Space systems — Verification programme and management process

This document establishes a set of requirements for planning and executing verification programmes for commercial/non-commercial manned and unmanned space systems. This document defines a distributed verification programme for each contractor that engages in the development of any element of a space system, starting from the lowest level (i.e. unit/piece part level) and the earliest phase (i.e. requirement phase) to the acceptance and the delivery review of a system’s development as well as the launch site activities. This document primarily addresses verification associated with space, launch, and ground segment acquisitions. Space support segments including range safety, ground support equipment, and launch operation facilities, which are not otherwise addressed in this document, can also benefit from the described verification programme and management processes.

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Publication Date
30-Mar-2022
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4060 - Close of voting
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27-Oct-2021
Completion Date
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23135
First edition
2022-03
Space systems — Verification
programme and management process
Reference number
ISO 23135:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 23135:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23135:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Requirements for space system verification management processes .......................................................3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 VM process 1: requirement flow-down and establishment of specification ................................... 3

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.2 Specification requirements and review ........................................................................................................ 4

4.2.3 Data supporting verification method and approach .......................................................................... 5

4.3 VM process 2: verification cross-reference matrix (VCRM) .......................................................................... 5

4.3.1 Cross-reference of specification requirements and verification method ........................ 5

4.3.2 VCRM for the space system and lower level systems ........................................................................ 5

4.3.3 Verification by analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.4 Verification by test............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.5 Verification by inspection and demonstration ........................................................................................ 6

4.4 VM process 3: integration and test (I&T) process .................................................................................................. 6

4.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.2 Review of I&T plans for the space system and lower level systems ..................................... 6

4.4.3 Space system and lower-level I&T sequence and test environments .................................. 6

4.4.4 Operational tests for space system .................................................................................................................... 6

4.4.5 Test readiness review (TRR) and entry/exit criteria ........................................................................ 6

4.4.6 Test discrepancy resolution and retest .......................................................................................................... 7

4.4.7 Test summary and “as tested” data review ................................................................................................ 7

4.4.8 I&T plans for launch site operations for each element ..................................................................... 7

4.4.9 I&T plans for launch site operations for integrated system ........................................................ 7

4.5 VM process 4: specification verification ledger (SVL) process ................................................................... 7

4.5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5.2 SVL content ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.5.3 SVL documentation .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5.4 Subcontractor/vendor SVL plans for the space system element including

subsystems, and units ................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.6 VM process 5: acceptance and delivery review process.................................................................................... 8

4.6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.6.2 Space system and lower level systems acceptance and delivery review data

package ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.6.3 Acceptance and delivery review plans for the systems developed by

subcontractors/vendors .............................................................................................................................................. 8

4.6.4 FCA and PCA summary as a part of acceptance package ............................................................... 8

4.6.5 Acceptance/delivery review entry/exit criteria ..................................................................................... 9

4.7 VM process 6: verification-related risk and issue/watch list management process ............... 9

4.7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.7.2 Status tracking of verification-related issue and concern items ............................................. 9

4.7.3 Reporting of verification-related issues to the programme risk

management board .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.7.4 Verification-related risk and issue/watch list management plans for
the space system and lower level systems including those developed by

subcontractors/vendors .............................................................................................................................................. 9

5 Requirements for space systems verification programme management ...............................................9

iii
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ISO 23135:2022(E)

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Verification programme managed by each WBS element ................................................................................ 9

5.3 Integration of distributed verification programme ........................................................................................... 10

5.4 Verification programme review ........................................................................................................................................... 10

5.5 Verification programme flow-down to subcontractors and vendors ................................................. 10

5.6 Verification activities coordinated with other review boards ................................................................. 10

5.7 Validation of the verification process ............................................................................................................................. 10

5.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.7.2 DT&E and OT&E support ......................................................................................................................................... 10

5.7.3 Independent readiness review (IRR) and launch readiness review (LRR)

support ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.8 Verification plan ................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.8.2 Review of verification plans .................................................................................................................................. 11

6 Use of verification management for late changes and heritage/commercial systems ..........11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

6.2 Late change verification management ........................................................................................................................... 11

6.2.1 Verification of late changes utilizing VM processes 1 through 6 ......................................... 11

6.2.2 Late change categories ...............................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Heritage/commercial systems verification management .............................................................................12

6.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Heritage/commercial hardware and software applications ....................................................12

6.3.3 Verification of heritage hardware and software ................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Exemplar space system and an example of WBS-based verification

management structure ..............................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Review of verification plans for space system and lower system

level, including those developed by subcontractors/vendors ..........................................................................15

Annex C (informative) Deliverable/review documents associated with each verification

management rrocess ....................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex D (informative) Contents of specification verification ledger (SVL) ...........................................................22

Annex E (normative) Recommended Check List for Planning and Executing Late Changes,

Heritage, or Commercial System Applications .................................................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23135:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23135:2022(E)
Introduction

This verification programme document provides top-tier and overarching requirements in space

programmes. Implementation will ensure thoroughly verified space systems in a timely and cost-

effective manner for verification distributed among all participating organizations (see AIAA S-117).

