Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 2: Test methods for adhesives

ISO 13007-2:2005 specifies methods for determining characteristics for adhesives used in the installation of ceramic tiles. The following test methods are described: determination of open time; determination of slip; determination of shear adhesion strength; determination of tensile adhesion strength; determination of transverse deformation; and determination of chemical resistance.

Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles — Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai pour les colles

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
05-Sep-2005
Withdrawal Date
05-Sep-2005
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
06-Sep-2010
Completion Date
06-Sep-2010
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13007-2
First edition
2005-09-15
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles —
Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai pour les colles
Reference number
ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
ISO 2005
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
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© ISO 2005

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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 General test conditions and procedures............................................................................................ 1

3.1 Sampling................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Test materials........................................................................................................................................ 2

3.4 Mixing procedures................................................................................................................................ 2

3.5 Test substrate ....................................................................................................................................... 3

3.6 Failure patterns ..................................................................................................................................... 3

3.7 Test report ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Test methods......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Determination of open time ................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 Determination of slip ............................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength (for D and R adhesives)............................................... 7

4.4 Determination of tensile adhesion strength (for C adhesives) ...................................................... 10

4.5 Determination of transverse deformation ........................................................................................ 13

4.6 Determination of chemical resistance.............................................................................................. 16

Annex A (informative) Concrete Test Slab..................................................................................................... 35

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 39

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13007-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 189, Ceramic Tile.

ISO 13007 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ceramic Tiles — Grouts and adhesives:

 Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for adhesives
 Part 2: Test methods for adhesives
 Part 3: Terms, definitions and specifications for grouts
 Part 4: Test methods for grouts
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13007 specifies methods for determining characteristics for adhesives used in the installation

of ceramic tiles.
The following test methods are described:
 determination of open time (4.1);
 determination of slip (4.2);
 determination of shear adhesion strength (4.3);
 determination of tensile adhesion strength (4.4);
 determination of transverse deformation (4.5);
 determination of chemical resistance (4.6).
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13006, Ceramic tiles — Definitions, classification, characteristics and marking

ISO 13007-1, Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for

adhesives
3 General test conditions and procedures
3.1 Sampling
A representative sample of at least 2 kg shall be used.
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
3.2 Test conditions

Standard conditions shall be (23 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 5) % relative humidity and a circulation of air in the testing

area less than 0,2 m/s. Other test conditions may be specified in Clause 4. The tolerance in the time of

conditioning for all test specimens shall be as follows:
Conditioning Tolerance
24 h
± 0,5 h
7 days
± 3 h
14 days
± 6 h
21 days
± 9 h
28 days
± 12 h
3.3 Test materials

Condition all test materials including water for at least 24 h under standard conditions. The adhesive to be

tested shall be within its shelf life, where this is specified.
3.3.1 Ceramic tiles

The tiles shall be checked prior to conditioning to ensure that they are unused, clean and dry. The type of tile

shall be as specified under the specific test procedures found in Clause 4.
3.4 Mixing procedures
3.4.1 Cementitious adhesives (C)

The amount of water and/or liquid admix required for preparing the adhesive shall be as stated by the

manufacturer in parts by mass, i.e. liquid to dry powder (in the case where a range of values is given, the

average shall be used).

Using a minimum quantity of 2 kg of the powder and the recommended quantity of liquid, prepare the

adhesive in a mixer of the planetary type using the slow speed settings (140 ± 5) rotations per min and

(62 ± 5) rev/min planetary movement. (See Figures 1 and 2.)
Carry out the following procedure:
 pour the liquid into the pan;
 scatter the dry powder over the liquid;
 mix for 30 s;
 take out the mixing paddle;
 scrape down the paddle and pan within 1 min;
 replace the paddle and mix for 1 min.

