Information technology -- Radio frequency identification device performance test methods

ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015 defines test methods for performance characteristics of HF RFID gates in libraries for item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for HF RFID gates in libraries which are applicable to the selection of the gates for an application. The summary of the test reports form a unified tag datasheet. It does not apply to testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements.

Technologies de l'information -- Méthodes d'essai des performances du dispositif d'identification par radiofréquence

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25-Nov-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18046-4
First edition
2015-12-15
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification device
performance test methods —
Part 4:
Test methods for performance of RFID
gates in libraries
Technologies de l’information — Méthodes d’essai des performances
du dispositif d’identification par radiofréquence —
Partie 4: Méthodes d’essai de la performance des portes à RFID dans
les bibliothèques
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 Number of interrogators to be tested.................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 RF environment ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.8 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.9 Test equipment limits ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.10 Human exposure to EMF ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6 Required auxiliary means for performance tests .............................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Movement apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 PC with test software ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Reference blocks .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Tags .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.3 Tag block ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.4 Tag bundle ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Media stack ........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Active interferer ..................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Passive Interferer ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

7 Performance tests ............................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 General remarks .................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Measurement of transmitter carrier H-field level .................................................................................................14

7.3 Detection field homogeneity ....................................................................................................................................................17

7.4 Reliability of detection ..................................................................................................................................................................18

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.4.2 Procedure (on the basis of AFI) .......................................................................................................................19

7.4.3 Procedure with increased walking speed ...............................................................................................19

7.4.4 Procedure with 6 tags and read data of 34 bytes, walking speed (only on

the basis of AFI) .............................................................................................................................................................20

7.4.5 Procedure with 6 tags and read data of 34 bytes, increased walking speed

(only on the basis of AFI) .......................................................................................................................................20

7.5 Stack performance ............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.6 Immunity to interferences .........................................................................................................................................................22

7.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

7.6.2 Analysis 1 (active interferer) ..............................................................................................................................23

7.6.3 Analysis 2 (passive metallic interferer) ....................................................................................................25

8 Assessment of the complete product test ................................................................................................................................26

9 Certificate ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (normative) Test Record (AFI) .........................................................................................................................................................27

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)

Annex B (informative) Media stack .....................................................................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee

SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

ISO/IEC 18046 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Radio

frequency identification device performance test methods:
— Part 1: Test methods for system performance
— Part 2: Test methods for interrogator performance
— Part 3: Test methods for tag performance
— Part 4: Test methods for performance of RFID gates in libraries
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/IEC 18046 covers test methods for the performance of HF RFID gates in libraries. The

term HF RFID gate refers to an HF RFID interrogator that supports an arrangement of several HF RFID

antennas utilizing multiplexers or splitters. Antenna pairs are usually placed on opposite sides of a so-

called passage way through which tags are moved and captured. The positioning of such HF RFID gates

at entrances, exits and transit positions within buildings thus permits the capturing of access and/or

outward movement of objects/media or media stacks.

At the same time, the possibility of stack (bundle) detection permits the simultaneous recognition of

several tags. HF RFID gates are available as permanently installed or mobile variants. The reading

range of HF RFID gates is limited but can be set in the range of 0,5 m to 2 m for 13,56 MHz (inductive

coupling) systems based on the size and number of antennas and/or of the tag properties.

The main purpose of the gates within a library lies in anti-theft protection of media using simple

reading of security bits (AFI or EAS) on a tag. Aside from that, they also permit the capturing of the

specific medium by reading out extended information that can be additionally stored in a tag. There are

also hybrid systems, which additionally allow capturing of so-called EAS magnetic strips.

HF RFID gates within libraries are frequently used in combination with visitor counters (e.g. light

barriers) which permit direction-dependent capturing of gate use. These visitor counters can be

installed optionally or can alternatively be a fixed part of the gate.

Current gates can recognize tags in horizontal and vertical as well as diagonal positions. A few possess

auto-tuning functions that automatically correct the magnetic field if there is a drop in performance.

The selected operating mode (AFI) is constant throughout the entire individual tests.

