Fire extinguishing media -- Foam concentrates

This document specifies the essential properties and performance of liquid foam concentrates used to make low-expansion foams for the control, extinction and inhibition of re-ignition of fires of water-miscible liquids. Minimum performance on certain test fires is specified. These foams are suitable for top application to fires of water-miscible liquids. Those foams that also comply with ISO 7203-1 are also suitable for top application to fires of water-immiscible liquids. The foam concentrates can be suitable for use in non-aspirating sprayers or for subsurface application to liquid fires, but requirements specific to those applications are not included in this document.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
24-May-2019
Completion Date
01-Jul-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 7203-3
Third edition
2019-07
Fire extinguishing media — Foam
concentrates —
Part 3:
Specification for low-expansion foam
concentrates for top application to
water-miscible liquids
Agents extincteurs — Émulseurs —
Partie 3: Spécifications pour les émulseurs bas foisonnement destinés
à une application par le haut sur les liquides miscibles à l'eau
Reference number
ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Grades and uses of foam concentrates .......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Grades ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 Use with sea water ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Tolerance of the foam concentrate to freezing and thawing ................................................................................... 4

6 Sediment in the foam concentrate ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 Sediment before ageing ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Sediment after ageing ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Determination of viscosity ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Newtonian foam concentrates ................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Pseudo-plastic foam concentrates ......................................................................................................................................... 4

8 pH of the foam concentrate ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 pH limits........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.2 Sensitivity to temperature ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

9 Expansion and drainage of foam.......................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Expansion limits .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.3 Drainage limits ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

10 Test fire performance ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Marking, packaging and specification sheet ........................................................................................................................... 6

11.1 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11.2 Packaging ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.3 Specification sheet ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (normative) Preliminary sampling and conditioning of the foam concentrate ...............................8

Annex B (normative) Determination of tolerance to freezing and thawing ................................................................9

Annex C (normative) Determination of percentage of sediment .........................................................................................11

Annex D (normative) Determination of viscosity for pseudo-plastic foam concentrates ..........................12

Annex E (normative) Determination of expansion and drainage time ..........................................................................14

Annex F (normative) Determination of test fire performance ...............................................................................................20

Annex G (informative) Determination of radiation measurement method ..............................................................24

Annex H (informative) Compatibility ................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex I (informative) Small-scale fire test ..................................................................................................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 21, Equipment for fire protection and fire

fighting, Subcommittee SC 6, Foam and powder media and firefighting systems using foam and powder.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 7203-3:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Clause 2 “Terms and definitions” has been extended;

— Clause 9 “Expansion and drainage of foam” has been modified to run two tests instead of one and

take the average of both values instead having just one datum;
— Several Figures were corrected;

— Annex F “Determination of test fire performance” has been extended by a scheme of a decision tree

and the acceptable temperature range for testing fire performance has been modified;

— Annex “Typical anticipated performance for various types of foam concentrate” has been removed

from the document.
A list of all parts in the ISO 7203 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Introduction

Firefighting foams are widely used to control and extinguish fires of Class B (flammable liquids) and /

or Class A fuels (Solid materials, usually of an organic nature) and for inhibiting re-ignition.

Foams can be used in combination with other extinguishing media, particularly halons, carbon dioxide

and powders, which are the subject of other International Standards, including, ISO 6183, ISO 7201-1,

ISO 7201-2 and ISO 7202. A specification for foam systems can be found in ISO 7076.

Attention is drawn to Annex H, which deals with the compatibility of foam concentrates, and the

compatibility of foams and powders.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Fire extinguishing media — Foam concentrates —
Part 3:
Specification for low-expansion foam concentrates for top
application to water-miscible liquids
1 Scope

This document specifies the essential properties and performance of liquid foam concentrates used

to make low-expansion foams for the control, extinction and inhibition of re-ignition of fires of water-

miscible liquids. Minimum performance on certain test fires is specified.

These foams are suitable for top application to fires of water-miscible liquids. Those foams that also

comply with ISO 7203-1 are also suitable for top application to fires of water-immiscible liquids.

