Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes

This document specifies the classification of and requirements for waxes used for dental casting (including products intended for CAD/CAM milling) using the lost-wax technique and dental baseplate preparation together with the test methods to be employed to determine compliance with these requirements. Solid polymer products (such as acrylics) for CAD/CAM work, and thermoplastic or photo-curing resins used in additive processes, are not covered by this document. This document does not include specific and quantitative requirements for freedom from biological hazards.

Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires pour coulée et pour plaque de base

Le présent document spécifie la classification et les exigences relatives aux cires utilisées pour la coulée dentaire (y compris les produits destinés au fraisage CFAO) à l’aide de la technique dite « cire perdue » et la préparation des plaques de base dentaires ainsi que les méthodes d’essai à appliquer pour déterminer la conformité à ces exigences. Les produits à base de polymères solides (tels que les acryliques) pour les travaux de CFAO, ainsi que les résines thermoplastiques ou photodurcissables utilisées dans les processus additifs, ne sont pas couverts par le présent document. Le présent document ne spécifie pas les exigences quantitatives spécifiques à l’élimination des risques biologiques.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
02-Sep-2023
Completion Date
09-Jan-2023
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15854
Third edition
2023-01
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate
waxes
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires pour coulée et pour plaque de base
Reference number
ISO 15854:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15854:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15854:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Appearance ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Flow .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Behaviour on trimming .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Appearance after flaming ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Residue on artificial teeth — Type 2 .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.8 Behaviour of colouring material — Type 2 ................................................................................................................... 3

5.9 Adhesion on storage — Type 2 ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.10 Residue on ignition — Type 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.11 Biocompatibility .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Test methods — General .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.1 Ambient temperature ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Apparatus function verification ......... ..................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Test methods — Specific ..............................................................................................................................................................................4

8.1 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2 Flow .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.1 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.3 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.4 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2.5 Expression of results and evaluation ............................................................................................................ 10

8.3 Behaviour on trimming test .................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.3.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.3.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4 Behaviour on softening test — Type 1 ........................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.5 Appearance after flaming test ...............................................................................................................................................12

8.5.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.5.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6 Behaviour on softening test — Type 2 ...........................................................................................................................12

8.6.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6.3 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.7 Residue on artificial teeth and behaviour of wax colouring material test — Type 2 ...........12

8.7.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.7.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.7.3 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

8.8 Adhesion on storage test — Type 2................................................................................................................................... 14

8.8.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

iii
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ISO 15854:2023(E)

8.8.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.8.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.9 Residue on ignition test— Type 1 ....................................................................................................................................... 15

8.9.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.9.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.9.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

9 Marking and packaging .............................................................................................................................................................................16

9.1 Marking ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

9.2 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

10 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Determination of the melting point of wax .................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 2,

Prosthodontic materials, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 55, Dentistry, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 15854:2021), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— the scope has been clarified;
— waxes supplied for use in CAD/CAM procedures have been included;
— the appearance after flaming has been extended to include casting waxes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
Introduction

For the purposes of this document, the term ‘casting’ includes ‘pressing’, as used for glass ceramics.

It is recommended that, in assessing possible biological or toxicological hazards, reference be made to

ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15854:2023(E)
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes
1 Scope

This document specifies the classification of and requirements for waxes used for dental casting

(including products intended for CAD/CAM milling) using the lost-wax technique and dental baseplate

preparation together with the test methods to be employed to determine compliance with these

requirements.

Solid polymer products (such as acrylics) for CAD/CAM work, and thermoplastic or photo-curing resins

used in additive processes, are not covered by this document.

This document does not include specific and quantitative requirements for freedom from biological

hazards.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1942, Dentistry — Vocabulary

ISO 21920-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile — Part 2: Terms,

definitions and surface texture parameters
ISO 6873, Dentistry — Gypsum products

ISO 8601-1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

ISO 22112, Dentistry — Artificial teeth for dental prostheses
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1942 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
casting wax

mouldable material with minimal residue on ignition suitable primarily for shaping patterns in the

production of cast restorations using the lost-wax technique (3.5)
3.2
baseplate wax

mouldable material primarily for forming occlusion rims, positioning and retaining artificial teeth

therein, and shaping patterns that are duplicated in the denture base polymer
3.3
milling wax
casting wax (3.1) where patterns are formed by milling using CAD/CAM systems
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
3.4
melting point
temperature above which no solid material exists at equilibrium

Note 1 to entry: For the practical purposes of this document, the melting point and the freezing point shall be

considered as being the same.
3.5
lost-wax technique

method of casting using a wax pattern that is removed from the intact investment mould by melting or

burning
4 Classification

Dental waxes covered by this document are classified according to the flow characteristics that

represent their hardness, as follows:
a) Type 1 (casting wax, for lost-wax technique):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Milling.
b) Type 2 (baseplate wax):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Extra hard.
5 Requirements
5.1 Appearance

The wax shall be uniform in colour, supplied in pieces of uniform size, of smooth texture and free of

foreign materials. Test in accordance with 8.1.
5.2 Flow

The wax when tested in accordance with 8.2 shall have flow values conforming with the appropriate

requirements in Table 1.
Table 1 — Flow requirements percentages
Type 1 Type 2
Temperature
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3
min. max. min. max. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
23,0 ± 0,2 — — — — — — 1,0 — 0,6 — 0,2
30,0 ± 0,2 — 1,0 — — — — — — — — —
37,0 ± 0,1 — — — 1,0 1,0 5,0 90,0 — 10,0 — 1,2
40,0 ± 0,1 50,0 — — 20,0 20,0 — — — — — —
45,0 ± 0,1 70,0 90,0 70,0 90,0 — — — 50,0 90,0 5,0 50,0
— not required
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
5.3 Behaviour on trimming

The wax shall be capable of being trimmed without chipping, flaking or other undesirable behaviour

when tested in accordance with 8.3.
5.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1

The wax shall soften without flaking or crumbling and shall cohere readily when tested in accordance

with 8.4.
5.5 Appearance after flaming

The wax shall present a smooth glossy surface when tested in accordance with 8.5.

5.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2

The wax shall soften without becoming sticky or crumbly and shall be mouldable without breaking or

delaminating when tested in accordance with 8.6.

This requirement shall not apply to baseplate preforms where a suitable square test piece cannot be

cut.
5.7 Residue on artificial teeth — Type 2

The wax shall not leave a visible residue on either ceramic or synthetic polymer teeth when tested in

accordance with 8.7.
5.8 Behaviour of colouring material — Type 2

The colouring material shall neither separate from the wax nor impregnate the gypsum mould when

tested in accordance with 8.7.
5.9 Adhesion on storage — Type 2

Adhesion due to storage of the wax shall be such that, when tested in accordance with 8.8, there shall

be no evidence of damage to wax surfaces. Wax and separating paper surfaces shall separate cleanly

and readily.

NOTE The separating paper can possibly not cover the whole area of the wax sheet.

5.10 Residue on ignition — Type 1

If the manufacturer does not state a value for the residue on ignition, the value as determined in

accordance with 8.9 shall be no greater than 0,10 % by mass.

