Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Reading and display of ORM by mobile devices

ISO/IEC 16480:2015 specifies a method to assess the symbol quality rendered on electronic displays (i.e. the symbol produces its own light) when the reading device is a two-dimensional bar code imager. In addition, this international standard specifies a method to assess the quality of symbols that are intended to be read with general-purpose cameras in ambient lighting conditions. Further, this international standard describes modifications, which are to be considered in conjunction with the symbol quality methodology when applied to a particular symbology specification as defined in ISO/IEC 15415 and ISO/IEC 15416. It defines alternative illumination conditions, display pixel conditions and the reporting of the grading results. This document also describes appropriate ranges of symbol X-dimensions.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et capture de données -- Lecture et affichage de l'ORM par dispositifs mobiles

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Aug-2015
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2020
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015 - Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Reading and display of ORM by mobile devices
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 16480
First edition
2015-08-15
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — Reading and display of
ORM by mobile devices
Technologies de l’information — Techniques automatiques
d’identification et capture de données — Lecture et affichage de
l’ORM par dispositifs mobiles
Reference number
ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Symbol quality produced on electronic displays (MQR) .................................................................................... 2

5.1.1 Reading and illumination conditions ............................................................................................................. 3

5.1.2 Display pixel conditions ........................................................................................................................................... .. 3

5.1.3 Appropriate range of symbol X-dimensions ............................................................................................ 3

5.1.4 Capturing an image ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.5 Grading an image ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.6 Reporting the grading results ............................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Quality of symbols that are intended to be read with general-purpose cameras in

ambient lighting conditions (MBR) ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 Reading and illumination conditions ............................................................................................................. 6

5.2.2 Appropriate ranges of symbol X-dimensions .......................................................................................... 7

5.2.3 X-dimension recommendation (MBR2 and MBR3) ........................................................................... 7

5.2.4 Reading angle recommendation (MBR3) ................................................................................................... 8

5.2.5 Verifier setup ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.6 Symbol graphics ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.7 Quiet zone .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.8 Grading an image ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.9 Reporting the grading results ............................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Applications of MQR and MBR ....................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.
iv © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
Introduction

This is a technical engineering document intended for verifier manufacturers and application specification

developers for two distinct scanning environments. One is when a bar code is sent to a mobile device or

other display device (MQR) for reading by a bar code scanner (generally used for personal applications

such as access control and coupons). The other is when a mobile device is used to read a bar code (MBR)

with its internal photographic camera from a printed or electronically displayed symbol (generally used

for advertising where the mobile device runs an application to access the internet).

© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and
data capture techniques — Reading and display of ORM by
mobile devices
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a method to assess the symbol quality rendered on electronic

displays (i.e. the symbol produces its own light) when the reading device is a two-dimensional bar code

imager.

In addition, this international standard specifies a method to assess the quality of symbols that are

intended to be read with general-purpose cameras in ambient lighting conditions.

Further, this international standard describes modifications, which are to be considered in conjunction

with the symbol quality methodology when applied to a particular symbology specification as defined

in ISO/IEC 15415 and ISO/IEC 15416. It defines alternative illumination conditions, display pixel

conditions and the reporting of the grading results. This document also describes appropriate ranges of

symbol X-dimensions.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15415, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar

code symbol print quality test specification — Two-dimensional symbols

ISO/IEC 15416, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar

code print quality test specification — Linear symbols

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the

following apply.
3.1
MQR

application environment where a bar code symbol is rendered on an electronic display such as found on

a typical mobile device and is intended to be read by a bar code scanner
Note 1 to entry: MQR is not an acronym.
3.2
MBR

application environment where a bar code symbol is intended to be read with a general-purpose camera

such as that found on a typical mobile device in ambient lighting conditions
Note 1 to entry: MBR is not an acronym.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
L Luminance
Navg Average noise (used to calculate QZN)
QZN Quiet Zone Noise
5 Requirements
5.1 Symbol quality produced on electronic displays (MQR)

Bar code symbols are displayed on mobile device screens, generally, with device-owner specific

information. See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Symbol displayed on mobile devices

Figure 1 shows a bar code symbol sent to a mobile device typically via the internet containing owner-

specific information. The symbol is intended to be presented to an imager and read with the light

produced by the mobile device.

Bar code symbols produced on electronic displays, generally, are constructed with pixels that emit light

and pixels that block the light. See Figure 2.
2 © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 16480:2015(E)
Figure 2 — Magnified portion of Figure 1

NOTE Figure 2 shows a magnified portion of the bar code displayed on the screen (see Figure 1) of a mobile

device showing the individual pixels of the screen.
5.1.1 Reading and illumination conditions

Generally, mobile devices do not have a diffuse reflective surface. Therefore it is generally not successful

to attempt to read the bar code with a flying spot device (e.g. a visible laser beam).

Generally, mobile devices have a flat polished screen surface (e.g. glass) that is highly reflective.

Consequently it is not generally appropriate for a bar code scanning device to illuminate the surface.

In addition, generally, the only type of scanning devices capable of reading images produced on mobile

devices contains linear or area sensors or arrays and are sometimes called “linear imagers”, “2D

imagers” or simply “imagers”.

Generally, mobile devices produce light (i.e. backlighting) that is used directly by imagers to read

symbols on the screen. The amount of backlight produced is called Luminescence. Luminescence is

measured with an optometer (luminance-meter) set to the units candelas per metre squared (cd/m ).

The optometer shall be configured so that the only light collected is from pixels on the display at their

maximum output.

Mobile devices should produce background illumination of greater than 90 cd/m for dependable scanner

performance. Displays with illumination less than 40 cd/m may not be readable by some scanners.

5.1.2 Display pixel conditions

The pixels on a mobile device screen should be controlled directly and individually in order to produce

a readable symbol. Specifically a black module should be rendered with exactly the same number of

pixels as what would be a white module of the same size.

For instance, in Figure 2 above, the smallest black module is made up of an array of four by four pixels

that have been directly controlled to exclude the background light. Similarly, precisely the same array

of pixels is left open to produce a bright module.
5.1.3 Appropriate range of symbol X-dimensions

The X-dimension of a bar code symbol on a mobile device screen is the physical size of an individual

pixel times the number of pixels per module. An alternate way to calculate the X-dimension is

...

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