The foam concentrates can be suitable for use in non-aspirating sprayers or for subsurface application

to liquid fires, but requirements specific to those applications are not included in this document.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3104, Petroleum products — Transparent and opaque liquids — Determination of kinematic viscosity

and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3219, Plastics — Polymers/resins in the liquid state or as emulsions or dispersions — Determination of

viscosity using a rotational viscometer with defined shear rate

ISO 3310-1, Test sieves — Technical requirements and testing — Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth

ISO 3506-1, Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners — Part 1: Bolts, screws

and studs

ISO 7203-2, Fire extinguishing media — Foam concentrates — Part 2: Specification for medium - and high -

expansion foam concentrates for top application to water-immiscible liquids

BS 5117-1.3:1985, Testing corrosion inhibiting, engine coolant concentrate (“antifreeze”). Methods of test

for determination of physical and chemical properties. Determination of freezing point

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
3.1
characteristic value

value declared by the foam concentrate supplier for the chemical and physical properties and the

performances of the foam, foam solution, and foam concentrate
3.2
25 % drainage time
time for 25 % of the liquid content of a foam to drain out
3.3
expansion

ratio of the volume of foam to the volume of the foam solution from which it was made

3.4
low-expansion

expansion (3.3) in the range 1 to 20, as applied to foam and to associated equipment, systems and

concentrates
3.5
medium-expansion

expansion (3.3) in the range 21 to 200, as applied to foam and to associated equipment, systems and

concentrates
3.6
high-expansion

expansion (3.3) greater than 200, as applied to foam and to associated equipment, systems and

concentrates
3.7
foam

aggregate of air-filled bubbles formed from an aqueous solution of a suitable foam

concentrate
3.8
concentrate

liquid that, when mixed with water in the appropriate concentration, gives a foam solution

3.9
protein foam concentrate
foam concentrate (3.8) derived from hydrolysed protein materials
3.10
fluoroprotein foam concentrate
protein foam concentrate (3.8) with added fluorinated surface-active agents
3.11
synthetic foam concentrate

foam concentrate (3.8) based on a mixture of hydrocarbon surface-active agents and which can contain

fluorocarbons with additional stabilizers
3.12
alcohol-resistant foam concentrate

foam concentrate (3.8) resistant to breakdown when applied to the surface of alcohol or other water-

miscible solvents
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
3.13
aqueous film-forming foam concentrate
AFFF

foam concentrate (3.8) based on a mixture of hydrocarbon and fluorinated surface-active agents with

the ability to form an aqueous film on the surface of some hydrocarbons
3.14
film-forming fluoroprotein foam concentrate
FFFP

fluoroprotein foam concentrate (3.8) that has the ability to form an aqueous film on the surface of some

hydrocarbons
3.15
foam solution
solution of foam concentrate (3.8) and water
3.16
forceful application

application of foam such that it falls directly onto the surface of a liquid fuel

3.17
gentle application

application of foam indirectly to the surface of a liquid fuel via a backboard, tank wall or other surface

3.18
sediment
insoluble particles in the foam concentrate
3.19
spreading coefficient

value calculated from the measured surface and interfacial tensions to indicate the ability of one liquid

to spontaneously spread across the surface of another
3.20
temperature for use

maximum and minimum temperature claimed by the manufacturer between which the foam

concentrate is ready for use
3.21
fluorine free foam concentrate

foam concentrate (3.8) which does not form an aqueous film on hydrocarbon fuels but is targeting

Class B performance at forceful application and which is not containing any fluorochemicals

3.22
Class A foam concentrate
foam concentrate (3.8) for use on Class A fire (3.23)
3.23
Class A fire

fire involving solid materials, usually of an organic nature, in which combustion normally takes place

with the formation of glowing embers
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 3941:2007, Clause 2.

Note 2 to entry: Class A fires involve solid materials, usually of an organic nature (such as vegetation, wood, cloth,

and paper), rubber, and some plastics, in which combustion can occur at or below the surface of the material with

or without the formation of glowing embers.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
4 Grades and uses of foam concentrates
4.1 Grades

Based on the test fire performance of the foam concentrate (see Clause 10), it shall be graded

— as class I or II for extinguishing performance;
— as level A, B or C for burn-back resistance.
4.2 Use with sea water

If a foam concentrate is marked as suitable for use with sea water, the recommended concentrations for

use with fresh water and sea water shall be identical.
5 Tolerance of the foam concentrate to freezing and thawing

Before and after temperature conditioning in accordance with A.2, the foam concentrate, if claimed

by the supplier not to be adversely affected by freezing and thawing, shall show no visual sign of

stratification and non-homogeneity when tested in accordance with Annex B.