If the residue on ignition is greater than 0,10 % by mass, this value shall be stated by the manufacturer

and the value as determined in accordance with 8.9 shall be not more than 20 % greater than that

stated value.
5.11 Biocompatibility

See ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1 for guidance on compatibility in respect of waxes that are offered for use

in the mouth or that are not specifically excluded from that application.
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
6 Sampling

The amount of material procured for testing shall be at least 250 g for Type 1 or 500 g for Type 2

from one batch and one packet where possible. This material shall be obtained on the open market

unannounced and thus taken randomly from stock.
7 Test methods — General
7.1 Ambient temperature

Unless otherwise specified in this document, all test piece preparation and testing shall be conducted at

an ambient temperature of (23 ± 2) °C. Where necessary and appropriate, all material shall be allowed

to equilibrate at this ambient temperature before testing for at least 24 h.
7.2 Apparatus function verification

All accessories, instruments and equipment shall be examined before use to ensure that they are in

acceptable working order, appropriately calibrated, and complying with specifications stated for them

in this document, as appropriate.
8 Test methods — Specific
8.1 Visual inspection

Carry out the inspection at an illuminance of at least 1 000 lux and at a distance not exceeding 250 mm.

A person making the inspection shall have nominally normal visual acuity. Corrective (non-magnifying)

untinted lenses may be worn.
8.2 Flow
8.2.1 Principle

The relative change in length of the test piece under a given load in a specified time is taken as a proxy

for the inverse of viscosity.
8.2.2 Apparatus
8.2.2.1 Micrometer screw gauge

Micrometer screw gauge with a range of at least 10 mm, being readable and accurate to 0,005 mm or

better, equipped with flat, parallel anvils at least 6,5 mm in diameter and a non-rotating spindle.

Avoidance of indentation of the wax test piece is essential.
8.2.2.2 Flow-testing instrument

Flow-testing instrument, such as shown in Figure 1, consisting of the following components:

— weight (see Figure 1, Key 1);

— shaft, which can move freely in its supports, lubricated as necessary (see Figure 1, Key 2);

— upper platen, metallic, minimum diameter 50 mm, lower surface flat and smooth, rigidly attached

and normal to the axis of the shaft (see Figure 1, Key 3);
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ISO 15854:2023(E)

— base plate, metallic, flat smooth and parallel to the lower surface of the upper platen (see Figure 1,

Key 4);

— measuring dial gauge or similarly functional instrument, with a range of at least 10 mm, readable

and accurate to 0,005 mm or better, and rigidly supported (optional) (see Figure 1, Key 5);

— locking screw or equivalent device (required if the dial gauge is used) (see Figure 1, Key 6).

Key
1 weight
2 shaft
3 upper platen
4 base plate
5 dial gauge (optional)
6 locking screw
NOTE This figure is not to scale.
Figure 1 — Conceptual diagram of a suitable flow-testing instrument

The total mass of the components of items 1, 2 and 3 shall be such as to provide an axial compressive

force of (19,6 ± 0,1) N. The weight (Figure 1, Key 1) shall be separated from the surface of the water in

the bath by at least 20 mm. The upper platen (Figure 1, Key 3) shall be at least 5 mm thick for rigidity.

The optional dial gauge (Figure 1, Key 5) and locking screw (Figure 1, Key 6) can replace the micrometer

screw gauge for direct measurement of displacement (see 8.2.3).

The axial force calculation shall take into account the buoyancy of the immersed parts of the shaft and

upper platen (using the value of 0,01 N/ml) and the force exerted by the dial gauge or other measuring

device (Figure 1, Key 5), which force may be about 1 N and vary with its displacement if (as is usual) a

spring is present. Appropriate control of the water level in the water bath (8.2.2.9) is required.

The locking screw or equivalent device shall not cause damage to the shaft (Figure 1, Key 2) and thereby

impede its free movement.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2023(E)

The base plate (Figure 1, Key 4) can conveniently be marked with a crosshair target, , avoiding

affecting the surface of the central region, to enable the correct location of the test piece.

8.2.2.3 Pouring pan

For melting the wax, use a metal, glass or ceramic vessel, which may have a handle for convenience,

similar in functionality to the example shown in Figure 2.
NOTE A volume of 10 ml to 20 ml can be adequate.
Figure 2 — Example of a suitable pouring pan
8.2.2.4 Heat source

For melting the wax, any convenient low-power or low-temperature system can be used. For example,

— an infrared lamp with nominal power of (250 ± 50) W using a bulb of type R40 or similar;

— a hotplate giving good thermal contact with the base of the pouring pan (8.2.2.3);

— a hot-air oven allowing the wax to be observed.

For preheating the mould (8.2.2.6), slab (8.2.2.7) and glass plate (8.2.2.8), an oven shall be used.

8.2.2.5 Thermometer

To measure the temperature of the molten wax, use an electronic thermometer with an accuracy

of ±0,2 °C and a reading resolution of ±0,1 K or better over the temperature range 20 °C to 100 °C, and

having a 95 % 10 K step change response time of less than 1 min.
8.2.2.6 Mould

For forming the flow test pieces, a metallic mould shall be used, for example made from stainless

steel or brass. This shall consist of a flat plate, (6,00 ± 0,01) mm thick, with parallel top and bottom

surfaces. The plate shall have one or more holes (10,00 ± 0,01) mm in diameter, with the axis of each

hole perpendicular to the surface of the plate. The upper and lower faces of the plate shall be finished

to roughness R ≤ 6,3 µm, and the hole wall shall be finished to roughness R ≤ 0,3 µm, according to

a a
ISO 21920-2.

NOTE It can be convenient to use a multiple mould such that several test pieces can be prepared at a time, for

example as shown in Figure 3.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2023(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 3 — Example of a suitable mould for preparing flow test pieces
8.2.2.7 Glass slab

As a base for the mould, use a flat, polished glass slab, large enough for the purpose (i.e. larger than the

extent of the mould plate).

NOTE A dental mixing slab, approximately 150 mm long, 75 mm wide and 19 mm thick, is convenient.

8.2.2.8 Glass plate

For covering the mould (8.2.2.6), use a flat, polished glass plate, large enough for the purpose and

covered with thin, flat aluminium foil. The assembly shall be weighed.
8.2.2.9 Water bath

Use a rigid, stable water bath of sufficiently large volume, equipped with a temperature control device

and a stirring device that together ensure sufficient accuracy, stability and homogeneity of temperature,

according to the tolerances shown in Table 1, over the test volume.
8.2.2.10 Anti-vibration table

If vibration is discernible, or there is an appreciable risk of flow results being affected by vibration, then

an anti-vibration table, for example of the kind used to carry and isolate analytical balances, shall be

used to carry the water bath (8.2.2.9).

NOTE Vibration, such as from traffic and footfall, and in particular the vertical component thereof

(‘hammering’), can cause flow values to be significantly increased, whether or not ordinarily apparent.

