Information technology — Distributed Application Platforms and Services (DAPS) — General technical principles of Service Oriented Architecture

ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012 describes the general technical principles underlying Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), including principles relating to functional design, performance, development, deployment and management. It provides a vocabulary containing definitions of terms relevant to SOA. It includes a domain-independent technical framework, addressing functional requirements and non-functional requirements.

Technologie de l'information — l'Plate-formes et services d'applications distribuées (DAPS) — Principes techniques généraux de l'architecture orientée services

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Publication Date
03-Dec-2012
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6060 - International Standard published
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04-Dec-2012
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012 - Information technology -- Distributed Application Platforms and Services (DAPS) -- General technical principles of Service Oriented Architecture
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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC
REPORT TR
30102
First edition
2012-12-01
Information technology — Distributed
Application Platforms and Services
(DAPS) — General technical principles of
Service Oriented Architecture
Technologie de l'information — Plate-formes et services d'applications
distribuées (DAPS) — Principes techniques généraux de l'architecture
orientée services
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
ISO/IEC 2012
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

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ii © ISO/IEC 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 Definitions .............................................................................................................................................. 1

2.2 Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................... 8

3 SOA Principles and Concepts .............................................................................................................. 8

3.1 Introduction to SOA .............................................................................................................................. 8

3.2 Concepts ................................................................................................................................................ 9

3.2.1 Roles ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

3.2.2 Services ................................................................................................................................................ 10

3.2.3 Semantics ............................................................................................................................................. 11

3.2.4 Compositions and Processes ............................................................................................................ 11

3.2.5 Service Registration and Discovery .................................................................................................. 13

3.2.6 Service Description, Interfaces, Contracts and Policies ................................................................. 14

1.1.1 Service Lifecycle ................................................................................................................................. 16

3.2.7 SOA Lifecycle ...................................................................................................................................... 16

3.2.8 Tasks and Activities ............................................................................................................................ 17

3.3 Architectural Principles ...................................................................................................................... 17

3.3.1 Architectural Principles defined ........................................................................................................ 17

3.3.2 Interoperable – syntactic, semantic .................................................................................................. 18

3.3.3 Described ............................................................................................................................................. 18

3.3.4 Reusable ............................................................................................................................................... 19

3.3.5 Discoverable ........................................................................................................................................ 20

3.3.6 Composable ......................................................................................................................................... 21

3.3.7 Self-Contained ..................................................................................................................................... 21

3.3.8 Loosely coupled .................................................................................................................................. 21

1.1.2 Manageable .......................................................................................................................................... 22

3.4 Cross Cutting Aspects ........................................................................................................................ 23

3.4.1 Integration ............................................................................................................................................ 23

3.4.2 Management and Security .................................................................................................................. 25

3.4.3 SOA Governance ................................................................................................................................. 30

4 SOA Technical Framework ................................................................................................................. 32

4.1 Introduction to the SOA Technical Framework ................................................................................ 32

4.2 Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions ....................................................................................... 33

4.2.1 Operational and IT Systems Layer .................................................................................................... 34

4.2.2 Service Components Layer ................................................................................................................ 35

4.2.3 Services Layer ..................................................................................................................................... 36

4.2.4 Process Layer ...................................................................................................................................... 36

4.2.5 Consumer Interface Layer .................................................................................................................. 37

4.2.6 Integration Layer ................................................................................................................................. 38

4.2.7 Management and Security Layer ....................................................................................................... 38

4.2.8 Information Layer ................................................................................................................................ 40

4.2.9 Governance Layer ............................................................................................................................... 40

4.2.10 Development Layer ............................................................................................................................. 41

4.3 Common Services Categories ........................................................................................................... 42

4.3.1 Common Services Categories Overview .......................................................................................... 42

4.3.2 Mediation Services .............................................................................................................................. 43

4.3.3 Interaction Services ............................................................................................................................ 43

4.3.4 Process Services ................................................................................................................................. 43

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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)

