles which provide the conceptual backbone to the definition, identification,

optimization, and harmonization of community infrastructure performance metrics. 5.2 introduces

the ideal properties to be considered in the process of defining or identifying a set of community

infrastructure performance metrics. 5.3 requires relating performance characteristics to community

issues/priorities. 5.4 addresses the stakeholders of communities to be considered in the definition,

identification, optimization, and harmonization of community infrastructure performance metrics.

5.2 Ideal properties to be achieved

In the definition, identification, optimization or harmonization of community infrastructure performance

metrics, the following ideal properties of smart community infrastructure performance metrics should

be considered:
— be harmonized;

— include items useful for as many stakeholders as possible involved in trades of community infrastructure

products and services (e.g. local governments, developers, suppliers, investors, and users);

— facilitate evaluation of the technical performance of community infrastructures, contributing to

sustainability and resilience of communities;

— be applicable to different stages of the development of communities and community infrastructures;

— reflect the dynamic properties of the community infrastructures;

— be selected with consideration for the synergies and trade-offs of multiple issues or aspects that

a community faces, such as environmental impacts and quality of community services. Only

addressing a single issue or aspect might not be considered smart;

— focus on advanced features of community infrastructures such as interoperability, expandability,

and efficiency rather than the status-quo;

— be applicable to a diverse range of communities (e.g. geographical location, sizes, economic

structures, levels of economic development, stages of infrastructure development) and a diversity

of individuals within communities i.e. considering full range of people (e.g. age, gender, income,

disability, ethnicity, etc.);

— allow consideration of multiple community infrastructures (e.g. energy, water, transportation,

waste, ICT) that support the operations and activities of communities;
— allow technologically implementable solutions;

— allow a holistic perspective of multiple community infrastructures. (More specifically, to consider

an integrated system which includes the interaction and coordination of multiple community

infrastructures);
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ISO/TS 37
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