Many space programmes are very complex systems consisting of numerous elements (such as

spacecraft, launch and ground segments, systems, subsystems, units, interfaces). It is common for

these elements to be distributed across many international/domestic contractors, subcontractors,

and suppliers with little room for failure/mistakes in any part of a space system. This is what is

meant as a distributed program in the context of this document. A critical function of any distributed

verification programme is to ensure that a thorough and solid specification is established for each level

of a system being developed. This is accomplished if the system developer for each level contractually

takes responsibility/ownership of developing their specifications in coordination with their systems

engineering organization. This approach ensures that requirements establishment and associated

verification activities are well integrated. Additionally, cost constraints often require avoidance of

additional verification due to late changes. Lack of detailed descriptions in specifications can cause

costly late changes and/or post-launch failures. Mission success does not allow unrecoverable post-

launch failures; as such, verification of space systems requires technical communication of verification

means, data and data aggregation among all involved (system contractors, subcontractors and vendors).

This document ensures that requirements associated with space system missions, concept of operation

(mission operation concept), contractual agreed normative references as well as each contractor’s

command media are thoroughly verified with the use of a distributed verification programme. It

defines a standardized set of verification management processes for each element of a space system

from the earliest to the latest phase and from the lowest to the highest level of their developments in

order to acquire/deliver thoroughly verified systems.

The need for a distributed verification programme was identified based on the evaluation of over

130 space systems failures associated with international, commercial, and government space

programmes (see INCOSE Journal).

Every element of a space system can be verified and tracked by each work breakdown structure

based working group (WBS-WG; see ISO 21349) utilizing standardized verification management (VM)

processes as follows:
a) VM process 1: requirements flow-down and establishment of specification;
b) VM process 2: verification cross-reference matrix (VCRM);
c) VM process 3: integration and test (I&T);
d) VM process 4: use of a specification verification ledger (SVL);
e) VM process 5: acceptance/delivery reviews
f) VM process 6: verification-related risk and issue/watch list management

This document also helps each space programme to integrate any heritage/commercial systems

to new programmes by examining whether the applicability of these systems has been thoroughly

verified. Appropriate modifications of any heritage/commercial systems for new/modified systems

are systematically identified and verification accomplished by applying these uniform six verification

management processes.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23135:2022(E)
Space systems — Verification programme and management
process
1 Scope

This document establishes a set of requirements for planning and executing verification programmes

for commercial/non-commercial manned and unmanned space systems.

This document defines a distributed verification programme for each contractor that engages in the

development of any element of a space system, starting from the lowest level (i.e. unit/piece part level)

and the earliest phase (i.e. requirement phase) to the acceptance and the delivery review of a system’s

development as well as the launch site activities.

This document primarily addresses verification associated with space, launch, and ground segment

acquisitions. Space support segments including range safety, ground support equipment, and launch

operation facilities, which are not otherwise addressed in this document, can also benefit from the

described verification programme and management processes.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
heritage system

system/item with from the original supplier that has maintained the great majority of the original

service, design, performance and manufacturing and has already flown in space
3.1.2
late change

change to the space, launch, ground segments, or their interfaces, procedures or processes, which

compromise or potentially invalidate previously executed verification approved at each system level

preliminary design review (PDR) and/or critical design review (CDR)
3.1.3
mission critical failure
condition that meets one or more of the following criteria:

a) failure leading to inability to meet/achieve mission objective (e.g. payload or spacecraft bus is no

longer capable of supporting the mission objectives);
b) inability to meet minimum performance specifications for primary mission;
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ISO 23135:2022(E)

c) degrading condition whose trend indicates a loss of mission before mean mission duration or

design life;

d) repetitive transient condition(s) that, uncorrected, would lead to an unacceptable loss of mission

performance, data or services (e.g. satellite with processor susceptibility to single event upsets in

orbit with mean time to upset much less than mean time to recovery from upset)
3.1.4
operational test and evaluation

test and evaluation that represents the mission in terms of phase, transitions, environments, personnel

and events in an end-to-end system configuration (i.e. combination of hardware/software and data

when functioning as an integrated system), accepting mission inputs, executing mission functions

and producing mission outputs according to the typical operational rhythm, timelines, and sequences

resulting in end-user goals (products, services, and timeliness)
3.1.5
specification verification ledger
digital database for verification information of the space system specification
3.1.6
subject matter expert

person with substantial knowledge of, and experience with, the topic at hand, including terms,

technology and methods
3.1.7
verification cross-reference matrix

matrix, usually electronic database of some type, maintained to correlate all verification needs within

an assigned portion of a program, up to and including a complete program matrix

Note 1 to entry: The matrix does not replace other verification plans or requirements, but is a summary of them.