4.3.5 Information Services ...........................................................................................................................43

4.3.6 Access Services ...................................................................................................................................44

4.3.7 Security Services .................................................................................................................................44

4.3.8 Partner Services ...................................................................................................................................45

4.3.9 Lifecycle Service ..................................................................................................................................45

4.3.10 Asset and Registry Services ..............................................................................................................45

4.3.11 Infrastructure Services ........................................................................................................................45

4.3.12 Management Services .........................................................................................................................45

4.3.13 Development Services ........................................................................................................................46

4.3.14 Strategy and Planning Services .........................................................................................................46

4.3.15 Business Application Services ..........................................................................................................46

4.3.16 Business Services ...............................................................................................................................46

4.3.17 Considering Implementations of Common Service Categories using Reference

Architecture ..........................................................................................................................................46

Annex A (informative) The Open Group SOA Reference Architecture ........................................................49

Annex B (informative) The OASIS SOA Reference Model and Reference Architecture ............................52

Annex C (informative) OMG SOA / Modeling Language ................................................................................53

Annex D (informative) China’s Technical Reference Architecture for SOA Solutions ..............................54

Annex E (informative) SC 32 SOA Registry Metamodel ................................................................................59

Annex F (informative) SOA Related Function - Japanese Technical Reference Model (TRM) for the

Government Procurement of Information Systems .........................................................................60

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................72

iv © ISO/IEC 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when the joint technical committee has collected data of a different kind from

that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide to

publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely informative in nature and shall be subject to review

every five years in the same manner as an International Standard.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this Technical Report may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC TR 30102 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 38, Distributed application platforms and services (DAPS).
© ISO/IEC 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
Introduction

Service Oriented Architecture (abbreviated SOA) is an architectural style that supports service orientation and

is a paradigm for business and IT (see 3.1.40). This architectural style is for designing systems in terms of

services available at an interface and the outcomes of services. A service is a logical representation of a

repeatable business activity that has specified outcomes, is self contained, may be composed of other

services and is a “black box” to consumers of the service (see 3.1.14).

To enable this co-operation and collaboration business-oriented SOA takes ‘service’ as its basic element to

constitute and integrate information systems so that they are suitable for a wider variety of application

requirements. Some of the benefits of using SOA are improvement in the efficiency of development of

information systems, efficiency of integration and efficiency of re-use of IT resources. It also enables agile and

rapid response of information systems to ever-changing business needs. Many companies across many

industries world-wide have developed SOA enterprise architectures, solutions and products.

This report is intended to be a single set of SOA technical principles, specific norms, and standards for the

world-wide market to help remove confusion about SOA, improve the standardization and quality of solutions,

as well as promote effective large-scale adoption of SOA. The benefits of this technical report contribute to

improving the standardization, interoperability, and quality of solutions supporting SOA.

This technical report defines the basic technical principles and reference architecture for SOA rather than

being focused on the business aspects. It also discusses the functional, performance, development,

deployment, and governance aspects of SOA. This technical report can be used to introduce SOA concepts,

as a guide to the development and management of SOA solutions, as well as be referenced by business and

industry standards.
This technical report includes the following clauses:

Clause 3 – terminology – defines terms used when discussing or designing service oriented solutions. Terms

defined here are used in some unique fashion for SOA. It does not define terms that are used in general

English manner.

Clause 4 – Concepts and Principles – articulates basic SOA concepts and expands on the key terms in

clause 3.

Clause 5 – SOA Technical Framework – documents an overview of a reference architecture for building SOA

based solutions.

The targeted audience of this technical report includes, but is not limited to, standards organizations,

architects, SOA service providers, SOA solution and service developers, and SOA service consumers who

are interested in adopting and developing SOA.
vi © ISO/IEC 2012 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
Information technology — Distributed Application Platforms
and Services (DAPS) — General technical principles of Service
Oriented Architecture
1 Scope

This Technical Report describes the general technical principles underlying Service Oriented Architecture

(SOA), including principles relating to functional design, performance, development, deployment and

management. It provides a vocabulary containing definitions of terms relevant to SOA.

