Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Electrical specifications and tests for voltage class B systems and components

This document applies to voltage class B electric propulsion systems and connected auxiliary electric systems of electrically propelled road vehicles. It applies to electric circuits and components in these systems. This document focuses on the characteristics at the DC voltage class B terminals of these components as specified in ISO 21498-1. It describes testing methods, test conditions and test requirements for components exposed to electrical behaviour caused by operation of electric loads and power sources. This document does not cover electrical safety (see ISO 6469, ISO 17409).

Véhicules à propulsion electrique -- Spécifications et essais electriques pour les systèmes et composants de classe B

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Mar-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
18-Feb-2021
Completion Date
17-Feb-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21498-2
First edition
2021-03
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Electrical specifications and tests
for voltage class B systems and
components —
Part 2:
Electrical tests for components
Véhicules à propulsion electrique — Spécifications et essais
electriques pour les systèmes et composants de classe B —
Partie 2: Composants et essais electriques
Reference number
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 General assumptions for voltage class B components .................................................................................................. 3

6 Tests and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Test parameters and general test requirements ........................................................................................................ 5

6.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.3 Voltages .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.4 Powers ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.5 Temperatures ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.6 Times and durations ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.7 Standard tolerances ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.8 Ambient conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.9 Wiring harness .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.10 Load conditions................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.11 Sampling rates and measured value resolutions ................................................................................. 8

6.1.12 Parameter monitoring ........................................................................................................................................... ...... 8

6.1.13 Interface description .................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.14 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 DC supply voltage variation within operational range ......................................................................................... 9

6.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Generated voltage slope ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Immunity to voltage slope .........................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5 Generated voltage ripple .............................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Immunity to voltage ripple ........................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................21

6.6.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7 Overvoltage .............................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)

6.7.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8 Undervoltage .........................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................25

6.8.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9 Voltage offset .........................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................27

6.9.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................28

6.9.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................29

6.10 Generated load dump voltage .................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................31

6.11 Immunity to load dump voltage ............................................................................................................................................32

6.11.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................34

Annex A (informative) Test overview ................................................................................................................................................................35

Annex B (informative) Testing at different temperatures ...........................................................................................................36

Annex C (informative) Example values ...........................................................................................................................................................37

Annex D (normative) Artificial network ........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex E (informative) Example for the setup of generated voltage ripple measurement ........................44

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................48

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21498 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
Introduction

The requirements for voltage class B electric circuits that are used for electric power transfer for

the propulsion of electric road vehicles and their characteristics are significantly different to those

of voltage class A electric circuits. Moreover, the range of voltage class B is too wide to be used for a

component design regarding to voltage.

The ISO 21498 series divides voltage class B in a set of voltage sub-classes to enable a component design

for each voltage sub-class regarding to voltage. It provides appropriate descriptions and definitions for

requirements and characteristics of voltage class B systems for electrically propelled vehicles.

The voltage sub-class itself and the component characteristics have a large cost impact on the component

design and on the overall design of the electric system. Additionally, a high variety of different voltage

sub-classes and operating conditions impedes the use of an existing component in different vehicle

models. The standardisation of voltage sub-classes and characteristics and the reduction of varieties

will enable the reduction of component and system costs. This allows the decoupling of the system or

component designs of a voltage class B electric circuit from the design of the electric energy source.

Finally, the exchange of components from different suppliers for different customers is facilitated.

ISO 21498-1 provides definitions of and for voltage sub-classes and characteristics for rechargeable

energy storage systems (RESS) and electric propulsion systems. It defines specific values for these

sub-classes based on maximum working voltage. Voltage sub-classes listed in ISO 21498-1 are used for

voltage class B systems of all kinds of current or future electrically propelled road vehicles.

This document provides electrical tests for electric and electronic components at voltage class B used

for electrically propelled road vehicles. All relevant characteristics are covered considering usual

driving scenarios as well as deviations from normal operation. The descriptions are generalized and

include purpose, setup, procedure and requirements for the tests.

