Service activities relating to drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems — Guidelines on alternative drinking water service provision during a crisis

This document provides guidelines on alternative drinking water service (ADWS) provision during a crisis. This document addresses: a) ADWS principles and methods; b) ADWS operational planning and implementation. This document is not applicable to: 1) planned water supply interruptions forming part of drinking water utilities' normal operations; NOTE However, many of the principles and methods described can be appropriate in such circumstances. 2) drinking water supplied for the ongoing operation of key establishments and facilities during a crisis, such as hospitals, homes for the aged, schools, reception facilities and vital plants; 3) water supplied for industrial, agricultural or commercial purposes; 4) water supplied to temporary settlements such as refugee camps; 5) the development and implementation of a crisis management system for water service, which is covered by ISO 24518 and ISO/TS 24520.

Activités de service relatives aux systèmes d'alimentation en eau potable, aux systèmes d'assainissement et aux systèmes de gestion des eaux pluviales — Lignes directrices relatives à l'approvisionnement alternatif en eau potable en cas de crise

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Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
20-Mar-2020
Completion Date
30-Apr-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24527
First edition
2020-04
Service activities relating to drinking
water supply, wastewater and
stormwater systems — Guidelines on
alternative drinking water service
provision during a crisis
Activités de service relatives aux systèmes d'alimentation en eau
potable, aux systèmes d'assainissement et aux systèmes de gestion des
eaux pluviales — Lignes directrices relatives à l'approvisionnement
alternatif en eau potable en cas de crise
Reference number
ISO 24527:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 24527:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles for alternative drinking water service provision .................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Alternative drinking water service approaches ......................................................................................................... 5

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.2 Using the drinking water distribution network in a non-conventional manner ...... 5

4.2.3 Not using the drinking water distribution network .......................................................................... 5

5 Planning for alt ernative drinking water service provision ..................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Pre-planning .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.1 Establishing individual disruption scenarios ......................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Pre-planning in accordance with the disruption scenario .......................................................... 6

5.3 Securing resources and planning for their mobilization .................................................................................... 7

6 Implementation of alternative drinking water service provision .................................................................... 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Non-conventional methods for drinking water distribution network use ......................................... 9

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Distribution of drinking water by erection of standpipes ........................................................... 9

6.2.3 Recharging of isolated drinking water distribution network assets by

water tankers ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Lowering the pressure at which drinking water is supplied ..................................................10

6.3 Methods not using the drinking water distribution network .....................................................................10

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Temporary point of distribution methods ..............................................................................................10

6.3.3 Containerized drinking water ...........................................................................................................................10

6.3.4 Via a fixed water resource ....................................................................................................................................11

6.3.5 Via mobile water tankers or towed bowsers ........................................................................................11

7 Internal and external communications .....................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Preparing stakeholders in advance of a crisis involving alternative drinking water

service provision ................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.1 Tailored messaging .....................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.2 Preparing users ..............................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.3 Preparing key stakeholders .................................................................................................................................12

7.3 Alternative drinking water service information during a crisis ................................................................12

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 How to communicate ................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.3 What to communicate ..............................................................................................................................................14

8 Alternative drinking water service provision for users with special needs........................................14

Annex A (informative) Examples of layouts of, and assets deployment at, temporary points

of distribution ......................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Containerized drinking water ....................................................................................................................19

Annex C (informative) Determining drinking water allocations .........................................................................................27

Annex D (informative) The logistics of alternative drinking water service provision ..................................29

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 24527:2020(E)

Annex E (informative) Modification of standard alternative drinking water service

processes to support users with special needs .................................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 224, Service activities relating to drinking

water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
Introduction

Drinking water is fundamental to life and its distribution is considered to be an essential service.

Drinking water supply relies on systems that can be subject to disruption from internal or external

factors including operational error, lack of rehabilitation, damage to the drinking water system,

malicious acts (e.g. vandalism, criminality or terrorism) and natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes, floods,

hurricanes or volcanic eruptions).