It includes a domain-independent technical framework, addressing functional requirements and non-functional

requirements.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
2.1 Definitions
2.1.1
actor

person or system component who interacts with the system as a whole and who provides stimulus which

invoke actions
NOTE See ISO/IEC 16500-8:1999, 3.1.
2.1.2
architecture

fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements,

relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011, 3.2). ISO/IEC

40210:2011
2.1.3
choreography

omposition whose elements interact in a non-directed fashion with each autonomous member knowing and

following an observable predefined pattern of behavior for the entire (global) composition

NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.4
collaboration

omposition whose elements interact in a non-directed fashion, each according to their own plans and

purposes without a predefined pattern of behavior
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.5
composition
result of assembling a collection of things for a particular purpose
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.6
effect
outcome of an interaction with a service

NOTE 1 If service contracts exist, they usually define effects. The effect is how a service, through the element that

performs it, delivers value to its consumer.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.7
element

unit that is indivisible at a given level of abstraction,and has a clearly defined boundary

NOTE 1 An Element can be any type of entity.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.8
entity

individual in a service system with an identity which can act as a service provider or consumer

NOTE Examples of entities are organizations, enterprises and individuals, software and hardware.

2.1.9
event
something that occurs,to which an element may choose to respond

NOTE Events can be responded to by any element and events may be generated (emitted) by any element.

2.1.10
execution context

set of technical and business elements that form a path between those with needs and those with capabilities

and that permit service providers and consumers to interact

NOTE 1 The execution context of a service interaction is the set of infrastructure elements, process entities, policy

assertions and agreements that are identified as part of an instantiated service interaction, and thus forms a path between

those with needs and those with capabilities.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [19].
2.1.11
human actor
person or an organizational entity
NOTE 1 In principle, this classification is not exhaustive.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.12
human tasks

tasks which are done by people or organizations, specifically instances of Human Actor

2.1.13
information Type
type of information given or received in a service interface
2.1.14
orchestration

composition for which there is one particular element used by the composition that oversees and directs the

other elements
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)

NOTE 1 The element that directs an orchestration by definition is different than the orchestration (Composition

instance) itself.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.15
process

composition whose elements are composed into a sequence or flow of activities and interactions with the

objective of carrying out certain work
NOTE 1 A process may also be a collaboration, choreography, or orchestration.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.16
REST

architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that,

when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces,

independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce

security, and encapsulate legacy systems

NOTE See REST "Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000), Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software

Architectures, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Irvine).
2.1.17
service

logical representation of a set of repeatable activities that has specified outcomes, is self-contained, may be

composed of other services, and is a “black box” to consumers of the service
NOTE 1 See Bibliography Reference [21].

NOTE 2 The word “activity” in the ‘Service’ definition above is used in the general English language sense of the word,

not in the process-specific sense of that same word (i.e., activities are not necessarily process activities).

2.1.18
service broker

implements service intermediaries that provide unified service registration and publishing

NOTE They can also provide other important supports for SOA, such as service discovery, routing, location-

transparent service access, for service providers and service consumers.
2.1.19
service bus

intermediary IT infrastructure that supports service access and consumption, event-driven message routing

among services

NOTE The core functionalities of Service Bus might include: service routing, message transformation, event

handling, providing service call, and related intermediary services, connecting a variety of applications, services,

information, and platform resources. Service bus is widely used in enterprise contexts and usually equates to the

Enterprise Service Bus (ESB).
2.1.20
service catalogue
service registry
service repository

component that supports publication, registration, search, and retrieval of metadata and artifacts for services

NOTE A service registry is typically a limited set of metadata to facilitate interaction with services and accessing

content from a service repository containing the full artifacts.
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
2.1.21
service choreography

composition whose elements are services that interact in a non-directed fashion with each autonomous

member knowing and following an observable predefined pattern of behavior for the entire (global)

composition
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.22
service collaboration

composition whose elements are services that interact in a non-directed fashion, each according to their own

plans and purposes without a predefined pattern of behavior
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.23
service component
element that implements services
2.1.24
service composition
service assembly
result of assembling a collection of services to achieve a particular purpose

NOTE A composition can support different composition patterns: such as. collaboration, choreography, orchestration.

NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.25
service consumer
entity that uses services

NOTE Consumers may interact with services operationally or with contractually (legal responsibility).

2.1.26
service contract

terms, conditions, and interaction rules that interacting consumers and providers must agree to (directly or

indirectly)

NOTE 1 A service contract is binding on all participants in the interaction, including the service itself and the element

that provides it for the particular interaction in question.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.27
service description
information needed in order to use, or consider using, a service

NOTE 1 The service description usually includes the service interfaces, contracts, and policies

NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [19].
2.1.28
service deployment

process that makes implementations of services deployed and able to actually run in a specific hardware and

software environment

NOTE 1 Service deployment includes static deployment and dynamic deployment. Static deployment means that the

call relations between the services is defined before runtime. Dynamic deployment means that when the application

system is running, it needs to determine the call relations by dynamic routing.
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)

NOTE 2 In terms of a single service, a service after deployment can be actually called by end users, other IT systems

or services. In terms of multiple service-based processes, after deployment, they can form a complete application system

to provide appropriate IT support for users.
2.1.29
service development
service implementation

technical development and physical implementation of the service that is part of a service lifecycle

2.1.30
service discovery

process that service consumers use to search and retrieve desired services according to their specific

functional or non-functional requirements
2.1.31
service governance

strategy and control mechanism definition on service lifecycle, which includes establishment of chains of

responsibility, ensures its compliance with policies by providing appropriate processes and measurements,

addressing service modifications, version updates, notice of termination, decomposition subdivision, agency

capacity, decomposition capacity, ability to meet individual demands
2.1.32
service interaction

activity involved in making using of a capability offered, usually across an ownership boundary, in order to

achieve a particular desired real-world effect
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [19].
2.1.33
service interface

way in which other elements can interact and exchange information with a service as the outcome of a

request in the definition of a service
NOTE See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.34
service interoperability

ability of providers and consumers to communicate, invoke services and exchange information at both the

syntactic and semantic level
2.1.35
Service Level Agreement (SLA)

service contract that defines the interaction and measureable conditions of interaction between a service

provider and a service consumer

NOTE A Service Level Agreement usually contains: the set of services the provider will deliver, a complete, specific

definition of each service, the responsibilities of the provider and the consumer, the set of metrics to determine whether

the provider is delivering the service as promised, an auditing mechanism to monitor the service, the remedies available to

the consumer and provider if the terms of the SLA are not met, and how the SLA will change over time.

2.1.36
service lifecycle

set of phases for a service throughout its life, from identification to instantiation and retirement

2.1.37
service management
monitoring, controlling, maintaining, and operating services
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ISO/IEC TR 30102:2012(E)
2.1.38
service modeling

service oriented analysis process of finding and modelling a series of service candidates for functions or

actions which can be defined independently or by decomposing business processes
2.1.39
service monitor
monitoring and controlling operational state and performance of service
2.1.40
service orchestration

composition of services for which there is one particular element used by the composition that oversees and

directs the other elements

NOTE 1 the element that directs an orchestration by definition is different than the orchestration (Composition instance)

itself.
NOTE 2 See Bibliography Reference [21].
2.1.41
service orientation
approach to designing systems in terms of services and service-based development
2.1.42
service oriented analysis

preparatory information gathering steps that are completed in support of a service modeling sub-process that

results in the creation of a set of service candidates

NOTE Service Oriented Analysis is the first phase in the cycle, though the service-oriented analysis process might be

carried out iteratively, once for each business process. It provides guidance to the following process.

2.1.43
service oriented architecture
architectural style that supports serv
...

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