The specifications in this document are not intended to restrict the development of component

performance or technology. The given definition of sub-classes does not exclude the use of other

maximum operating voltages for an individual system design.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Electrical
specifications and tests for voltage class B systems and
components —
Part 2:
Electrical tests for components
1 Scope

This document applies to voltage class B electric propulsion systems and connected auxiliary electric

systems of electrically propelled road vehicles. It applies to electric circuits and components in these

systems.

This document focuses on the characteristics at the DC voltage class B terminals of these components

as specified in ISO 21498-1. It describes testing methods, test conditions and test requirements for

components exposed to electrical behaviour caused by operation of electric loads and power sources.

This document does not cover electrical safety (see ISO 6469, ISO 17409).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the cited edition applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 8713, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Vocabulary

ISO 21498-1, Electrically propelled road vehicles – Electrical specifications and tests for voltage class B

systems and components − Part 1: Voltage sub-classes and characteristics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 8713 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
component operating status

general functional behaviour of components which depend directly on the voltage in voltage class B

(3.13) electric circuits (3.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.1]
3.2
customer
party that is interested in using voltage class B (3.13) components or systems
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.2]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
3.3
electric circuit

entire set of interconnected electric/electronic parts through which electrical current is designed to

flow under normal operating conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.3]
3.4
lower voltage limit
minimum voltage of a voltage class B (3.13) sub-class
3.5
maximum working voltage

highest value of AC voltage (rms) or of DC voltage that can occur under any normal operating conditions

according to the customer's (3.2) specifications, disregarding transients (3.10) and ripple (3.8)

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.5]
3.6
power network

all components within voltage class B (3.13) DC network including their connections

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.6]
3.7
rechargeable energy storage system
RESS

rechargeable system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy for the electric drive

EXAMPLE Batteries, capacitors, flywheel.
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.7]
3.8
ripple

set of unwanted periodic deviations with respect to the average value of the measured or supplied

quantity, occurring at frequencies which can be related to that of components within a system

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.8]
3.9
supplier
party that provides voltage class B (3.13) components or systems
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.9]
3.10
transient

phenomenon or quantity which varies between two consecutive steady states during a short time

interval compared to the time-scale of interest
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.10]
3.11
upper voltage limit
maximum voltage of a voltage class B (3.13) sub-class

Note 1 to entry: Maximum working voltages (3.5) within a voltage sub-class (3.15) are less than or equal to the

upper voltage limit.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)
3.12
voltage class A

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.5) of ≤30 V AC

(rms) or ≤60 V DC respectively
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.12]
3.13
voltage class B

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.5) of (> 30 and

≤ 1 000) V AC (rms) or (> 60 and ≤ 1 500) V DC respectively
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.13]
3.14
voltage range

general term covering voltage sub-class (3.15), working voltages (3.16) and deviations from working

voltages
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.14]
3.15
voltage sub-class

classification of an electric component or circuit with a DC voltage within the voltage class B (3.13)

3.16
working voltage

AC voltage (rms) or DC voltage that can occur in an electric system under normal operating conditions

according to the customer's (3.2) specifications, disregarding transients (3.10) and ripple (3.8)

4 Abbreviated terms
DUT device under test
EV electrically propelled road vehicle
HV high voltage
OS operating status
LV low voltage
5 General assumptions for voltage class B components

General assumptions and definitions for voltage class B systems shall be as in ISO 21498-1.

Figure 1 shows a generalized view on a voltage class B component. Some of the connections shown

may not be available for all voltage class B components. All voltage profiles or voltage values in this

document refer to the voltage between the “HV+” and “HV-” terminals of a voltage class B component, if

not otherwise stated.

Due to the differences between different voltage class B components, Table A.1 gives an overview on

how the different tests, which are described in this document, are applicable. Not all tests are reasonable

for all voltage class B components.