This document is intended for drinking water utilities that normally provide a service without

interruption through a drinking water distribution network. It provides guidelines for the effective

implementation of alternative drinking water service (ADWS) provision during extended periods of

disruption to drinking water supply.

In many cases, operational and organizational processes will exist within drinking water utilities to

deal with short periods of localized interruption to drinking water distribution. However, if the service

interruption exceeds the duration or extent of anticipated events, an interruption can escalate into a

crisis at local, regional or, exceptionally, national levels.

NOTE 1 For adequacy and consistency, guidance in this document typically assumes an operational response

at a crisis level. However, the guidelines are applicable for all levels of operational incidents requiring ADWS

deployment including normal business continuity preparedness and response.
NOTE 2 For guidance on the management of crises see ISO 24518 and ISO/TS 24520.

A significant water interruption (arising from quantity and/or quality issues) can impact public and

personal health and wellbeing, and economic performance. A prolonged interruption can progressively

threaten the coherence of the community served.

The roles of relevant authorities, responsible bodies, drinking water utilities and operators can differ

between and within countries and result in different minimum requirements for ADWS provision.

Nevertheless, it is generally recommended that such organizations recognize the importance of

uninterrupted drinking water distribution, even at times of crisis for the drinking water utility, for the

wellbeing of the community served.

Drinking water utilities are encouraged to reduce the risk of water supply interruption. This is

typically achieved by a combination of good planning, design, procurement, installation, operation and

maintenance of the drinking water assets. Such measures should include the provision of an ADWS for

users during a crisis.

It is also recommended that the drinking water utility's capability to provide an ADWS will be consistent

with the maximum likely service interruption (extent and duration) identified through risk assessment.

The provision of an ADWS necessitates thorough preparation (e.g. to address planning, procurement,

logistics, control and communication), as well as awareness of the need and commitment at all levels of

the organization to be effective and efficient.

ADWS during a crisis can be provided using one of the two following principles, or both in combination:

a) using the drinking water distribution network in a non-conventional manner;
b) not using the drinking water distribution network.
This document describes the principal issues to be considered when:
1) planning for and deploying ADWS provision;

2) anticipating and addressing stakeholders’ ADWS needs and communicating with stakeholders on

ADWS deployment.

ADWS planning and provision can include guidelines by responsible bodies on monitoring and control

methods. This document covers water quality issues only to the extent that they relate to drinking

water provided via an ADWS.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24527:2020(E)
Service activities relating to drinking water supply,
wastewater and stormwater systems — Guidelines on
alternative drinking water service provision during a crisis
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines on alternative drinking water service (ADWS) provision during

a crisis.
This document addresses:
a) ADWS principles and methods;
b) ADWS operational planning and implementation.
This document is not applicable to:

1) planned water supply interruptions forming part of drinking water utilities’ normal operations;

NOTE However, many of the principles and methods described can be appropriate in such circumstances.

2) drinking water supplied for the ongoing operation of key establishments and facilities during a

crisis, such as hospitals, homes for the aged, schools, reception facilities and vital plants;

3) water supplied for industrial, agricultural or commercial purposes;
4) water supplied to temporary settlements such as refugee camps;

5) the development and implementation of a crisis management system for water service, which is

covered by ISO 24518 and ISO/TS 24520.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24513, Service activities relating to drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems —

Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24513 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
3.1
alternative drinking water service
ADWS

drinking water provided to users (3.15) by means other than through the normal drinking water system

Note 1 to entry: ADWS can be required due to the loss of supply or due to the fact that the water currently being

supplied is believed unfit for the intended use.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of this document, ADWS only refers to the supply of drinking water. There

can, however, be occasions where it is decided for public health (e.g. toilet flushing) and safety (e.g. firefighting)

reasons to temporarily supply non-drinking water via the drinking water distribution network in parallel with

an ADWS.
3.2
containerized drinking water
packaged water
drinking water (3.4) deployed in containers for ADWS (3.1) provision

EXAMPLE 1 Bottled water, pre-prepared and hygienically sealed, with a predetermined shelf-life.

EXAMPLE 2 A personal water bag, pre-prepared but empty, and filled during an incident.

