Space systems -- Programme management -- Requirements management

This document presents the requirements for requirements management (RM) for space projects. This document addresses the space programme/project management requirements, applicable through a top-down approach in a contractual relationship between customers and suppliers. The objective of this document is to state and establish a common reference framework for all the customers and suppliers in the space sector to deploy requirements management for all space products and projects. This document on requirements management includes — a definition of the requirements management scope for the space sector, — the standard processes for requirements management within the product lifecycle management, and — a set of rules for requirements management activities to be implemented by the actors (customers and suppliers), including rules derived from best practices. The primary target audience for this document includes — the requirements management/systems engineering process owners of the customers and suppliers, — the programme/project managers managing the space programmes, and — the chief engineers and the quality managers. The term "programme" is understood as a group of several projects. Both "programme" and "project" can be used in the same context throughout this document. In addition, this document allows customer/supplier flexibility in its implementation and tailoring.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Management de programme -- Management des Exigences

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Status
Published
Publication Date
03-May-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-May-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16404
Second edition
2020-05
Space systems — Programme
management — Requirements
management
Systèmes spatiaux — Management de programme — Management
des Exigences
Reference number
ISO 16404:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Objective and scope of requirements management ........................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Objective of requirements management .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Scope and interfaces........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Requirements management scope ................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Interfaces and support for other disciplines ........................................................................................... 5

6 Requirements management overall process ........................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Capture needs and develop requirements ...................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Allocation and flow down requirements .......................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Validate requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.5 Verify design against requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 9

6.6 Verify product against requirements ................................................................................................................................... 9

6.7 Requirements change management ..................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Requirements management plan .....................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Functional and technical specifications .........................................................................................................................10

7.3 Requirements management plan .........................................................................................................................................10

8 Rules for requirements management ..........................................................................................................................................11

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Rules for deployment of requirements management activities ................................................................11

8.3 Rules for requirements management ...............................................................................................................................12

8.4 Key performance indicators .....................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Requirements management plan template ..................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee 20, Aircraft and space vehicles, Subcommittee

SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16404:2013), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— The terms and definitions have been updated to be consistent with ISO 10795.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
Introduction

There is a consensus that successful aerospace programmes/projects depend on meeting the needs and

requirements of the stakeholders/customers. When the requirements are for a complex system or for a

system that may take many years to be developed, a formal requirements management (RM) process is

mandatory and justified.

Requirements management concerns the collection, analysis, and validation of requirements with all

the communications and negotiations inherent in working with people.

This document will help to clarify and enhance current practices to improve programme management.

It is intended to be used by space programmes when establishing, performing, or evaluating

requirements management processes in the space sector.

This document describes requirements management functions and principles and defines a common

requirements management terminology for use with any product line.

Requirements management is an integral element of any programme, but, in space, it is particularly

important due to
— specific environmental conditions in space,
— a need for a high level of performance,
— a limited number of models,
— limited access to the product during operations,
— quasi-impossibility of repairing in the case of failure during flight,
— often high complexity of the organization, and
— associated high costs.

The deployment of this standardized common set of requirements management is intended to

encourage and facilitate international space cooperation.
Annex A gives the general template for a requirements management plan.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16404:2020(E)
Space systems — Programme management —
Requirements management
1 Scope

This document presents the requirements for requirements management (RM) for space projects.

This document addresses the space programme/project management requirements, applicable through

a top-down approach in a contractual relationship between customers and suppliers.

The objective of this document is to state and establish a common reference framework for all the

customers and suppliers in the space sector to deploy requirements management for all space products

and projects.
This document on requirements management includes
— a definition of the requirements management scope for the space sector,

— the standard processes for requirements management within the product lifecycle management, and

— a set of rules for requirements management activities to be implemented by the actors (customers

and suppliers), including rules derived from best practices.
The primary target audience for this document includes

— the requirements management/systems engineering process owners of the customers and suppliers,

— the programme/project managers managing the space programmes, and
— the chief engineers and the quality managers.

The term "programme" is understood as a group of several projects. Both “programme” and “project”

can be used in the same context throughout this document.

In addition, this document allows customer/supplier flexibility in its implementation and tailoring.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
ISO 10795, Space systems — Programme management and quality — Vocabulary

ISO 14300-1, Space systems — Programme management — Part 1: Structuring of a project

ISO 21351, Space systems — Functional and technical specifications
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO 9000, ISO 10795 and the

following apply.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16404:2020(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
design verification

evaluation of the implementation of the design (architecture, components) against the requirements

(3.5) to determine that they can be met
Note 1 to entry: This is compliant with ISO 9001 verification.
3.2
product lifecycle

description of all stages of the product throughout its life starting from the expression of its need until

the disposal, whatever the form is
3.3
product verification

evaluation of the implementation of the product against the requirements (3.5) to determine that they

have been met
Note 1 to entry: This is compliant with ISO 9001 verification.
3.4
qualification

act or conduct by the supplier to provide evidences to prove that design, manufacturing (including

manufacturing process) of hardware/software is adequate to fulfil all requirements (3.5) under

required environment conditions

Note 1 to entry: This may be implemented by analysis, test, inspection, or demonstration.