A voltage class B component may have multiple interfaces for each type of voltage (voltage class B DC,

voltage class B AC, voltage class A, according to Figure 1). For example, a DC/DC converter may interface

to two voltage class B electric circuits.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 21498-2:2021(E)

A voltage class B component may have multiple voltage class B DC terminals, which can be galvanically

separated. The tests described in this document shall be fulfilled for each of these terminals.

Key

1 voltage class B connection: HV+ 8 connection to further voltage class B component

(e.g. AC or DC power network)
2 voltage class B connection: HV- DUT.
3 voltage class A power Voltage class B circuit.
4 I/O and bus signals Voltage class A circuit.

5 terminal with direct connection to voltage class A Galvanic separation between voltage class A and

ground reference voltage class B.
6 ground reference Voltage class B terminals under test.
7 connection to further voltage class B component
(e.g. electric motor)
Figure 1 — Generalized voltage class B component diagram

For the purpose of testing, Figure 2 summarizes the voltage operating ranges and OS of a voltage class B

component at its voltage class B DC voltage terminals. The overvoltage limit, the upper voltage limit and

the lower voltage limit are properties of the component.

Each voltage class B component shall have a voltage range in which it can be operated with its specified

performance (unlimited operating capability). All designated functions, including short-time overload

operations, shall be available. Within this voltage range, the component operates in OS1.

Above a maximum voltage, a component may reduce its performance as specified. This specified voltage

is called the maximum unlimited operating voltage (U ). The component shall provide its

max_unlimited_op

upper limited operating capability until the upper voltage limit (U ) is reached. In this case, the

upper_limit
component operates in OS2.

Above the upper voltage limit (U ) the component may derate or cut-off its performance for self-

upper_limit

protection. The component shall withstand this overvoltage until the overvoltage limit (U ) is

over_limit
reached. In this case, the component operates in OS3 or OS4.

A component shall perform in OS1 until the supply voltage drops to the minimum unlimited operating

voltage (U ). Between the minimum unlimited operating voltage (U ) and the
min_unlimited_op min_unlimited_op

lower voltage limit (U ), the component may reduce its performance as specified. In this case,

lower_limit
the component operates in OS2.

If the supply voltage is below the U , the component may derate or cut-off its performance. In

lower_limit
this case, the component operates in OS3 or OS4.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 21498-2
ISO/TC 22/SC 37
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Secretariat: DIN
Electrical specifications and tests
Voting begins on:
2020-12-23 for voltage class B systems and
components —
Voting terminates on:
2021-02-17
Part 2:
Electrical tests for components
Véhicules à propulsion electrique — Spécifications et essais
electriques pour les systèmes et composants de classe B —
Partie 2: Composants et essais electriques
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 General assumptions for voltage class B components .................................................................................................. 3

6 Tests and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Test parameters and general test requirements ........................................................................................................ 5

6.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.3 Voltages .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.4 Powers ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.5 Temperatures ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.6 Times and durations ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.7 Standard tolerances ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.8 Ambient conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.9 Wiring harness .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.10 Load conditions................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1.11 Sampling rates and measured value resolutions ................................................................................. 8

6.1.12 Parameter monitoring ........................................................................................................................................... ...... 8

6.1.13 Interface description .................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.14 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 DC supply voltage variation within operational range ......................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Generated voltage slope ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Immunity to voltage slope .........................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5 Generated voltage ripple .............................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Immunity to voltage ripple ........................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................20

6.6.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................21

6.6.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7 Overvoltage .............................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)

6.7.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8 Undervoltage .........................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................24

6.8.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................25

6.8.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9 Voltage offset .........................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.9.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................27

6.9.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................28

6.9.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10 Generated load dump voltage .................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................30

6.10.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................31

6.11 Immunity to load dump voltage ............................................................................................................................................32

6.11.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.3 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................32