EXAMPLE 3 Static water tanks; towed bowsers; mobile water tankers, disinfected and deployed, and filled

during an incident.
3.3
crisis

event or situation which affects or is likely to affect the organization or its provided services which

requires more than the usual means of operation and/or organizational structures to deal with it

3.4
drinking water
DEPRECATED: potable water
water intended for human consumption

Note 1 to entry: Requirements for drinking water quality specifications are generally laid down by the national

relevant authorities (3.10). Guidelines have been established by the World Health Organization (WHO).

3.5
drinking water allocation

daily per-capita drinking water (3.4) quota to be supplied to users during ADWS (3.1) provision

Note 1 to entry: The relevant authority (3.10), the responsible body (3.11) or the drinking water utility (3.7) (in the

absence of guidance from the relevant authority or responsible body) can determine drinking water allocation(s)

for categories of user (3.15).

Note 2 to entry: Drinking water allocations can differ between categories of user and can exclude some categories

of user.

Note 3 to entry: The size of drinking water allocations can be varied at different times during the crisis (3.3).

EXAMPLE Per-capita domestic user in first 12 h of crisis response; per-capita per-day domestic user after

first 12 h; per-capita per-day special needs user.
3.6
drinking water distribution network
asset system for distributing drinking water (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: Drinking water distribution network can include pipes, valves, hydrants, pumping stations and

reservoirs, and other metering and ancillary infrastructure and components.

Note 2 to entry: Pumping stations and reservoirs can be sited either in the waterworks or in the drinking water

distribution network.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
3.7
drinking water utility

whole set of organization, processes, activities, means and resources necessary for abstracting,

treating, distributing or supplying drinking water (3.4) and for providing the associated services

Note 1 to entry: Some key features for a drinking water utility are:
— its mission, to provide drinking water services;
— its physical area of responsibility and the population within this area;
— its responsible body (3.11);

— the general organization with the function of operator being carried out by the responsible body, or by legally

distinct operator(s);

— the type of physical systems used to provide the services, with various degrees of centralization.

Note 2 to entry: The term “drinking water utility” addresses a utility dealing only with drinking water.

Note 3 to entry: When it is not necessary or it is difficult to make a distinction between responsible body and

operator, the term “drinking water utility” covers both.

Note 4 to entry: In common English, “drinking water service” can be used as a synonym for “drinking water

utility”, but this document does not recommend using the term in this way.
3.8
interruption
situation where the service is not available or only partially available
Note 1 to entry: Interruptions can be planned or unplanned.
3.9
management
coordinated activities to direct and control a drinking water utility (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Management can include establishing policies and objectives, and processes to achieve these

objectives.

Note 2 to entry: The word “management” sometimes refers to people, i.e. a person or group of people with

authority and responsibility for the conduct and control of a service. When “management” is used in this sense, it

should always be used with some form of qualifier to avoid confusion with the concept “management” as a set of

activities defined above. For example, “management should…” is deprecated whereas “crisis management team

should…” is acceptable. Otherwise, different words should be adopted to convey the concept when related to

people, for example managerial or managers.

Note 3 to entry: The term “management” can be qualified by a specific domain it addresses. Examples include

public health management, environmental management and risk management.
3.10
relevant authority
organization with appropriate statutory powers of control
EXAMPLE National, regional or local governments, public agencies, regulators.
Note 1 to entry: Relevant authority is a category of stakeholder (3.13).

Note 2 to entry: For a given drinking water utility (3.7) there can be several relevant authorities, which have

jurisdiction in different domains.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 24527:2020(E)
3.11
responsible body

body that has the overall legal responsibility for providing drinking water (3.4), wastewater or

stormwater services for a given geographic area

EXAMPLE A local or municipal government (e.g. for a village, town or city), a regional government, a national

or federal government through a specified agency or a private company.
Note 1 to entry: Responsible body is a category of stakeholder (3.13).

Note 2 to entry: The responsible body can be legally distinct, or not, from the operator(s). The responsible body

can be public or private.