The water bath stirring device ca
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 15854
Troisième édition
2023-01
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires
pour coulée et pour plaque de base
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes
Numéro de référence
ISO 15854:2023(F)
© ISO 2023
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2023

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
© ISO 2023 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15854:2023(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes et définitions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Exigences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Aspect ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Fluage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Comportement lors de la sculpture ...................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Comportement lors du ramollissement — Type 1 .................................................................................................. 3

5.5 Aspect après passage à la flamme ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Comportement lors du ramollissement — Type 2 .................................................................................................. 3

5.7 Résidu sur dents artificielles — Type 2 ........................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Comportement de la matière colorante — Type 2 .................................................................................................. 3

5.9 Adhérence lors du stockage — Type 2 .............................................................................................................................. 3

5.10 Résidu après ignition — Type 1............................................................................................................................................... 3

5.11 Biocompatibilité .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Échantillonnage ....................................................................................................................................................................................................4

7 Méthodes d’essai — Généralités .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Température ambiante .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Vérification du fonctionnement de l'appareillage ................................................................................................... 4

8 Méthodes d’essai — Spécificités ..........................................................................................................................................................4

8.1 Contrôle visuel ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.2 Fluage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.1 Principe....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Appareillage............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.2.3 Préparation des éprouvettes ................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.4 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... .................... 10

8.2.5 Expression des résultats et évaluation ....................................................................................................... 11

8.3 Comportement lors de l'essai de la sculpture .......................................................................................................... 11

8.3.1 Principe.................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... ....................12

8.4 Comportement lors de l'essai de ramollissement — Type 1 .......................................................................12

8.4.1 Principe....................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.4.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.4.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... ....................12

8.5 Aspect après passage à l'essai de flamme ...................................................................................................................12

8.5.1 Principe....................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.5.2 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... ....................13

8.6 Comportement lors de l'essai de ramollissement — Type 2 .......................................................................13

8.6.1 Principe....................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.6.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.6.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... ....................13

8.7 Résidu sur dents artificielles et comportement de l'essai de matière colorante

pour cire — Type 2 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.7.1 Principe.................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.7.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.7.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... .................... 14

8.8 Adhérence lors de l'essai de stockage — Type 2 ................................................................................................... 15

iii
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ISO 15854:2023(F)

8.8.1 Principe....................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.8.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.8.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... ....................15

8.9 Résidu après l'essai d'ignition — Type 1 ...................................................................................................................... 16

8.9.1 Principe.................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.9.2 Appareillage......................................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.9.3 Mode opératoire ........................................................................................................................................... .................... 16

9 Marquage et emballage ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

9.1 Marquage .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.2 Emballage ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

10 Rapport d’essai ...................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annexe A (informative) Détermination du point de fusion de la cire ...........................................................................19

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2023 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document

a été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2

(voir www.iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, de la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute autre information au sujet de

l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les

obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant : www.iso.org/iso/fr/avant-propos.html.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 106, Médecine bucco‑dentaire,

sous-comité SC 2, Produits pour prothèses dentaires, en collaboration avec le comité technique ISO/TC 55,

Médecine bucco‑dentaire, du Comité européen de normalisation (CEN), conformément à l’Accord de

coopération technique entre l’ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 15854:2021), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes :

— éclaircissement du domaine d’application ;
— ajout de cires fournies pour une utilisation dans les procédures de CFAO ;
— extension de l’aspect après passage à la flamme, aux cires pour coulée.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
Introduction

Pour les besoins du présent document, le terme « coulée » comprend le « moulage » tel qu’utilisé pour la

vitrocéramique.

Il est toutefois recommandé, lors de l’évaluation des risques biologiques ou toxicologiques éventuels, de

se référer à l’ISO 7405 et à l’ISO 10993-1.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 15854:2023(F)
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires pour coulée et pour
plaque de base
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie la classification et les exigences relatives aux cires utilisées pour la

coulée dentaire (y compris les produits destinés au fraisage CFAO) à l’aide de la technique dite « cire

perdue » et la préparation des plaques de base dentaires ainsi que les méthodes d’essai à appliquer pour

déterminer la conformité à ces exigences.

Les produits à base de polymères solides (tels que les acryliques) pour les travaux de CFAO, ainsi que

les résines thermoplastiques ou photodurcissables utilisées dans les processus additifs, ne sont pas

couverts par le présent document.

Le présent document ne spécifie pas les exigences quantitatives spécifiques à l’élimination des risques

biologiques.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 1942, Médecine bucco‑dentaire — Vocabulaire

ISO 21920-2, Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — État de surface: Méthode du profil — Partie

2: Termes, définitions et paramètres d’état de surface
ISO 6873, Médecine bucco‑dentaire — Produits à base de gypse

ISO 8601-1, Date et heure — Représentations pour l'échange d'information — Partie 1: Règles de base

ISO 22112, Médecine bucco-dentaire — Dents artificielles pour prothèses dentaires

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 1942 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes :

— ISO Online browsing platform : disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia : disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
cire pour coulée

produit moulable contenant un résidu minimal après ignition servant essentiellement au formage

de patrons utilisés dans la fabrication de restaurations coulées, employant la technique dite « cire

perdue » (3.5)
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
3.2
cire pour plaque de base

produit moulable servant essentiellement au formage de bourrelets d’occlusion, au positionnement et

au maintien de dents artificielles, ainsi qu’au formage de patrons qui sont dupliqués dans le polymère

pour base de prothèses dentaires
3.3
cire pour fraisage

cire pour coulée (3.1) dans laquelle des patrons sont formés par fraisage à l’aide de systèmes de CFAO

3.4
point de fusion

température au-delà de laquelle aucun produit solide n’existe à l’état d'équilibre

Note 1 à l'article: Pour les besoins du présent document, le point de fusion et le point de congélation doivent être

considérés comme étant identiques.
3.5
technique dite « cire perdue »

méthode de coulée utilisant un patron en cire qui est retiré du moule de précision intact par fusion ou

combustion
4 Classification

Les cires dentaires traitées dans le présent document sont classées conformément aux caractéristiques

de fluage représentant leur dureté, comme indiqué ci-après :
a) Type 1 (cire pour coulée, pour la technique dite « cire perdue ») :
1) Classe 1 : Molle;
2) Classe 2 : Dure;
3) Classe 3 : Fraisage.
b) Type 2 (cire pour plaque de base) :
1) Classe 1 : Molle;
2) Classe 2 : Dure;
3) Classe 3 : Extra-dure.
5 Exigences
5.1 Aspect

La cire doit être de couleur uniforme, livrée en pièces de dimensions identiques, de texture lisse et

exempte d'impuretés. Soumettre à l’essai conformément à 8.1.
5.2 Fluage

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.2, la cire doit avoir des valeurs de fluage conformes

aux exigences appropriées du Tableau 1.
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
Tableau 1 — Exigences relatives au fluage (pourcentages)
Type 1 Type 2
Température
Classe 1 Classe 2 Classe 3 Classe 1 Classe 2 Classe 3
min. max. min. max. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
23,0 ± 0,2 — — — — — — 1,0 — 0,6 — 0,2
30,0 ± 0,2 — 1,0 — — — — — — — — —
37,0 ± 0,1 — — — 1,0 1,0 5,0 90,0 — 10,0 — 1,2
40,0 ± 0,1 50,0 — — 20,0 20,0 — — — — — —
45,0 ± 0,1 70,0 90,0 70,0 90,0 — — — 50,0 90,0 5,0 50,0
— non exigée
5.3 Comportement lors de la sculpture

Lorsqu’elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.3, la cire doit pouvoir se sculpter sans se casser, sans

s’écailler ou sans présenter un autre comportement indésirable.
5.4 Comportement lors du ramollissement — Type 1

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.4, la cire doit se ramollir sans s'écailler ni s'émietter

et doit pouvoir coller facilement.
5.5 Aspect après passage à la flamme

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.5, la cire doit présenter une surface lisse et brillante.

5.6 Comportement lors du ramollissement — Type 2

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.6, la cire doit être malléable sans devenir collante ou

friable et doit pouvoir être modelée sans se casser ni se délaminer.