Figure 1 shows four essential processes that could be identified for HF RFID gates in libraries. These

are, on the one hand, the registration of media security at the time of access/outward movement of

objects and therewith the alarm functions. Then, there is the pure detection of media information of

the tags that have been moved. Furthermore, there is the optional counting of visitors and finally, the

communication with the backend systems of the library, though this is not compulsory. In its main

function of media security, a gate should also function offline.
Procedures in
gates
Request of
Detection of Communication Registration of
media information
media protection with backend visitor low
Alarm
Figure 1 — Typical process flow at a gate

By increasing service demands in the area of opening times and increasing cost pressures at the same

time, public and academic libraries increasingly rely on the use of automated accounting systems based

on radio frequency technology. In addition to posting the media for lending and return, the technology

also provides an anti-theft device. Core components for preventing burglary are sensor systems, which

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)

are installed in the form of pass gates at the entry and exit. Prior to this part of ISO/IEC 18046, there

were no requirements and test specifications that describe the performance of these sensor systems

uniformly. With the present test methods for standardization of performance evaluation of HF RFID

gates for use in libraries, this gap will be closed.

The RFID performance of the gates can be impaired if objects that have an influence on the magnetic

fields are present in the direct vicinity of the gates. Materials such as metals, water and substances with

a high density can influence transmission here. In libraries, it is mostly due to constructional and/or

architectural reasons that such objects are present in the direct vicinity of HF RFID gates. These can

be metallic door frames, staircase railings, floor heating as well as sign plates or metallic furniture. In

many cases, it is not possible to maintain a minimum distance, resulting in possible performance losses

of the antennas. Special influence is also exerted by power lines with high output or lines with power

line telecommunication within the building which are laid into the floor or in the walls and are not

visually identifiable as sources of interference.

Influences can be caused by active and passive sources. These include the RFID components themselves.

The passive sources of interference include all kinds of furniture of a library composed of or containing

metal which can possibly have an interfering influence and can distort the detection field. This also

includes tags disposed in the vicinity of the gates which are positioned in a secured variant within the

library. All kinds of electrical devices and machines that can exert an electro-magnetic influence on the

gate in libraries, and/or buildings, in general, can be summed up as active interferers.

In this part of ISO/IEC 18046, references to HF RFID gates, interrogators, and tags usually assume HF

RFID gates, HF interrogators, and HF tags.
© ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
device performance test methods —
Part 4:
Test methods for performance of RFID gates in libraries
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 18046 defines test methods for performance characteristics of HF RFID gates in

libraries for item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for HF

RFID gates in libraries which are applicable to the selection of the gates for an application. The summary

of the test reports form a unified tag datasheet. It does not apply to testing in relation to regulatory or

similar requirements.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 18000-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC 19762 , Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques

— Harmonized vocabulary

EN 300330-1 V 1.8.0:2014-06, Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short

Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment in the frequency range 9 kHz to 25 MHz and inductive loop systems

in the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz; Part 1: Technical characteristics and test methods

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762 and the

following apply.
3.1
walking speed
at a speed of 1 m/s
3.2
increased walking speed
at a speed of 2 m/s
3.3
direction of movement

direction in which a gate is passed by persons in normal

operation
1) To be published.
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
3.4
system interface

describes the interface, over which the system “Gate” exchanges information with a higher level IT system

Note 1 to entry: The system interface is accessible from outside the object. Often, a proprietary, interrogator-

specific, communication protocol is applied here.
3.5
rate of detection

represents the average number of detected tags per test set-up over three repetitions per distance

travelled
3.6
travel distance

testing instruments such as tag, tag bundles or media stacks are moved on the travel distance through

the gate (DUT)

Note 1 to entry: Its length is 3 m. At the same time, the centre point of the travelling distance lies at half depth of

the gate. In cases, where the gate has an especially large depth, the travelling distance is extended such that its

start and its end are securely at a distance at which no tag can be detected.
3.7
reference plane
plane to which all measures of altitude refer as shown in Figure 2
Key
1 antenna
2 reference plane
Figure 2 — Reference plane

Note 1 to entry: The reference plane corresponds to the plane on which persons pass through the gate when it is

actually mounted. The gate is directly mounted on this plane. The reference plane is a part of the measurement

apparatus. For ensuring stability, the gate is directly mounted on the mounting plate of the movement apparatus.

It is at the height of the reference plane.
3.8
gate width

width that is of relevance for the persons passing through the gate as shown in Figure 3

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
1 m
Key
1 antenna
2 gate width
Figure 3 — Gate width

Note 1 to entry: The passage width refers to the distance between the antennas which is of relevance for the

passage of persons through the gate. The gate width is measured at 1 m height above the reference plane.

3.9
detection range
right-angled slice plane of the passage way (route) between two gate antennas
Note 1 to entry: The detection range is restricted
— to the gate width of the gate in terms of width, and

— to the upper limit of the detection range (h) specified by the manufacturer or, if this information is missing,

to the upper limit of the gate housing, and to the lower limit of the detection range (m) specified by the

manufacturer or, if this information is missing, to the fixed dimension of m = 25 cm above the reference plane,

in terms of height.