6.11.4 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................34

Annex A (informative) Test overview ................................................................................................................................................................35

Annex B (informative) Testing at different temperatures ...........................................................................................................36

Annex C (informative) Example values ...........................................................................................................................................................37

Annex D (normative) Artificial network ........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex E (informative) Example for the setup of generated voltage ripple measurement ........................44

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................48

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 37,

Electrically propelled vehicles.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
Introduction

The requirements for voltage class B electric circuits that are used for electric power transfer for

the propulsion of electric road vehicles and their characteristics are significantly different to those

of voltage class A electric circuits. Moreover, the range of voltage class B is too wide to be used for a

component design regarding to voltage.

The ISO 21498 series divides voltage class B in a set of voltage sub-classes to enable a component design

for each voltage sub-class regarding to voltage. It provides appropriate descriptions and definitions for

requirements and characteristics of voltage class B systems for electrically propelled vehicles.

The voltage sub-class itself and the component characteristics have a large cost impact on the component

design and on the overall design of the electric system. Additionally, a high variety of different voltage

sub-classes and operating conditions impedes the use of an existing component in different vehicle

models. The standardisation of voltage sub-classes and characteristics and the reduction of varieties

will enable the reduction of component and system costs. This allows the decoupling of the system or

component designs of a voltage class B electric circuit from the design of the electric energy source.

Finally, the exchange of components from different suppliers for different customers is facilitated.

ISO 21498-1 provides definitions of and for voltage sub-classes and characteristics for rechargeable

energy storage systems (RESS) and electric propulsion systems. It defines specific values for these

sub-classes based on maximum working voltage. Voltage sub-classes listed in ISO 21498-1 are used for

voltage class B systems of all kinds of current or future electrically propelled road vehicles.

This document provides electrical tests for electric and electronic components at voltage class B used

for electrically propelled road vehicles. All relevant characteristics are covered considering usual

driving scenarios as well as deviations from normal operation. The descriptions are generalized and

include purpose, setup, procedure and requirements for the tests.

The specifications in this document are not intended to restrict the development of component

performance or technology. The given definition of sub-classes does not exclude the use of other

maximum operating voltages for an individual system design.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Electrical
specifications and tests for voltage class B systems and
components —
Part 2:
Electrical tests for components
1 Scope

This document applies to voltage class B electric propulsion systems and connected auxiliary electric

systems of electrically propelled road vehicles. It applies to electric circuits and components in these

systems.

This document focuses on the characteristics at the DC voltage class B terminals of these components

as specified in ISO 21498-1. It describes testing methods, test conditions and test requirements for

components exposed to electrical behaviour caused by operation of electric loads and power sources.

This document does not cover electrical safety (see ISO 6469, ISO 17409).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the cited edition applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 8713, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Vocabulary

ISO 21498-1, Electrically propelled road vehicles – Electrical specifications and tests for voltage class B

systems and components − Part 1: Voltage sub-classes and characteristics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 8713 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
component operating status

general functional behaviour of components which depend directly on the voltage in voltage class B

(3.13) electric circuits (3.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.1]
3.2
customer
party that is interested in using voltage class B (3.13) components or systems
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.2]
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ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
3.3
electric circuit

entire set of interconnected electric/electronic parts through which electrical current is designed to

flow under normal operating conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.3]
3.4
lower voltage limit
minimum voltage of a voltage class B (3.13) sub-class
3.5
maximum working voltage

highest value of AC voltage (rms) or of DC voltage that can occur under any normal operating conditions

according to the customer's (3.2) specifications, disregarding transients (3.10) and ripple (3.8)

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.5]
3.6
power network

all components within voltage class B (3.13) DC network including their connections

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.6]
3.7
rechargeable energy storage system
RESS

rechargeable system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy for the electric drive

EXAMPLE Batteries, capacitors, flywheel.
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.7]
3.8
ripple

set of unwanted periodic deviations with respect to the average value of the measured or supplied

quantity, occurring at frequencies which can be related to that of components within a system