Cette exigence ne doit pas s’appliquer aux ébauches pour plaque de base dans lesquelles une éprouvette

carrée appropriée ne peut pas être découpée.
5.7 Résidu sur dents artificielles — Type 2

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.7, la cire ne doit pas laisser apparaître de résidu visible

sur les dents en céramique ou en polymère synthétique.
5.8 Comportement de la matière colorante — Type 2

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.7, la matière colorante ne doit ni se dissocier de la cire

ni imprégner le moule en gypse.
5.9 Adhérence lors du stockage — Type 2

Lorsqu'elle est soumise à essai conformément à 8.8, la cire doit présenter une adhérence lors du

stockage telle que les surfaces de la cire ne présentent aucun signe de détérioration. Les surfaces de la

cire et du papier de séparation doivent se séparer facilement et sans souillure.

NOTE Il est possible que le papier de séparation ne recouvre pas toute la surface de la feuille de cire.

5.10 Résidu après ignition — Type 1

Si le fabricant ne déclare aucune valeur de résidu après ignition, la valeur déterminée conformément

à 8.9 ne doit pas être supérieure à 0,10 % en masse.
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ISO 15854:2023(F)

Si la valeur de résidu après ignition est supérieure à 0,10 % en masse, cette valeur doit être déclarée

par le fabricant et la valeur déterminée conformément à 8.9 ne doit pas dépasser cette valeur déclarée

de plus de 20 %.
5.11 Biocompatibilité

Voir l’ISO 7405 et l’ISO 10993-1 pour des recommandations relatives à la compatibilité des cires qui sont

destinées à être utilisées dans la bouche ou qui ne sont pas spécifiquement exclues de cette application.

6 Échantillonnage

La quantité de cire nécessaire aux essais doit être d'au moins 250 g pour le Type 1 ou 500 g pour

le Type 2 et doit provenir d’un seul lot de production et d’un seul paquet si possible. Ce produit doit être

acheté à l’improviste dans le commerce et ainsi prélevé au hasard dans le stock.
7 Méthodes d’essai — Généralités
7.1 Température ambiante

Sauf spécification contraire dans le présent document, la préparation et les essais de l'ensemble

des éprouvettes doivent être effectués à une température ambiante de (23 ± 2) °C. Lorsque cela est

nécessaire et approprié, la totalité du produit doit être équilibrée à cette température d’essai avant les

essais pendant au moins 24 h.
7.2 Vérification du fonctionnement de l'appareillage

Tous les accessoires, les instruments et le matériel doivent être examinés avant utilisation afin de

s'assurer qu'ils sont dans un état de marche acceptable, qu'ils sont correctement étalonnés et qu'ils

répondent aux spécifications correspondantes indiquées dans le présent document, le cas échéant.

8 Méthodes d’essai — Spécificités
8.1 Contrôle visuel

Effectuer le contrôle à un éclairement d'au moins 1 000 lux et à une distance n’excédant pas 250 mm. La

personne réalisant ce contrôle doit posséder une acuité visuelle nominalement normale. Des verres de

correction non teintés (non grossissants) peuvent être portés.
8.2 Fluage
8.2.1 Principe

La variation relative de la longueur de l’éprouvette sous une charge donnée dans un délai spécifié est

utilisée par procuration pour l’inverse de la viscosité.
8.2.2 Appareillage
8.2.2.1 Jauge à vis micrométrique

Jauge à vis micrométrique graduée sur une échelle minimale de 10 mm, d’une résolution et d’une

précision d’au moins 0,005 mm, équipée de butées parallèles plates d’au moins 6,5 mm de diamètre et

d’une broche non rotative.
Il est essentiel d'éviter l’indentation de l’éprouvette de cire.
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ISO 15854:2023(F)
8.2.2.2 Appareillage d’essai de fluage

Appareillage d'essai de fluage tel qu’indiqué à la Figure 1, composé des éléments suivants :

— un poids (voir Figure 1, repère de légende 1) ;

— une tige, qui peut se déplacer librement dans son support, lubrifiée si nécessaire (voir Figure 1,

repère de légende 2) ;

— une platine supérieure, en métal, d’un diamètre minimal de 50 mm, ayant une surface inférieure

plate et lisse, fixée de manière rigide et perpendiculaire à l’axe de la tige (voir Figure 1, repère de

légende 3) ;

— une plaque de base, plate, lisse et parallèle à la surface inférieure de la platine supérieure

(voir Figure 1, repère de légende 4) ;

— un comparateur à cadran ou un instrument similaire, gradué sur une échelle minimale de 10 mm,

d’une résolution et d’une exactitude de 0,005 mm ou plus, et fixé de manière rigide (facultatif) (voir

Figure 1, repère de légende 5) ;

— une vis de blocage ou un dispositif équivalent (requis si le comparateur à cadran est utilisé)

(voir Figure 1, repère de légende 6).
Légende
1 poids
2 tige
3 platine supérieure
4 plaque de base
5 comparateur à cadran (facultatif)
6 vis de blocage
NOTE Cette figure n’est pas à l’échelle.
Figure 1 — Schéma conceptuel d’un appareillage d’essai de fluage approprié
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ISO 15854:2023(F)

La masse totale des éléments 1, 2 et 3 doit permettre d’exercer une force de compression axiale

de (19,6 ± 0,1) N. Le poids (Figure 1, repère de légende 1) doit être séparé de la surface de l’eau dans le

bain d’au moins 20 mm. La platine supérieure (Figure 1, repère de légende 3) doit avoir une épaisseur

d’au moins 5 mm pour être rigide. Le comparateur à cadran (Figure 1, repère de légende 5) facultatif et

la vis de blocage (Figure 1, repère de légende 6) peuvent remplacer la jauge à vis micrométrique pour

mesurer directement le déplacement (voir 8.2.3).

Le calcul de la force axiale doit tenir compte de la flottabilité des parties immergées de la tige et de

la platine supérieure (en utilisant la valeur de 0,01 N/ml) et de la force exercée par le comparateur

à cadran ou un autre dispositif de mesure (Figure 1, repère de légende 5), laquelle force peut être

d’environ 1 N et varier en fonction de son déplacement si (comme généralement) un ressort est présent.

Le contrôle approprié du niveau d’eau dans le bain d’eau (8.2.2.9) est nécessaire.

La vis de blocage ou un dispositif équivalent ne doit pas endommager la tige (Figure 1, repère

de légende 2) et donc pas entraver sa liberté de déplacement.

La plaque de base (Figure 1, repère de légende 4) peut être adéquatement marquée à l’aide d’un pointeur

en croix, , ce qui évite d’affecter la surface de la région centrale, pour permettre le positionnement

correct de l’éprouvette.
8.2.2.3 Cuillère à cire verseuse

Pour faire fondre la cire, utiliser un récipient en métal, en verre ou en céramique, éventuellement muni

d’un manche pour des raisons pratiques, de fonctionnalité similaire à l’exemple illustré à la Figure 2.

NOTE Un volume de 10 ml à 20 ml peut être adéquat.
Figure 2 — Exemple de cuillère à cire verseuse appropriée
8.2.2.4 Source de chaleur

Pour faire fondre la cire, tout système à faible puissance ou à faible température adéquat peut être

utilisé. Par exemple,

— une lampe infrarouge ayant une puissance nominale de (250 ± 50) W munie d’une ampoule de

type R40 ou similaire ;

— une plaque chauffante assurant un contact thermique adéquat avec le fond de la cuillère à cire

verseuse (8.2.2.3) ;
— une étuve à air chaud permettant d’observer la cire.
Utiliser une étuve pour préchauffer le moule (8.2.2.6), la tablette (8.2.2.7) et
...