If required by the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions, let the adhesive mature as specified and then mix for

an additional 15 s.
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
3.4.2 Dispersion adhesive (D) or reaction resin adhesive (R)

Where ready-to-use dispersion adhesives or reaction resin adhesives are to be used, the manufacturer’s

instructions shall be followed.
3.5 Test substrate
3.5.1 Concrete test substrate

The mandatory concrete test substrate shall be (40 ± 5) mm thick, have a moisture content of less than 3 %

3 3

by mass and have a water absorption at the surface after 4 h of testing in range of 0,5 cm to 1,5 cm . The

cohesive strength as referenced in A.3.3 shall be at least 1,5 N/mm . An example of a method for

manufacturing a suitable concrete test slab and the procedures for measuring the cohesive strength and

surface water absorption is given in Annex A.
3.5.2 Other substrates

Other substrates may be used upon agreement if the substrate is recommended for ceramic tile application by

the adhesive manufacturer. To demonstrate compatibility with other optional substrates, the adhesive shall be

applied to the selected substrate in accordance with the determination of open time test method (4.1).

When the result of W 0,5 N/mm is achieved or cohesive failure occurs in the substrate, the requirement is

considered satisfied.
3.6 Failure patterns
3.6.1 Adhesion failure (AF-S or AF-T)

Failure occurs at the interface between adhesive and substrate (AF-S) or between tile and adhesive (AF-T).

The test value equals the adhesive strength [Figure 3 a) and b)]. In some cases the failure may occur in the

adhesive layer between the tile and the pull head plate (BF) [Figure 3 c)]. In this case the adhesive strength is

greater than the test value and the test should be repeated.
3.6.2 Cohesive failure within the adhesive (CF-A)
Failure occurs within the adhesive layer [Figure 3 d)].
3.6.3 Cohesive failure in the substrate or in the tile (CF-S or CF-T)

The failure occurs within the substrate (CF-S) [Figure 3 e)] or within the body of the tile (CF-T) [Figure 3 f)]. In

this case, the strength of the adhesive is greater than the test value.

The modes of failure may be a combination of any of the above. An approximate percentage of each shall be

recorded.
3.7 Test report
The following information shall be provided in the test report:
a) reference to this part of ISO 13007, i.e. “ISO 13007-2”;
b) date of test;
c) type of adhesive, commercial designation and manufacturer's name;
d) source, date obtained and complete identification of test sample;
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
e) handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) test conditions;
g) amount of water or liquid used for preparing adhesive;
h) test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure where required);
i) full description of test substrate;
j) any other factor that could have affected the result.
4 Test methods
4.1 Determination of open time
4.1.1 General

Open time shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the

specific instructions which follow.
4.1.2 Test materials
4.1.2.1 Ceramic tiles
The tiles used for this test shall be:

Group BIII porous body tile, complying with ISO 13006 of water absorption (15 ± 3) % mass fraction, cut to

facial dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm.
4.1.2.2 Test substrate

The mandatory concrete test substrate shall conform to requirements given in 3.5.1.

4.1.3 Apparatus

4.1.3.1 Test mass, of less than 50 mm × 50 mm cross sectional area, capable of exerting a uniform force

of (20 ± 0,05) N.

4.1.3.4 Pull-head plates, square metallic plates, with dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm and a minimum

thickness of 10 mm, with a suitable fitting for connection to the test machine.

4.1.3.3 Test machine, for direct pull tensile force test and with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the

test.

The machine shall be capable of applying the load to the pull-head plate at the rate of (250 ± 50) N/s through

a suitable fitting that does not exert any bending force.
4.1.4 Procedure

Apply a thin layer of the adhesive, mixed in accordance with 3.4.1, to the concrete slab with a straight edge

trowel. Then apply a thicker layer and comb with a notched trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm

centres for cementitious adhesives and 4 mm × 4 mm notches at 8 mm centres for dispersion adhesives and

reaction resin adhesives. The trowel shall be held at an angle of approximately 60° to the substrate at a right

angle to one edge of the slab and drawn across the slab parallel to that edge (in a straight line).

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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)

After 5, 10, 20, 30 or more minutes, place at least ten test tiles 50 mm apart, on the adhesive within 30 s.

Place tiles on no more than 4 ribs for C adhesives and no more than 6 ribs for D adhesives.

Load each tile with (20 ± 0,05) N for 30 s.

After 27 days storage under standard conditions, bond the pull-head plates to the tiles with a suitable high

strength adhesive (e.g. epoxide adhesive).