3.1.8
verification method
method including test, analysis, demonstration, or inspection
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9000.
3.1.9
verification record

record of requirement conformity or compliance based on the assigned verification method(s) (3.1.8)

3.2 Abbreviated terms
AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
CDR critical design review
CDRL contract data requirements list
COTS commercial, off-the-shelf
CM configuration management
DT&E development test and evaluation
EM engineering module
EMC electro-magnetic compatibility
EMI electro-magnetic interference
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ISO 23135:2022(E)
FCA functional configuration audit
I&T integration and test
IF interface
LRR launch readiness review
MRR manufacturing readiness review
NRB non-conformance review board
OT&E operational test and evaluation
PCA physical configuration audit
PDR preliminary design review
PMPCB parts, materials, and processes control board
QA quality assurance
SC spacecraft
SVL specification verification ledger
SDR system design review
SRR system requirements review
TPRD test parameters requirements document
TRR test readiness review
VCRM verification cross-reference matrix
VM verification management
WC worst-case
WBS work breakdown structure
WBS-WG WBS-based working group
4 Requirements for space system verification management processes
4.1 General

Each space system and lower-level systems developer shall implement the verification processes

detailed in 4.2 through 4.7. To better support a specific programme or project, the processes defined in

this document may be tailored to match the actual requirements or needs of the programme.

4.2 VM process 1: requirement flow-down and establishment of specification
4.2.1 General

The developers of each level of the system, in coordination with their systems engineering organizations,

develop a system-level specification with both performance and verification requirements for their

system. They capture the requirements that are flowed down from the top-level space system to

WBS elements, external interface specifications, and concept of operations (CONOPS) of their system.

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ISO 23135:2022(E)

They capture all the derived and specific requirements including those of normative references that

are necessary to design and develop their system. They also capture/modify all the heritage system

requirements that are compatible with the top-level requirements determined by the requirements

flow-up process.
Each specification shall include sections relating to:

a) the function, performance, constraints, and normative references for the product;

b) a detailed statement of how verification will be made for each separate requirement.

This includes verification methods and associated verification approaches.
NOTE 1 Specifications are defined in ISO 9000.

NOTE 2 See ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 for flow-down and flow-up in the systems engineering “V”.

NOTE 3 See ISO 16404 for general requirement management process including those associated with support

to systems engineering activities such as those associated with verification and configuration management.

NOTE 4 See ISO 14711 for CONOPS-related documents.
4.2.2 Specification requirements and review
4.2.2.1 General

Specifications shall be delivered for review at each corresponding system level’s review from the top

system level to the lowest unit level specification [e.g. system requirements review (SRR), system

design review (SDR), preliminary design review (PDR), critical design review (CDR)].

NOTE See ISO 14300-1 for project phasing and reviews.
4.2.2.2 Top-level requirements flowed-down/up documented traceability

Each of the top space system level requirements flowed down/up shall have documented traceability in

the verification record to the lowest level of the work breakdown structure (WBS).

4.2.2.3 Verification of non-derived requirements specific to each system

Verification requirements shall capture all the non-derived requirements that are specific to each of

the elements being developed.

NOTE Non-derived requirements are requirements which do not have a parent requirement in the next

higher level, such as those that are needed to satisfy heritage systems.
4.2.2.4 Verification of compatibility of heritage systems requirements

When heritage systems are used, verification requirements shall ensure that each of the requirements

in the heritage system specification is compatible with and supports the higher- and lower-level system

requirements. If not, they need to modify any noncompliant requirements accordingly (see ISO 16290).

4.2.2.5 Requirement verifiability

Each of the requirements shall be verifiable by analysis, test, inspection or demonstration or a

combination of them (see ISO 9000).
4.2.2.6 Normative references flow-down

Each of the normative references listed at any system level shall also be flowed down from the

appropriate level specification to any of the applicable lower level specifications.

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ISO 23135:2022(E)
4.2.2.7 Configuration management (CM)
The system level requirements shall be under CM control upon completion of SRR.
Lower level requirements shall be under CM control upon completion of PDR.

The requirements flow-down and flow-up efforts should be accomplished by utilizing data management

software in order to effectively manage any part of system level requirements flowed down/up to/from

any other system levels.

Validation of the developed specification may be considered as completed after independent subject

matter experts from external organizations have reviewed the specification and their comments are

incorporated into the specification.
4.2.3 Data supporting verification method and approach
Each specification ver
...

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