ISO/DIS 15854:2022(E)
ISO/TC 106 SC 2
Third edition
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires pour coulée et pour plaque de base
Third edition
Date: 2022-05-0810-18
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no

part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without

prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO's

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO Copyright Office
CP 401 • CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: + 41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland.
ii © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 6

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................................ 1

4 Classification ............................................................................................................................. 2

5 Requirements ............................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Appearance ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Flow .............................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Behaviour on trimming ......................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1 ...................................................................................... 3

5.5 Appearance after flaming ..................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2 ...................................................................................... 3

5.7 Residue on artificial teeth — Type 2 ................................................................................ 3

5.8 Behaviour of colouring material — Type 2 .................................................................... 3

5.9 Adhesion on storage — Type 2 ........................................................................................... 3

5.10 Residue on ignition — Type 1 ............................................................................................. 3

5.11 Biocompatibility ...................................................................................................................... 4

6 Sampling ..................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Test methods — General ....................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Ambient temperature ............................................................................................................ 4

7.2 Apparatus function verification ......................................................................................... 4

8 Test methods — Specific ....................................................................................................... 4

8.1 Visual inspection ...................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 Flow .............................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.1 Principle ...................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.3 Preparation of test pieces ..................................................................................................... 9

8.2.4 Procedure ................................................................................................................................. 11

8.2.5 Expression of results and evaluation ............................................................................. 12

8.3 Behaviour on trimming ....................................................................................................... 12

8.3.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................... 12

8.3.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................. 12

8.3.3 Procedure ................................................................................................................................. 12

8.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1 .................................................................................... 13

8.4.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................... 13

8.4.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................. 13

8.4.3 Procedure ................................................................................................................................. 13

8.5 Appearance after flaming ................................................................................................... 13

8.5.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................... 13

8.5.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................. 13

8.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2 .................................................................................... 14

8.6.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................... 14

8.6.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................. 14

8.6.3 Procedure ................................................................................................................................. 14

8.7 Residue on artificial teeth and behaviour of wax colouring material — Type 2

...................................................................................................................................................... 14

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ISO 15854:2022(E)

8.7.1 Principle ....................................................................................................................................14

8.7.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................14

8.7.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................14

8.8 Adhesion on storage — Type 2 .........................................................................................16

8.8.1 Principle ....................................................................................................................................16

8.8.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................16

8.8.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................16

8.9 Residue on ignition — Type 1 ...........................................................................................17

8.9.1 Principle ....................................................................................................................................17

8.9.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................17

8.9.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................17

9 Marking and packaging .......................................................................................................18

9.1 Marking .....................................................................................................................................18

9.2 Packaging ..................................................................................................................................18

10 Test report ...............................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Determination of the melting point of wax ....................................20

A.1 General ......................................................................................................................................20

A.2 Equipment ................................................................................................................................20

A.2.1 Thermometer ..........................................................................................................................20

A.2.2 Data logger ...............................................................................................................................20

A.2.3 Test tube ...................................................................................................................................20

A.2.4 Copper wire .............................................................................................................................20

A.2.5 Draft shield ..............................................................................................................................20

A.3 Method .......................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is

normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject

for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that

committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO,

also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed

for the different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does

not constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 2,

Prosthodontic materials, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 55, Dentistry, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 15854:2021), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— the scope has been clarified;
— waxes supplied for use in CAD/CAM procedures have been included;
— the appearance after flaming has been extended to include casting waxes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Introduction

For the purposes of this document, the term ‘casting’ includes ‘pressing’, as used for glass

ceramics.

It is recommended that, in assessing possible biological or toxicological hazards, reference be

made to ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1.
vi © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15854:2022(E)
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes
1 Scope

This document specifies the classification of and requirements for waxes used for dental casting

(including products intended for CAD/CAM milling) using the lost-wax technique and dental

baseplate preparation together with the test methods to be employed to determine compliance

with these requirements.

Solid polymer products (such as acrylics) for CAD/CAM work, and thermoplastic or photo-curing

resins used in additive processes, are not covered by this document.

This document does not include specific and quantitative requirements for freedom from

biological hazards.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO 1942, Dentistry — Vocabulary

ISO 428721920-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) -— Surface texture: Profile method -—

Part 2: Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters
ISO 6873, Dentistry — Gypsum products

ISO 8601--1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

ISO 22112, Dentistry — Artificial teeth for dental prostheses
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1942 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
casting wax

mouldable material with minimal residue on ignition suitable primarily for shaping patterns in

the production of cast restorations using the lost-wax technique (3.5)
3.2
baseplate wax
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ISO 15854:2022(E)

mouldable material primarily for forming occlusion rims, positioning and retaining artificial teeth

therein, and shaping patterns that are duplicated in the denture base polymer
3.3
milling wax
casting wax (3.1) where patterns are formed by milling using CAD/CAM systems
3.4
melting point
temperature above which no solid material exists at equilibrium

Note 1 to entry: For the practical purposes of this document, the melting point and the freezing point shall

be considered as being the same.
3.5
lost-wax technique

method of casting using a wax pattern that is removed from the intact investment mould by

melting or burning
4 Classification

Dental waxes covered by this document are classified according to the flow characteristics that

represent their hardness, as follows:
a) Type 1 (casting wax, for lost-wax technique):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Milling.
b) Type 2 (baseplate wax):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Extra hard.
5 Requirements
5.1 Appearance

The wax shall be uniform in colour, supplied in pieces of uniform size, of smooth texture and free

of foreign materials. Test in accordance with 8.1.
5.2 Flow

The wax when tested in accordance with 8.2 shall have flow values conforming with the

appropriate requirements in Table 1.
Table 1 — Flow requirements percentages
Type 1 Type 2
Temperature
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
min. max. min. max. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
23,0 ± 0,2 — — — — — — 1,0 — 0,6 — 0,2
30,0 ± 0,2 — 1,0 — — — — — — — — —
37,0 ± 0,1 — — — 1,0 1,0 5,0 90,0 — 10,0 — 1,2
40,0 ± 0,1 50,0 — — 20,0 20,0 — — — — — —
45,0 ± 0,1 70,0 90,0 70,0 90,0 — — — 50,0 90,0 5,0 50,0
— not required
5.3 Behaviour on trimming

The wax shall be capable of being trimmed without chipping, flaking or other undesirable

behaviour when tested in accordance with 8.3.
5.4 Behaviour on softening (— Type 1)

The wax shall soften without flaking or crumbling and shall cohere readily when tested in

accordance with 8.4.
5.5 Appearance after flaming

The wax shall present a smooth glossy surface when tested in accordance with 8.5.

5.6 Behaviour on softening (— Type 2)

The wax shall soften without becoming sticky or crumbly and shall be mouldable without

breaking or delaminating when tested in accordance with 8.6.