After a further 24 h storage under standard conditions determine the tensile adhesion strength of the adhesive

by applying a force increasing at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.
4.1.5 Evaluation and expression of results

The individual tensile adhesion strengths are quoted to 0,1 N/mm using the following formula:

Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
where
S is the individual tensile adhesion strength, in newtons per square millimetre;
F is the total tensile load, in newtons;
A is the bonding area, in square millimetres (2 500 mm ).
The tensile adhesion strength for each time interval is determined as follows:
 determine the mean of the ten values;
 discard the values falling out of the range of ± 20 % of the mean value;
 if five or more values remain, determine the new mean;
 if less than five values remain repeat the test;
 determine the mode of failure of the test units (see 3.6).

The open time in minutes, is the maximum time interval at which the adhesive meets the tensile adhesion

strength requirement, defined in ISO 13007-1 for open time.
4.1.6 Test report
The following information shall be provided in the test report:
a) reference to this part of ISO 13007, i.e. “ISO 13007-2”;
b) date of test;
c) type of adhesive, commercial designation and manufacturer's name;
d) source, date obtained and complete identification of test sample;
e) handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) test conditions;
g) amount of water or liquid used for preparing adhesive;
h) test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure where required);
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
i) full description of test substrate;
j) any other factor that could have affected the result;
k) open time in minutes.
4.2 Determination of slip
4.2.1 General

Slip shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the specific

instructions which follow.
4.2.2 Test materials
4.2.2.1 Ceramic tiles
The tiles used for this method shall be:

Group BI fully vitrified tile in accordance with ISO 13006, with a water absorption u 0,2 % by mass, unglazed

and with facial dimensions of (100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm and mass of (200 ± 10) g.

4.2.2.2 Concrete test substrate
The concrete test substrate shall conform to requirements given in 3.5.
4.2.3 Apparatus
4.2.3.1 Steel straight edge.
4.2.3.2 Clamps.
4.2.3.3 Masking tape, 25 mm wide.

4.2.3.4 Spacers, two (25 ± 0,5) mm × (25 ± 0,5) mm × (10 ± 0,5) mm thick spacers made from stainless

steel.

4.2.3.5 Mass, capable of exerting a force of (50 ± 0,1) N with a cross-sectional area of less than

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.
4.2.3.6 Vernier caliper, accurate to 0,01 mm.
4.2.4 Procedure

Secure the steel straight edge at the top of the concrete substrate so that its bottom edge is horizontal when

the slab is raised to its vertical position. Position 25 mm-wide masking tape (4.2.3.3) immediately below the

steel straight edge and apply a thin layer of the adhesive to the concrete slab with a straight edge trowel.

Then apply a thicker layer of adhesive to the surface of the concrete substrate so that it just overlaps the

bottom edge of the masking tape.

Comb the adhesive at right angles to the straight edge with a notched trowel having

 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm centres for cementitious adhesives, and

 4 mm × 4 mm notches at 8 mm centres for dispersion adhesives and reaction resin adhesives.

Hold the trowel at an angle of 60° to the substrate and parallel to the straight edge.

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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)

Immediately remove the masking tape, position 25 mm spacers (or the spacing bar) against the straight edge

and after 2 min, place a type BI tile against the spacers (as shown in Figure 4), and load with a weight of

(50 ± 0,1) N for (30 ± 5) s.

Remove the spacers and measure the gap between the straight edge and the tile with the Vernier caliper to

within ± 0,1 mm. Immediately and carefully lift the slab into a vertical position. After (20 ± 2) min, re-measure

the gap, as before, at its maximum point. The maximum slip of the tile under its own weight is the difference

between the two readings.