Foam concentrates complying with Annex B shall be tested for compliance with the appropriate

requirements given in other clauses and subclauses of this document after freezing and thawing in

accordance with A.2.1.
6 Sediment in the foam concentrate
6.1 Sediment before ageing

Any sediment in the concentrate sampled in accordance with A.1 shall be dispersible through a

180 µm sieve, and the percentage volume of the sediment shall be not more than 0,25 % when tested in

accordance with Annex C.
6.2 Sediment after ageing

Any sediment in the concentrate aged in accordance with C.1 shall be dispersible through a 180 µm

sieve, and the percentage volume of sediment shall be not more than 1,0 % when tested in accordance

with Annex C.
7 Determination of viscosity
7.1 Newtonian foam concentrates

The viscosity of the foam concentrate at the lowest temperature for use claimed by the manufacturer

2 −1

shall be determined in accordance with ISO 3104. If the viscosity is >200 mm s , the container shall be

marked: “This concentrate can require special proportioning equipment”.
7.2 Pseudo-plastic foam concentrates

The viscosity of the foam concentrate shall be determined in accordance with Annex D. If the viscosity

at the lowest temperature for use is greater than or equal to 120 mPa s at 375 s , the container shall be

marked: “This concentrate can require special proportioning equipment”.

NOTE Pseudo-plastic foam concentrates are a particular class of non-Newtonian foam concentrates and

have a viscosity that decreases with increasing shear rate at constant temperature.

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
8 pH of the foam concentrate
8.1 pH limits

The pH of the foam concentrate, before and after temperature conditioning in accordance with A.2,

shall be not less than 6,0 and not more than 8,5 at (20 ± 2) °C.
8.2 Sensitivity to temperature

The difference in pH between before and after temperature conditioning shall not be greater than

1,0 pH units.
9 Expansion and drainage of foam
9.1 General

Either of the following tests shall be conducted twice with potable water and if appropriate twice with

synthetic sea water and the average of both series shall be recorded.
9.2 Expansion limits

The foam produced from the foam concentrate, before and after temperature conditioning in accordance

with A.2, with potable water and, if appropriate, with the synthetic sea water according to F.2.4, shall

have an average expansion within either ±20 % of the characteristic value or ±1,0 of the characteristic

value, whichever is greater, when tested in accordance with E.4.
9.3 Drainage limits

The foam produced from the foam concentrate, before and after temperature conditioning in accordance

with A.2, with potable water and, if appropriate, with the synthetic sea water of F.2.4, shall have a 25 %

drainage time within ±20 % of the characteristic value when tested in accordance with E.4.

10 Test fire performance

The foam produced from the solution prepared using the foam concentrate sampled in accordance with

Annex B at the supplier's recommended concentration with potable water, and if appropriate at the

same concentration with the synthetic sea water in accordance with G.4, shall have an extinguishing

performance class and burn-back resistance level as specified in Table 1, when tested in accordance

with G.1 and G.2.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Table 1 — Extinguishing performance classes and burn-back resistance levels
Times in minutes
Extinguishing Burn-back Extinction time not 25 % burn-back time
performance class resistance level more than not less than
A 3 15
I B 3 10
C 3 5
A 5 15
II B 5 10
C 5 5

NOTE 1 The values obtained with sea water can differ from those obtained with potable water.

NOTE 2 Annex I describes a small-scale fire test which can be suitable for quality control purposes.

NOTE 3 Extinction time is the period from the start of foam application until the time when all flames are extinguished.

NOTE 4 25 % burn-back time is the period from the ignition of the burn-back pot until 25 % of the tray is covered by

sustained flames.

NOTE 5 All extinguishing classes and burnback levels are basing on gentle application only.

11 Marking, packaging and specification sheet
11.1 Marking
11.1.1 The following information shall be marked on the shipping container:

a) designation (identifying name) of the concentrate and the words “low-expansion foam concentrate”;

b) class (I or II) and level (A, B, or C) of the foam concentrate and, if the concentrate complies with

Clause 11, the words “aqueous film-forming”;
c) recommended usage concentration for use (most commonly 1 %, 3 % or 6 %);

d) any tendency of the foam concentrate to cause harmful physical effects, the methods required to

avoid them and the first aid treatment if they occur;
e) recommended storage temperature and temperature for use;

f) if the concentrate complies with Clause 5, it shall be marked with the words “Not affected by

freezing and thawing” or, if the foam concentrate does not comply with Clause 5, the words “Do not

freeze”;
g) nominal quantity in the container;
h) supplier's name and address;
i) batch number;

j) it shall be marked with the words “Not suitable for use with sea water” or “Suitable for use with sea

water”, as appropriate.