This requirement shall not apply to baseplate preforms where a suitable square test piece cannot

be cut.
5.7 Residue on artificial teeth (— Type 2)

The wax shall not leave a visible residue on either ceramic or synthetic polymer teeth when tested

in accordance with 8.7.
5.8 Behaviour of colouring material (— Type 2)

The colouring material shall neither separate from the wax nor impregnate the gypsum mould

when tested in accordance with 8.7.
5.9 Adhesion on storage (— Type 2)

Adhesion due to storage of the wax shall be such that, when tested in accordance with 8.8, there

shall be no evidence of damage to wax surfaces. Wax and separating paper surfaces shall separate

cleanly and readily.

NOTE The separating paper can possibly not cover the whole area of the wax sheet.

5.10 Residue on ignition (— Type 1)

If the manufacturer does not state a value for the residue on ignition, the value as determined in

accordance with 8.9 shall be no greater than 0,10 % by mass.

If the residue on ignition is greater than 0,10 % by mass, this value shall be stated by the

manufacturer and the value as determined in accordance with 8.9 shall be not more than 20 %

greater than that stated value.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
5.11 Biocompatibility

See ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1 for guidance on compatibility in respect of waxes that are offered

for use in the mouth or that are not specifically excluded from that application.

6 Sampling

The amount of material procured for testing shall be at least 250 g for Type 1 or 500 g for Type 2

from one batch and one packet where possible. This material shall be obtained on the open market

unannounced and thus taken randomly from stock.
7 Test methods — General
7.1 Ambient temperature

Unless otherwise specified in this document, all test piece preparation and testing shall be

conducted at an ambient temperature of (23 ± 2) °C. Where necessary and appropriate, all

material shall be allowed to equilibrate at this ambient temperature before testing for at least

24 h.
7.2 Apparatus function verification

All accessories, instruments and equipment shall be examined before use to ensure that they are

in acceptable working order, appropriately calibrated, and complying with specifications stated

for them in this document, as appropriate.
8 Test methods — Specific
8.1 Visual inspection

Carry out the inspection at an illuminance of at least 1 000 lux and at a distance not exceeding

250 mm. A person making the inspection shall have nominally normal visual acuity. Corrective

(non-magnifying) untinted lenses may be worn.
8.2 Flow
8.2.1 Principle

The relative change in length of the test piece under a given load in a specified time is taken as a

proxy for the inverse of viscosity.
8.2.2 Apparatus
8.2.2.1 Micrometer screw gauge

Micrometer screw gauge with a range of at least 10 mm, being readable and accurate to 0,005 mm

or better, equipped with flat, parallel anvils at least 6,5 mm in diameter and a non-rotating spindle.

Avoidance of indentation of the wax test piece is essential.
8.2.2.2 Flow-testing instrument

Flow-testing instrument, such as shown in Figure 1, consisting of the following components:

— weight (see Figure 1, Key 1);

— shaft, which can move freely in its supports, lubricated as necessary (see Figure 1, Key 2);

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ISO 15854:2022(E)

— upper platen, metallic, minimum diameter 50 mm, lower surface flat and smooth, rigidly

attached and normal to the axis of the shaft (see Figure 1, Key 3);

— base plate, metallic, flat smooth and parallel to the lower surface of the upper platen (see

Figure 1, Key 4);

— measuring dial gauge or similarly functional instrument, with a range of at least 10 mm,

readable and accurate to 0,005 mm or better, and rigidly supported (optional) (see Figure 1,

Key 5);

— locking screw or equivalent device (required if the dial gauge is used) (see Figure 1, Key 6).

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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Key
1 weight
2 shaft
3 upper platen
4 base plate
5 dial gauge (optional)
6 locking screw
NOTE This figure is not to scale.
Figure 1 — Conceptual diagram of a suitable flow-testing instrument

The total mass of the components of items 1, 2 and 3 shall be such as to provide an axial

compressive force of (19,6 ± 0,1) N. The weight (Figure 1, Key 1) shall be separated from the

surface of the water in the bath by at least 20 mm. The upper platen (Figure 1, Key 3) shall be at

least 5 mm thick for rigidity. The optional dial gauge (Figure 1, Key 5) and locking screw (Figure 1,

Key 6) can replace the micrometer screw gauge for direct measurement of displacement (see

8.2.3).

The axial force calculation shall take into account the buoyancy of the immersed parts of the shaft

and upper platen (using the value of 0,01 N/ml) and the force exerted by the dial gauge or other

measuring device (Figure 1, Key 5), which force may be about 1 N and vary with its displacement

if (as is usual) a spring is present. Appropriate control of the water level in the water bath (8.2.2.9)

is required.

The locking screw or equivalent device shall not cause damage to the shaft (Figure 1, Key 2) and

thereby impede its free movement.

The base plate (Figure 1, Key 4) can conveniently be marked with a crosshair target, , avoiding

affecting the surface of the central region, to enable the correct location of the test piece.

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ISO 15854:2022(E)
8.2.2.3 Pouring pan

For melting the wax, use a metal, glass or ceramic vessel, which may have a handle for

convenience, similar in functionality to the example shown in Figure 2.
NOTE A volume of 10 ml to 20 ml can be adequate.
Figure 2 — Example of a suitable pouring pan
8.2.2.4 Heat source

For melting the wax, any convenient low-power or low-temperature system can be used. For

example,

— an infrared lamp with nominal power of (250 ± 50) W using a bulb of type R40 or similar;

— a hotplate giving good thermal contact with the base of the pouring pan (8.2.2.3);

— a hot-air oven allowing the wax to be observed.

For preheating, the mould (8.2.2.6), slab (8.2.2.7) and), glass plate (8.2.2.8) and an oven shall be

used.
8.2.2.5 Thermometer

To measure the temperature of the molten wax, use an electronic thermometer with an accuracy

of ±0,2 °C and a reading resolution of ±0,1 K or better over the temperature range 20 °C to 100 °C,

and having a 95 % 10 K step change response time of less than 1 min.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
8.2.2.6 Mould

For forming the flow test pieces, a metallic mould shall be used, for example made from stainless

steel or brass. This shall consist of a flat plate, (6,00 ± 0,01) mm thick, with parallel top and bottom

surfaces. The plate shall have one or more holes (10,00 ± 0,01) mm in diameter, with the axis of

each hole perpendicular to the surface of the plate. The upper and lower faces of the plate shall be

finished to roughness R ≤ 6,3 µm, and the hole wall shall be finished to roughness R ≤ 0,3 µm,

a a
according to ISO 4287.

NOTE It can be convenient to use a multiple mould such that several test pieces can be prepared at a

time, for example as shown in Figure 3.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 3 — Example of a suitable mould for preparing flow test pieces
8.2.2.7 Glass slab

As a base for the mould, use a flat, polished glass slab, large enough for the purpose (i.e. larger

than the extent of the mould plate).
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ISO 15854:2022(E)

NOTE A dental mixing slab, approximately 150 mm long, 75 mm wide and 19 mm thick, is convenient.

8.2.2.8 Glass plate

For covering the mould (8.2.2.6), use a flat, polished glass plate, large enough for the purpose and

covered with thin, flat aluminium foil. The assembly shall be weighed.
8.2.2.9 Water bath

Use a rigid, stable water bath of sufficiently large volume, equipped with a temperature control

device and a stirring device that together ensure sufficient accuracy, stability and homogeneity of

temperature, according to the tolerances shown in Table 1, over the test volume.
8.2.2.10 Anti-vibration table

If vibration is discernible, or there is an appreciable risk of flow results being affected by vibration,

then an anti-vibration table, for example of the kind used to carry and isolate analytical balances,

shall be used to carry the water bath (8.2.2.9).