Carry out the test for each of three tiles, for each adhesive. Report the results in millimetres and the mean

value.
4.2.5 Test report
The following information shall be provided in the test report:
a) reference to this part of ISO 13007, i.e. “ISO 13007-2”;
b) date of test;
c) type of adhesive, commercial designation and manufacturer's name;
d) source, date obtained and complete identification of test sample;
e) handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) test conditions;
g) amount of water or liquid used for preparing adhesive;
h) test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure where required);
i) full description of test substrate;
j) any other factor that could have affected the result;
k) slip in millimetres (individual and mean values).
4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength (for D and R adhesives)
4.3.1 General

Shear adhesion strength shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in

Clause 3 and the specific instructions which follow.
4.3.2 Test materials and apparatus
4.3.2.1 Ceramic tiles
The tiles used for this test shall be:
 Dispersion adhesives (D)

Group BIII glazed porous body tiles in accordance with ISO 13006; water absorption (15 ± 3) % mass

fraction, with facial dimensions of (108 ± 1) mm × (108 ± 1) mm and at least 6 mm thick;

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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
 Reaction resin adhesives (R)

Group BI fully vitrified tiles in accordance with ISO 13006; with water absorption u 0,2 % mass fraction,

unglazed with plane adhering surface and with facial dimensions of (100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.

4.3.2.2 Template

A smooth non-absorbent frame (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene) in accordance with Figure 5 for D adhesives and

Figure 7 for R adhesives.
4.3.2.3 Spacers
Spacer rods 0,8 mm diameter approximately 40 mm long.
4.3.2.4 Mass

A mass of less than 100 mm × 100 mm cross sectional area capable of exerting a uniform force of

(70 ± 0,15) N.
4.3.2.5 Test machine

A test machine with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the test and with a variable testing speed. The

machine shall be capable of applying the load to the tile through a suitable jig.

4.3.2.6 Shear test jig

Any suitable jig used to transfer into shear from the compression or tensile load exerted by the testing

machine. Examples of suitable jigs are shown in Figures 9 and 10.
4.3.2.7 Air circulating oven
An air circulating oven capable of controlling the temperature to within ± 3 °C
4.3.3 Procedure

Each test unit shall be prepared with two Group BIII tiles for D adhesives or Group BI tiles for R adhesives.

Draw a straight line on the adhearing side of one tile, 6 mm from the tile edge (to serve as a guide for

overlapping the tile as explained as follows).

Place the template (see Figures 5 and 7) over the unglazed back of the first test tile. Trowel sufficient

adhesive across the template and then screed it clean so as to neatly and completely fill the holes in the

template. Carefully remove the template vertically (see Figures 6 and 8).

Place spacers rods at each corner of the first tile, approximately 20 mm over the tile. After 2 min place a

second standard test tile over the coated tile, offset to provide an overlap between tiles with displacement of

6 mm, using the previously scribed line as a guide and ensuring that the edges of the tiles are parallel.

(Figure 6 for D adhesives and Figure 8 for R adhesives).

Place the test units on a plane surface and carefully load with (70 ± 0,15) N for 3 min. After removing the

weight carefully remove the spacer rods, without disturbing the relative position of the tiles in the test units. A

total of ten test units is required per conditioning.
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
4.3.4 Adhesion strength (for D and R adhesives)
4.3.4.1 Conditioning
Condition ten test units in standard test conditions (see 3.2)
 7 days for R adhesives, or
 14 days for D adhesives.
4.3.4.2 After conditioning

After conditioning has been completed, place the test units in a shear test jig and apply a shear force by

moving the crosshead at a speed of (5 ± 0,5) mm/min until failure occurs. Report the results in newtons.

4.3.5 Adhesion strength after water immersion (for D and R adhesives)
Condition ten test units in standard conditions (see 3.2) for
 21 days for adhesives (D2), or
 7 days for rapid drying adhesives (D2F) and reaction resin adhesives (R).
Then immerse in water at (23 ± 2) °C
 21 days for reaction resin adhesives (R), or
 7 days for dispersion adhesives (D2; D2F).
Remove the units and wipe with a cloth. Test them as described in 4.3.4.2.
Report the results in newtons.

CAUTION — This test is only for those dispersion adhesives used in internal installations subject to

wet conditions
4.3.6 Adhesion strength after heat aging (for D adhesives)

Condition ten test units in standard conditions (see 3.2) for 14 days, and then place them in an air-circulating

oven at (70 ± 2) °C for a further 14 days, ensuring that air is free to circulate around each test unit.

Condition the units for a further 24 h in standard conditions, and test them as described in 4.3.4.