WARNING — It is extremely important that the foam concentrate, after dilution with water to

the recommended concentration and in normal usage, not present a significant toxic hazard to

life in relation to the environment.

Recommended storage temperature and temperature for use are the same if the product is marked “do

not freeze”.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)

The packaging of the foam concentrate shall ensure that the essential characteristics of the concentrate

are preserved when stored and handled in accordance with the supplier's recommendations.

11.1.2 Markings on shipping containers shall be permanent and legible.

11.1.3 It is recommended that non-Newtonian concentrates be appropriately identified.

11.1.4 Foam concentrates in accordance with ISO 7203-2 shall also be marked “medium-expansion” or

“high-expansion” or both.

11.1.5 Foam concentrates in accordance with this document shall also be marked “alcohol resistant”.

11.2 Packaging

The packaging of the foam concentrate shall ensure that the essential characteristics of the concentrate

are preserved when stored and handled in accordance with the supplier's recommendations.

11.3 Specification sheet

11.3.1 If requested by the user, the supplier shall provide a list of the characteristic values.

11.3.2 If the foam concentrate is Newtonian and the viscosity at the lowest temperature for use is more

than 200 mm /s when measured in accordance with ISO 3104, it shall be marked with the words “This

concentrate can require special proportioning equipment”.

11.3.3 If the foam concentrate is pseudo-plastic and the viscosity at the lowest temperature for use is

greater than or equal to 120 mPa⋅s at 375/s, it shall be marked “This concentrate can require special

proportioning equipment”.

11.3.4 It is recommended that non-Newtonian concentrates be appropriately identified.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Preliminary sampling and conditioning of the foam concentrate
A.1 Preliminary sampling

The sampling method shall ensure representative samples, whether taken from a bulk container or a

number of individual packages.
Store samples in tightly closed containers.
NOTE Containers of capacity 20 l are suitable.
A.2 Conditioning of foam concentrate

A.2.1 If the supplier claims that the concentrate is not adversely affected by freezing and thawing,

condition the concentrate sample through four cycles of freezing and thawing, generally as described in

B.2, before conditioning in accordance with A.2.2.

If the foam concentrate is adversely affected by freezing and thawing, it is conditioned in accordance

with A.2.2 without prior freezing and thawing.

A.2.2 Condition the concentrate in the sealed container for 7 d at (60 ± 2) °C, followed by 1 d at

(20 ± 5) °C.
A.3 Subsequent testing

Test samples shall be prepared in accordance with A.1, or A.2.1 and A.2.2 as appropriate. Shake the

sample container before sampling for further tests.
8 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Annex B
(normative)
Determination of tolerance to freezing and thawing
B.1 Apparatus
The usual laboratory apparatus and, in particular, the following.
B.1.1 Freezing chamber, capable of achieving the temperatures required in B.2.

B.1.2 Tube, polyethylene, approximately 10 mm in diameter, approximately 400 mm long and sealed

and weighted at one end, with suitable spacers attached; see Figure B.1 for a typical form.

B.1.3 Measuring cylinder, glass, of capacity 500 ml, approximately 400 mm high and approximately

65 mm in diameter, with a stopper.
B.2 Procedure

Set the temperature of the freezing chamber (B.1.1) to at least 10 °C below the freezing point of the

sample measured in accordance with BS 5117:1985, Section 1.3, excluding 5.2.

To prevent the glass measuring cylinder (B.1.3) from breaking due to expansion of the foam concentrate

on freezing, insert the tube (B.1.2) into the measuring cylinder with the sealed end downward, weighted

if necessary to avoid flotation, with the spacers to ensure that it remains approximately on the central

axis of the cylinder. Fill the cylinder and fit the stopper.

Place the cylinder in the freezing chamber, cool it and maintain at the required temperature for 24 h.

At the end of this period, thaw the sample for not less than 24 h and not more than 96 h in an ambient

temperature of (20 ± 5) °C.
Repeat three times to give four cycles of freezing and thawing before testing.
Examine the sample for stratification and non-homogeneity.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Nominal dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 spacers (e.g. plastic cable strap)
2 mass at sealed end
Figure B.1 — Typical form of polyethylene tube
10 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 7203-3:2019(E)
Annex C
(normative)
Determ
...

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