NOTE Vibration, such as from traffic and footfall, and in particular the vertical component thereof

(‘hammering’), can cause flow values to be significantly increased, whether or not ordinarily apparent.

The water bath stirring device can, if attached to the water bath itself, be a source of significant

vibration; it is preferable to suspend this component separately to avoid that vibration.

8.2.2.11 Silicone grease

Food-grade poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based, petroleum product-free grease of service temperature

range at least −50 °C to 150 °C, of low to medium viscosity.
8.2.2.12 Polyethylene film

Flat, smooth, crease and wrinkle-free, in approximately square sheets no less than 50 mm on a

side.
8.2.2.13 Timing devices

Clocks or timers to permit intervals from 60 s to 25 h to be noted, accurate and reading to 1 s.

8.2.2.14 Deadweight

For loading the glass plate (8.2.2.8), according to the number of test pieces involved, such that the

total load per test piece is (23 ± 1) N.
8.2.2.15 CAD/CAM machine

For Type 1 Class 3, any milling machine capable of producing the test pieces can be used. The

machine setup, production and post-processing steps and conditions shall follow the

requirements of the ‘Instructions for Use’ documentation of both the machine and the material

manufacturers.
8.2.3 Preparation of test pieces
8.2.3.1 Type 1 Classes 1 and 2, Type 2

Lubricate the mould (8.2.2.6) internally with a very thin film of silicone grease as release agent

and place it on a smooth glass slab (8.2.2.7). Preheat both to a temperature (10 ± 5) K above the

melting point of the wax, which temperature shall be maintained until the liquid wax is ready to

be poured.

NOTE 1 The melting point of the wax, if not known from the manufacturer’s or supplier’s information, can

be determined by a procedure such as that indicated in Annex A.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved 9
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...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15854
Third edition
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate
waxes
Médecine bucco-dentaire — Cires pour coulée et pour plaque de base
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 15854:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Appearance ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Flow .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Behaviour on trimming .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Appearance after flaming ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Residue on artificial teeth — Type 2 .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.8 Behaviour of colouring material — Type 2 ................................................................................................................... 3

5.9 Adhesion on storage — Type 2 ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.10 Residue on ignition — Type 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.11 Biocompatibility .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Test methods — General .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.1 Ambient temperature ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Apparatus function verification ......... ..................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Test methods — Specific ..............................................................................................................................................................................4

8.1 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2 Flow .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.1 Principle ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8.2.3 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.4 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2.5 Expression of results and evaluation ............................................................................................................ 10

8.3 Behaviour on trimming ............................................................................................................................................................... 11

8.3.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.3.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.3.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 11

8.4.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.4.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11

8.5 Appearance after flaming .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

8.5.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.5.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2 ......................................................................................................................................12

8.6.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.6.3 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.7 Residue on artificial teeth and behaviour of wax colouring material — Type 2 ......................12

8.7.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.7.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.7.3 Procedure ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

8.8 Adhesion on storage — Type 2 .............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.8.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

iii
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ISO 15854:2022(E)

8.8.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.8.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.9 Residue on ignition — Type 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 15

8.9.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.9.2 Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.9.3 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15

9 Marking and packaging .............................................................................................................................................................................16

9.1 Marking ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

9.2 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

10 Test report ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Determination of the melting point of wax .................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 106, Dentistry, Subcommittee SC 2,

Prosthodontic materials, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

Technical Committee CEN/TC 55, Dentistry, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 15854:2021), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:
— the scope has been clarified;
— waxes supplied for use in CAD/CAM procedures have been included;
— the appearance after flaming has been extended to include casting waxes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Introduction

For the purposes of this document, the term ‘casting’ includes ‘pressing’, as used for glass ceramics.

It is recommended that, in assessing possible biological or toxicological hazards, reference be made to

ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15854:2022(E)
Dentistry — Casting and baseplate waxes
1 Scope

This document specifies the classification of and requirements for waxes used for dental casting

(including products intended for CAD/CAM milling) using the lost-wax technique and dental baseplate

preparation together with the test methods to be employed to determine compliance with these

requirements.

Solid polymer products (such as acrylics) for CAD/CAM work, and thermoplastic or photo-curing resins

used in additive processes, are not covered by this document.

This document does not include specific and quantitative requirements for freedom from biological

hazards.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1942, Dentistry — Vocabulary

ISO 21920-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile — Part 2: Terms,

definitions and surface texture parameters
ISO 6873, Dentistry — Gypsum products

ISO 8601-1, Date and time — Representations for information interchange — Part 1: Basic rules

ISO 22112, Dentistry — Artificial teeth for dental prostheses
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1942 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
casting wax

mouldable material with minimal residue on ignition suitable primarily for shaping patterns in the

production of cast restorations using the lost-wax technique (3.5)
3.2
baseplate wax

mouldable material primarily for forming occlusion rims, positioning and retaining artificial teeth

therein, and shaping patterns that are duplicated in the denture base polymer
3.3
milling wax
casting wax (3.1) where patterns are formed by milling using CAD/CAM systems
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
3.4
melting point
temperature above which no solid material exists at equilibrium

Note 1 to entry: For the practical purposes of this document, the melting point and the freezing point shall be

considered as being the same.
3.5
lost-wax technique

method of casting using a wax pattern that is removed from the intact investment mould by melting or

burning
4 Classification

Dental waxes covered by this document are classified according to the flow characteristics that

represent their hardness, as follows:
a) Type 1 (casting wax, for lost-wax technique):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Milling.
b) Type 2 (baseplate wax):
1) Class 1: Soft;
2) Class 2: Hard;
3) Class 3: Extra hard.
5 Requirements
5.1 Appearance

The wax shall be uniform in colour, supplied in pieces of uniform size, of smooth texture and free of

foreign materials. Test in accordance with 8.1.
5.2 Flow

The wax when tested in accordance with 8.2 shall have flow values conforming with the appropriate

requirements in Table 1.
Table 1 — Flow requirements percentages
Type 1 Type 2
Temperature
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3
min. max. min. max. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
23,0 ± 0,2 — — — — — — 1,0 — 0,6 — 0,2
30,0 ± 0,2 — 1,0 — — — — — — — — —
37,0 ± 0,1 — — — 1,0 1,0 5,0 90,0 — 10,0 — 1,2
40,0 ± 0,1 50,0 — — 20,0 20,0 — — — — — —
45,0 ± 0,1 70,0 90,0 70,0 90,0 — — — 50,0 90,0 5,0 50,0
— not required
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
5.3 Behaviour on trimming

The wax shall be capable of being trimmed without chipping, flaking or other undesirable behaviour

when tested in accordance with 8.3.
5.4 Behaviour on softening — Type 1

The wax shall soften without flaking or crumbling and shall cohere readily when tested in accordance

with 8.4.
5.5 Appearance after flaming

The wax shall present a smooth glossy surface when tested in accordance with 8.5.

5.6 Behaviour on softening — Type 2

The wax shall soften without becoming sticky or crumbly and shall be mouldable without breaking or

delaminating when tested in accordance with 8.6.

This requirement shall not apply to baseplate preforms where a suitable square test piece cannot be

cut.
5.7 Residue on artificial teeth — Type 2

The wax shall not leave a visible residue on either ceramic or synthetic polymer teeth when tested in

accordance with 8.7.
5.8 Behaviour of colouring material — Type 2

The colouring material shall neither separate from the wax nor impregnate the gypsum mould when

tested in accordance with 8.7.
5.9 Adhesion on storage — Type 2

Adhesion due to storage of the wax shall be such that, when tested in accordance with 8.8, there shall

be no evidence of damage to wax surfaces. Wax and separating paper surfaces shall separate cleanly

and readily.