Note 2 to entry: The dimensions of the acquisition range are defined once and are identically applicable to

all analyses.
3.10
operating mode
DUT is operated in the same operating mode during the tests

Note 1 to entry: That means that the detection is based on the AFI principle during all individual tests.

3.11
tag state “secured”
AFI byte possesses the value 07 (0x07)
Note 1 to entry: The address data refers to the data sheet of the chip used.
3.12
tag state “borrowed”
AFI byte possesses the value 194 (0xC2)
Note 1 to entry: The address data refers to the data sheet of the chip used.
3.13
tag Orientation

A plane of the tag antenna parallel to the planes of the gate antennas, main dimension of the tag

antenna in walking direction
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Figure 4 — Tag orientation A

B planes of the tag antenna rectangular to the planes of the gate antennas, main dimension of the

tag antenna vertical
Figure 5 — Tag orientation B

C plane of the tag antenna horizontally, main dimension of the tag in walking direction

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Figure 6 — Tag orientation C

D analogue to A, plane of the tag antenna 30° raked at the longitudinal axis of the main dimension

Figure 7 — Tag orientation D

E analogue C, plane of the tag antenna 30° raked at the axis in the antenna plane rectangular to

the main dimension
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
Figure 8 — Tag orientation E

F planes of the tag antenna parallel to the plans of the gate antennas, main direction of the tag

antenna vertical
Figure 9 — Tag orientation F
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this part of ISO/IEC 18046, the symbols found in ISO/IEC 19762 and the

following apply.
b gate width (in m)
e travel plane spacing (in m)
f frequency (in Hz)
g antenna width (in m)
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
H magnetic field intensity (in A/m)
h upper limit of the detection range (in m)
k plane distance (in m)
l travel distance (in m)
m lower limit of the detection range (in m)
n distance from the antenna plane to the first measurement points (in m)
p workstation height (in m)
s distance between interferer and gate (in m)
u distance between the antennas of a tag (in m)
4.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this part of ISO/IEC 18046, the symbols found in ISO/IEC 19762 and the

following apply.
AFI application family identifier
DUT device under test
EAS electronic article surveillance
UID unique identifier

NOTE ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 31, in general, uses the term UII; however, as ISO/IEC 18000-3 Mode 1 directly

refers to ISO/IEC 15693, the term UID applies in this case.
UII unique item identifier
5 Conditions applicable to the test methods
5.1 Number of interrogators to be tested

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall be performed on 1 randomly chosen interrogator or gate.

5.2 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in air environment of temperature

23 °C +/- 3 °C (73 °F +/- 5 °F) and of relative humidity 40 % to 60 %.
5.3 RF environment
The tests shall be performed in a known RF environment.

For measurement with operating frequencies below 30 MHz a typical laboratory environment is

sufficient, where consideration is given to minimize the impact of electromagnetic sources that may

influence the results.
5.4 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification tags to be tested shall be

conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 hours before testing.
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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015(E)
5.5 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of +/- 1 % shall be applied to the quantity values

given to specify the characteristics of the test equipment (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method

procedures (e.g. test equipment adjustments).
5.6 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008.
5.7 Test result reporting
Test result reporting is specified for each test in the test description.
5.8 Test communication parameters

All the tests may be done for various communication parameters (forward and return link) as selected

by the vendor of the DUT. The tests conditions shall be recorded in the test report.

5.9 Test equipment limits

It shall be ensured that the test equipment is not limiting the performance of the measurement.

5.10 Human exposure to EMF

High magnetic or electromagnetic field strength may exceed the limits of maximum permissible

human exposure to EMF, which should be considered accordingly. FCC guidelines for MPE and SAR or

EC 1999/519/CE are examples for relevant documents.
6 Required auxiliary means for performance tests
6.1 Movement apparatus

This shall be an apparatus that permits the translatory movement of testing instruments within the

gate at variously defined speeds. The vertical (height) and horizontal position for the movement shall

be adjustable. In this way test movement tracks can be “traced” one after the other at defined positions

in direction of travel. The length of the travel distance shall be at least 3 m. The speed shall be adjustable

and it shall at least support 1 m/s and 2 m/s. The movement apparatus shall be essentially composed of

non-metallic material.
6.2 PC with test software

The test software shall at the minimum visualize the UII (or UID as applicable) (unique item identifier

according to ISO/IEC 1800
...

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