[SOURCE: ISO 10795:2019, 3.183]
3.5
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and

interested parties, that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.

Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.

Note 3 to entry: A qualifier can be used to denote a specific type of requirement, e.g. product requirement, quality

management requirement, customer requirement, quality requirement.

Note 4 to entry: Requirements can be generated by different interested parties or by the organization itself.

Note 5 to entry: It can be necessary for achieving high customer satisfaction to fulfil an expectation of a customer

even if it is neither stated nor generally implied or obligatory.

Note 6 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system

standards given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. The original

definition has been modified by adding Notes 3 to 5 to entry.
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.6.4]
3.6
requirements baseline

set of requirements (3.5) that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the

basis for further development, and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures

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ISO 16404:2020(E)
3.7
requirements management

discipline that covers all the tasks that are performed to manage requirements (3.5), such as gathering,

developing, organizing, tracing, analysing, reviewing, allocating, changing, and validating requirement

objects, as well as managing documents and databases that contain them with the purpose of defining

and delivering the right product or service
3.8
requirements management plan
RM plan

management plan which describes all the activities related to requirements management (3.7) for

a specific project or programme that includes the requirement (3.5) cascading activity and the

requirements management interaction with configuration management and functional analysis

Note 1 to entry: This plan describes the activities that need to be performed to support the verification and

validation activities in order that the design and product can be verified against requirements.

3.9
requirement validation

set of activities to ensure that requirements (3.5) are correct and complete so that the product meets

upper-level requirements and user needs
3.10
stakeholder

customer, user, person who will receive the goods or services and is the direct beneficiaries of the

systems, or other interested party who affects or is affected by the project, providing overarching

constraints within which the customers' needs should be achieved

[SOURCE: ISO 18676:2017, 3.9, modified — The definition has been editorial updated to define

"stakeholder" in its singular form.]
3.11
systems engineering

interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform a

set of stakeholder (3.10) needs, expectations, and constraints into a solution and to support that solution

throughout its life
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24748-1:2018, 3.57]
3.12
traceability
ability to trace the history, application or location of an object

Note 1 to entry: When considering a product or a service, traceability can relate to:

— the origin of materials and parts;
— the processing history;
— the distribution and location of the product or service after delivery.

Note 2 to entry: In the field of metrology, the definition in ISO/IEC Guide 99 is the accepted definition.

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.6.13]
4 Abbreviated terms
The following abbreviated terms are used in this document.
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
CM configuration management
KPI key performance indicators
PLM product lifecycle management
RM requirements management
ROI return on investment
SE systems engineering
SMART specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and traceable
TBC to be confirmed
TBD to be defined
V&V validation and verification
5 Objective and scope of requirements management
5.1 Objective of requirements management

The objective of requirements management is to ensure that stakeholders' needs (customers, users,

system's operating environment, trade and marketing, regulations, etc.) are understood, agreed

upon, and realized (i.e. that the final design and the delivered products fulfil stakeholders' needs).

The best opportunity for requirements management to influence a good outcome of the project is an

early implementation. Greatest return on investment (ROI) of requirements management is if it is

implemented early.
5.2 Scope and interfaces
5.2.1 Requirements management scope

a) Requirements management is a transversal activity that lasts for the whole product lifecycle.

Requirements management shall be started as early as possible and shall be sustained through all

the phases of the project, including
1) concept and definition,
2) design and development,
3) production,
4) support, and
5) disposal.

b) Requirements management is a discipline that shall be applied to all engineering domains.

Requirements management shall, as a minimum, apply to technical requirements, although non-

technical requirements may also be managed.

c) Requirements management covers the following high-level functional processes described in

Clause 6:
1) capture the needs and develop the requirements;
2) allocate and flow down the requirements;
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ISO 16404:2020(E)
3) validate the requirements;
4) verify the design against the requirements;
5) verify the product against the requirements;
6) manage the requirement changes.

d) Requirements management is an essential part of systems engineering. It is strongly linked to all

elements of systems engineering.
e) The major objects managed by requirements management are

1) “requirement” (object to be detailed with attributes such as stakeholder, source, rationale,

identification, author, status, allocation to design, and statement of the verification method),

2) “links” (object to be detailed as the link between requirements, but also links from/to other

objects enabling requirements management to reach its primary objective and ensuring that

stakeholders' needs are understood
...

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