NOTE The separating paper can possibly not cover the whole area of the wax sheet.

5.10 Residue on ignition — Type 1

If the manufacturer does not state a value for the residue on ignition, the value as determined in

accordance with 8.9 shall be no greater than 0,10 % by mass.

If the residue on ignition is greater than 0,10 % by mass, this value shall be stated by the manufacturer

and the value as determined in accordance with 8.9 shall be not more than 20 % greater than that

stated value.
5.11 Biocompatibility

See ISO 7405 and ISO 10993-1 for guidance on compatibility in respect of waxes that are offered for use

in the mouth or that are not specifically excluded from that application.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
6 Sampling

The amount of material procured for testing shall be at least 250 g for Type 1 or 500 g for Type 2

from one batch and one packet where possible. This material shall be obtained on the open market

unannounced and thus taken randomly from stock.
7 Test methods — General
7.1 Ambient temperature

Unless otherwise specified in this document, all test piece preparation and testing shall be conducted at

an ambient temperature of (23 ± 2) °C. Where necessary and appropriate, all material shall be allowed

to equilibrate at this ambient temperature before testing for at least 24 h.
7.2 Apparatus function verification

All accessories, instruments and equipment shall be examined before use to ensure that they are in

acceptable working order, appropriately calibrated, and complying with specifications stated for them

in this document, as appropriate.
8 Test methods — Specific
8.1 Visual inspection

Carry out the inspection at an illuminance of at least 1 000 lux and at a distance not exceeding 250 mm.

A person making the inspection shall have nominally normal visual acuity. Corrective (non-magnifying)

untinted lenses may be worn.
8.2 Flow
8.2.1 Principle

The relative change in length of the test piece under a given load in a specified time is taken as a proxy

for the inverse of viscosity.
8.2.2 Apparatus
8.2.2.1 Micrometer screw gauge

Micrometer screw gauge with a range of at least 10 mm, being readable and accurate to 0,005 mm or

better, equipped with flat, parallel anvils at least 6,5 mm in diameter and a non-rotating spindle.

Avoidance of indentation of the wax test piece is essential.
8.2.2.2 Flow-testing instrument

Flow-testing instrument, such as shown in Figure 1, consisting of the following components:

— weight (see Figure 1, Key 1);

— shaft, which can move freely in its supports, lubricated as necessary (see Figure 1, Key 2);

— upper platen, metallic, minimum diameter 50 mm, lower surface flat and smooth, rigidly attached

and normal to the axis of the shaft (see Figure 1, Key 3);
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ISO 15854:2022(E)

— base plate, metallic, flat smooth and parallel to the lower surface of the upper platen (see Figure 1,

Key 4);

— measuring dial gauge or similarly functional instrument, with a range of at least 10 mm, readable

and accurate to 0,005 mm or better, and rigidly supported (optional) (see Figure 1, Key 5);

— locking screw or equivalent device (required if the dial gauge is used) (see Figure 1, Key 6).

Key
1 weight
2 shaft
3 upper platen
4 base plate
5 dial gauge (optional)
6 locking screw
NOTE This figure is not to scale.
Figure 1 — Conceptual diagram of a suitable flow-testing instrument

The total mass of the components of items 1, 2 and 3 shall be such as to provide an axial compressive

force of (19,6 ± 0,1) N. The weight (Figure 1, Key 1) shall be separated from the surface of the water in

the bath by at least 20 mm. The upper platen (Figure 1, Key 3) shall be at least 5 mm thick for rigidity.

The optional dial gauge (Figure 1, Key 5) and locking screw (Figure 1, Key 6) can replace the micrometer

screw gauge for direct measurement of displacement (see 8.2.3).

The axial force calculation shall take into account the buoyancy of the immersed parts of the shaft and

upper platen (using the value of 0,01 N/ml) and the force exerted by the dial gauge or other measuring

device (Figure 1, Key 5), which force may be about 1 N and vary with its displacement if (as is usual) a

spring is present. Appropriate control of the water level in the water bath (8.2.2.9) is required.

The locking screw or equivalent device shall not cause damage to the shaft (Figure 1, Key 2) and thereby

impede its free movement.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)

The base plate (Figure 1, Key 4) can conveniently be marked with a crosshair target, avoiding affecting

the surface of the central region, to enable the correct location of the test piece.

8.2.2.3 Pouring pan

For melting the wax, use a metal, glass or ceramic vessel, which may have a handle for convenience,

similar in functionality to the example shown in Figure 2.
NOTE A volume of 10 ml to 20 ml can be adequate.
Figure 2 — Example of a suitable pouring pan
8.2.2.4 Heat source

For melting the wax, any convenient low-power or low-temperature system can be used. For example,

— an infrared lamp with nominal power of (250 ± 50) W using a bulb of type R40 or similar;

— a hotplate giving good thermal contact with the base of the pouring pan (8.2.2.3);

— a hot-air oven allowing the wax to be observed.

For preheating, the mould (8.2.2.6), slab (8.2.2.7), glass plate (8.2.2.8) and an oven shall be used.

8.2.2.5 Thermometer

To measure the temperature of the molten wax, use an electronic thermometer with an accuracy

of ±0,2 °C and a reading resolution of ±0,1 K or better over the temperature range 20 °C to 100 °C, and

having a 95 % 10 K step change response time of less than 1 min.
8.2.2.6 Mould

For forming the flow test pieces, a metallic mould shall be used, for example made from stainless

steel or brass. This shall consist of a flat plate, (6,00 ± 0,01) mm thick, with parallel top and bottom

surfaces. The plate shall have one or more holes (10,00 ± 0,01) mm in diameter, with the axis of each

hole perpendicular to the surface of the plate. The upper and lower faces of the plate shall be finished

to roughness R ≤ 6,3 µm, and the hole wall shall be finished to roughness R ≤ 0,3 µm, according to

a a
ISO 4287.

NOTE It can be convenient to use a multiple mould such that several test pieces can be prepared at a time, for

example as shown in Figure 3.
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ISO 15854:2022(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 3 — Example of a suitable mould for preparing flow test pieces
8.2.2.7 Glass slab

As a base for the mould, use a flat, polished glass slab, large enough for the purpose (i.e. larger than the

extent of the mould plate).

NOTE A dental mixing slab, approximately 150 mm long, 75 mm wide and 19 mm thick, is convenient.

8.2.2.8 Glass plate

For covering the mould (8.2.2.6), use a flat, polished glass plate, large enough for the purpose and

covered with thin, flat aluminium foil. The assembly shall be weighed.
8.2.2.9 Water bath

Use a rigid, stable water bath of sufficiently large volume, equipped with a temperature control device

and a stirring device that together ensure sufficient accuracy, stability and homogeneity of temperature,

according to the tolerances shown in Table 1, over the test volume.
8.2.2.10 Anti-vibration table

If vibration is discernible, or there is an appreciable risk of flow results being affected by vibration, then

an anti-vibration table, for example of the kind used to carry and isolate analytical balances, shall be

used to carry the water bath (8.2.2.9).
NOTE Vibration, such as from traffic and footfall,
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