[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.8]
3.9
supplier
party that provides voltage class B (3.13) components or systems
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.9]
3.10
transient

phenomenon or quantity which varies between two consecutive steady states during a short time

interval compared to the time-scale of interest
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.10]
3.11
upper voltage limit
maximum voltage of a voltage class B (3.13) sub-class

Note 1 to entry: Maximum working voltages (3.5) within a voltage sub-class (3.15) are less than or equal to the

upper voltage limit.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)
3.12
voltage class A

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.5) of ≤30 V AC

(rms) or ≤60 V DC respectively
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.12]
3.13
voltage class B

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage (3.5) of (> 30 and

≤ 1 000) V AC (rms) or (> 60 and ≤ 1 500) V DC respectively
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.13]
3.14
voltage range

general term covering voltage sub-class (3.15), working voltages (3.16) and deviations from working

voltages
[SOURCE: ISO 21498-1:2021, 3.14]
3.15
voltage sub-class

classification of an electric component or circuit with a DC voltage within the voltage class B (3.13)

3.16
working voltage

AC voltage (rms) or DC voltage that can occur in an electric system under normal operating conditions

according to the customer's (3.2) specifications, disregarding transients (3.10) and ripple (3.8)

4 Abbreviated terms
DUT device under test
EV electrically propelled road vehicle
HV high voltage
OS operating status
LV low voltage
5 General assumptions for voltage class B components

General assumptions and definitions for voltage class B systems shall be as in ISO 21498-1.

Figure 1 shows a generalized view on a voltage class B component. Some of the connections shown

may not be available for all voltage class B components. All voltage profiles or voltage values in this

document refer to the voltage between the “HV+” and “HV-” terminals of a voltage class B component, if

not otherwise stated.

Due to the differences between different voltage class B components, Table A.1 gives an overview on

how the different tests, which are described in this document, are applicable. Not all tests are reasonable

for all voltage class B components.

A voltage class B component may have multiple interfaces for each type of voltage (voltage class B DC,

voltage class B AC, voltage class A, according to Figure 1). For example, a DC/DC converter may interface

to two voltage class B electric circuits.
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ISO/FDIS 21498-2:2020(E)

A voltage class B component may have multiple voltage class B DC terminals, which can be galvanically

separated. The tests described in this document shall be fulfilled for each of these terminals.

Key

1 voltage class B connection: HV+ 8 connection to further voltage class B component

(e.g. AC or DC power network)
2 voltage class B connection: HV- DUT.
3 voltage class A power Voltage class B circuit.
4 I/O and bus signals Voltage class A circuit.

5 terminal with direct connection to voltage class A Galvanic separation between voltage class A and

ground reference voltage class B.
6 ground reference Voltage class B terminals under test.
7 connection to further voltage class B component
(e.g. electric motor)
Figure 1 — Generalized voltage class B component diagram

For the purpose of testing, Figure 2 summarizes the voltage operating ranges and OS of a voltage class B

component at its voltage class B DC voltage terminals. The overvoltage limit, the upper voltage limit and

the lower voltage limit are properties of the component.

Each voltage class B component shall have a voltage range in which it can be operated with its specified

performance (unlimited operating capability). All designated functions, including short-time overload

operations, shall be available. Within this voltage range, the component operates in OS1.

Above a maximum voltage, a component may reduce its performance as specified. This maximum

voltage is called the maximum unlimited operating voltage (U ). The component shall

max_unlimited_op

provide its upper limited operating capability until the upper voltage limit (U ) is reached. In

upper_limit
this case, the component operates in OS2.

Above the upper voltage limit (U ) the component may derate or cut-off its performance for self-

upper_limit

protection. The component shall withstand this overvoltage until the overvoltage limit (U ) is

over_limit
reached. In this case, the component operates in OS3 or OS4.
A component shall perform i
...

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