Note 3 to entry: The responsible body acts within a framework of law and governance established by the relevant

authorities. It generally establishes the strategy, the specific policies adapted to the characteristics of its area of

responsibility and the general organization of the relevant water utility.

Note 4 to entry: The responsible body can operate the water utility directly with its own means through an

internal operator (direct or internal management (3.9) or “in house”) or entrust one or several operators for the

operations (“outsourced” or contracted management).
3.12
service area

local geographic area where an organization has the legal or contractual responsibility to provide

a service

Note 1 to entry: The service area can be established, for example, by political boundaries (e.g. citywide utility),

legislative action (e.g. formation of a utility district) or interjurisdictional agreements (e.g. intercity agreements

to provide wastewater services).
3.13
stakeholder
interested party

person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or

activity

EXAMPLE Users (3.15) and building owners, relevant authorities (3.10), responsible bodies (3.11), operators,

employees of the operator, external product suppliers and providers of other services, contractors, communities,

customers and environmental associations, financial institutions, scientific and technical organizations,

laboratories.

Note 1 to entry: Stakeholders will typically have an interest in the performance or success of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: For the application of this document, environment is considered as a specific stakeholder.

3.14
temporary point of distribution
TPD

temporary interface where the user (3.15) can access an alternative drinking water service

3.15
user
DEPRECATED: consumer

person, group or organization that benefits from drinking water (3.4) delivery and related services,

wastewater service activities, stormwater service activities or reclaimed water delivery and related

services
Note 1 to entry: Users are a category of stakeholder (3.13).

Note 2 to entry: Users can belong to various economic sectors: domestic, institutional, commercial, industrial or

resource exploitation (e.g. agricultural, forestry, mining).
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24527:2020(E)

Note 3 to entry: The term “consumer” can also be used, but in most countries the term “user” is more frequent

when referring to public services.

Note 4 to entry: For the purpose of this document the term only refers to individuals and not organizations.

4 Principles for alternative drinking water service provision
4.1 General

In order to determine its ADWS provision, a drinking water utility should first have a clear

understanding of its normal operation during typical (non-crisis) circumstances.

During a crisis involving an interruption to drinking water distribution, the drinking water utility

should ensure an ADWS is provided to users and also ensure that assets which are intended to be used

in contact with drinking water are authorized by the relevant authority. Such assets could include

cleaned and disinfected drinking water containers.

Ideally, users should only take containerized drinking water according to predetermined drinking

water allocation(s), see Annex C. However, in practice, with high user demand and limited drinking

water utility resources available to control the issuing of drinking water, this can be difficult to achieve.

The drinking water utility's pre-planning of issuing drinking water should aim to ensure a suitable

level of control, including a contingency for excessive withdrawals. Inability to exercise such control can

lead to legitimate users' needs remaining unfulfilled. This can have consequences, including a decline

in ADWS service levels and financial and reputational impacts. Drinking water utilities can encourage

users to exercise restraint by providing adequate public information both in advance of and during a

crisis (see Clause 7).

The required water quality for ADWS provision is determined by the relevant authorities and/or

responsible bodies. However, the possible need to distribute non-drinking water through the drinking

water distribution network (if necessary, and in parallel with ADWS) should also be recognized. Such

a measure can be necessary for public health (e.g. toilet flushing) and public safety (e.g. firefighting)

reasons. In such circumstances, the water usage constraints that need to be complied with should be

strongly emphasized through stakeholder communications.
4.2 Alternative drinking water service approaches
4.2.1 General

The drinking water utility can adopt one or both of the ADWS approaches described in 4.2.2 and 4.2.3.

4.2.2 Using the drinking water distribution network in a non-conventional manner

This approach involves the drinking water utility supplying drinking water to users via the drinking

water distribution network but using different means than the regular operational methods.

Proven methods of ADWS provision using the distribution network in a non-conventional manner are

described in 6.2.
4.2.3 Not using the drinking water distribution network

This approach involves temporary points of distribution (TPDs) being established throughout the

affected service area. Examples of TPD methods are described in Annex A. The drinking water utility

should, during
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