Report the results in newtons.
4.3.7 Adhesion strength at elevated temperature (for D adhesives)

Use the procedure described in 4.3.6, but test the tile adhesion 1 min after removal of test unit from air

circulating oven.
Report the results in newtons.
4.3.8 Adhesion strength after thermal shock (for R adhesives)

After conditioning ten test units in standard conditions for 7 days, place the test pieces in a water bath

maintained at (23 ± 2) °C for 30 min and then in a (100 ± 2) °C waterbath for a further 30 min.

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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)

Repeat the cycle for a total of four times and then place the test pieces in the (23 ± 2) °C bath for

approximately 30 min for cooling.

Remove each test piece from the water, wipe off the excess water and test as described in 4.3.4.

Report the results in newtons.
4.3.9 Evaluation and expression of results
2 2

Divide the individual values, in newtons, by the area of adhesive contact (D: 5 480 mm ; R: 1 660 mm ).

Determine the shear adhesion strength in the following way:
 determine the mean of ten values;
 discard the values falling out of the range of ± 20 % from the mean value;
 if five or more values remain, determine the new mean value;
 if less than five values remain, repeat the test.
4.3.10 Test report
The following information shall be provided in the test report:
a) reference to this part of ISO 13007, i.e. “ISO 13007-2”;
b) date of test;
c) type of adhesive, commercial designation and manufacturer's name;
d) source, date obtained and complete identification of test sample;
e) handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) test conditions;
g) amount of water or liquid used for preparing adhesive;
h) test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure where required);
i) full description of test substrate;
j) any other factor that could have affected the result;
k) shear adhesion strength for each condition, in newtons per square millimetre.
4.4 Determination of tensile adhesion strength (for C adhesives)
4.4.1 General

Tensile adhesion strength shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in

Clause 3 and the specific instructions which follow.
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
4.4.2 Test materials
4.4.2.1 Ceramic tiles
The tiles used for this test shall be:

Group BI fully vitrified tile complying in accordance with ISO 13006, with a water absorption of u 0,2 % by

mass, unglazed and with a plane adhering surface, with facial dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm.

4.4.2.2 Test substrate
The concrete test substrate shall conform to requirements given in 3.5.
4.4.3 Apparatus

4.4.3.1 Mass, less than 50 mm × 50 mm cross sectional area capable of exerting a force of (20 ± 0,05) N.

4.4.3.2 Pull head plate.

Square metallic plates, with dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm and a minimum thickness of 10 mm

with a suitable fitting for connection to the test machine.
4.4.3.3 Tensile testing apparatus.

A test machine for direct pull tensile force test and with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the test. The

machine shall be capable of applying the load to the pull-head plate at the rate of (250 ± 50) N/s through a

suitable fitting that does not exert any bending force.

4.4.3.4 Air circulating oven, capable of controlling the temperature to within ± 3 °C.

4.4.4 Procedure
4.4.4.1 Preparation of test units

Apply a thin layer of the adhesive, to the concrete slab with a straight edge trowel. Then apply a thicker layer

and comb with a notched trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm centres.

The trowel shall be held at an angle of approximately 60° to the substrate at a right angle to one edge of the

slab and drawn across the slab parallel to that edge (in a straight line).

After 5 min, place ten type BI tiles on the adhesive at a distance apart of 50 mm, and load each tile

(20 ± 0,05) N for 30 s.
4.4.4.2 Tensile adhesion strength

After 27 days storage under standard conditions, bond the pull head plates to the tiles with a suitable high

strength adhesive (e.g. epoxide).

After a further 24 h storage under standard conditions, determine the tensile adhesion strength of the

adhesive by applying a force at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.

If fast-setting properties of adhesives are to be tested, bond the pull head plates a minimum of 2 h before

determining the tensile adhesion strength.
Report the results in newtons.
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ISO 13007-2:2005(E)
4.4.4.3 Tensile adhesion strength after water immersion

Condition the test units in standard conditions for 7 days and immerse in water at the standard temperature.

After 20 days remove the test units from the water, wipe with a cloth and bond the pull head plates to the tiles.

After a further 7 h in standard conditions, immerse the test units in water at the standard temperature.

The following day remove the test units from water and immediately determine the tensile adhesion stre

...

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