Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic testing — Part 4: Pumping tests

This document establishes requirements for pumping tests as part of geotechnical investigation service in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2. This document applies to pumping tests performed on aquifers whose permeability is such that pumping from a well can create a lowering of the piezometric head within hours or days depending on the ground conditions and the purpose. It covers pumping tests carried out in soils and rock. The tests concerned by this document are those intended for evaluating the hydrodynamic parameters of an aquifer and well parameters, such as: — permeability of the aquifer, — radius of influence of pumping, — pumping rate of a well, — response of drawdown in an aquifer during pumping, — skin effect, — well storage, — response of recovery in an aquifer after pumping.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géohydrauliques — Partie 4: Essais de pompage

Ce document traite des exigences relatives aux essais de pompage réalisés dans le cadre d’une mission de reconnaissance géotechnique conformément à l’EN 1997-1 et l’EN 1997-2. Ce document s’applique aux essais de pompage réalisés sur des formations aquifères dont la perméabilité est telle que le pompage à partir d’un puits peut créer un rabattement du niveau piézométrique en quelques heures ou jours selon les conditions de terrain et l’objectif. Il traite des essais de pompage réalisés dans les sols et les roches. Les essais concernés par ce document sont ceux destinés à évaluer les paramètres hydrodynamiques d’une formation aquifère et les paramètres du puits, tels que — la perméabilité de la formation aquifère, — le rayon d’influence du pompage, — le débit de pompage d’un puits, — la réponse en termes de rabattement dans une formation aquifère pendant le pompage, — l’effet pariétal, — l’emmagasinement du puits, — la réponse en termes de remontée dans une formation aquifère après pompage.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Mar-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Mar-2021
Completion Date
22-Mar-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22282-4
Second edition
2021-03
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Geohydraulic testing —
Part 4:
Pumping tests
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géohydrauliques —
Partie 4: Essais de pompage
Reference number
ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Determining the discharge rate for the pumping test ..................................................................... 3

5.2 Arranging the disposal of discharge water ..................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Executing and equipping the well .......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3.1 Design of the test well ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3.2 Installation procedure .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...... 6

5.3.3 Preparation of the well ............................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Executing and equipping the piezometers ......... ............................................................................................................. 6

5.4.1 Installation procedure .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...... 6

5.4.2 Preparation of piezometers .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Execution of the test ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Pre-pumping monitoring .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.3 Preliminary pumping phase................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.4 Pumping test .................. .................................................... .................................................................................................. 7

5.5.5 Post-pumping monitoring ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Uncertainty of measurement ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Interruptions in pumping .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.8 Decommissioning ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6 Test results .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Reports............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Field report ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1.2 Installation record .......................................................................................................................................................10

7.1.3 Record of measured values and test results ..........................................................................................10

7.2 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Record of measured values and test results of the pumping test —

Example .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Determining the pumping test discharge .......................................................................................15

Annex C (informative) Interpretation of the pumping test results ....................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

investigation and testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22282-4:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— editorial changes;
— correction of formulae.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22282 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Introduction

General rules on the planning and execution of geohydraulic field tests are covered by ISO 22282-1.

A pumping test consists in principle of:

— drawing down the piezometric surface of the groundwater by pumping from a well (the test well);

— measuring the pumped discharge and the water level in the test well and piezometers, before, during

and after pumping, as a function of time.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic
testing —
Part 4:
Pumping tests
1 Scope

This document establishes requirements for pumping tests as part of geotechnical investigation service

in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

This document applies to pumping tests performed on aquifers whose permeability is such that

pumping from a well can create a lowering of the piezometric head within hours or days depending on

the ground conditions and the purpose. It covers pumping tests carried out in soils and rock.

The tests concerned by this document are those intended for evaluating the hydrodynamic parameters

of an aquifer and well parameters, such as:
— permeability of the aquifer,
— radius of influence of pumping,
— pumping rate of a well,
— response of drawdown in an aquifer during pumping,
— skin effect,
— well storage,
— response of recovery in an aquifer after pumping.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 18674-4, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geotechnical monitoring by field instrumentation —

Part 4: Measurement of pore water pressure: Piezometers

ISO 22282-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic testing — Part 1: General rules

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling methods and groundwater

measurements — Part 1: Technical principles for the sampling of soil, rock and groundwater

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22282-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Symbols
Symbol Designation Unit
D drilled diameter of the well m
d thickness of the aquifer m
L wetted length of screen of the perforated pipe placed in the well m
Q flow rate m /s

Q discharge rate, assessed pumping discharge at the end of the well preparation m /s

Q discharge rate of the pumping test m /s
S storage coefficient —
T transmissivity m /s
t time s
v velocity —
a slope of the line that characterizes the drawdown in the well —

b ordinate at the origin of the line that characterizes the drawdown in the well —

c conventional drawdown unit of the preliminary pump discharge —

d size which may be interpolated from the grading curve, of the square sieve mesh of side d —

for which the weight percent of undersize is equal to N percent

e distance between the bottom of the well and the surface of the unconfined groundwater at m

rest in an aquifer
Δh drawdown of the water level in the well m
Δh' drawdown of the water level in the well after 2 h m

Δh drawdown of the water level in the well, set during the preliminary test and not to be m

exceeded
Δh maximum drawdown of the water level in the well during the pumping test m
max
4 Equipment
The following equipment and instruments shall be used to conduct a pumping test:
a) a test well and piezometers in accordance with ISO 18674-4;

b) a pump and associated pipework capable of pumping from the test well; the pumps shall be equipped

with a suitably long discharge pipe so that the water from the pump is discharged sufficiently far

away so that it does not affect the test area; the capacity of the pump shall be sufficient to extract

from the well a discharge at least equal to that corresponding to that estimated to achieve the

maximum planned drawdown;

NOTE Pumping tests are commonly carried out using electric submersible pumps, installed within the

test well. However, depending on conditions, pumping tests can also be carried out using suction pumps

located at the surface, airlift equipment, or special dewatering equipment such as well points or eductors.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)

c) a system for regulating and measuring the discharge rate (m /s); devices for measuring the

discharge rate shall be suitably calibrated and shall be accurate for a range of flow rates anticipated

during the test;

d) a system for measuring the water level in the test well and piezometers; the turbulence in the test

well caused by pumping shall be considered; the devices shall be capable of measuring water levels

over the range of drawdowns anticipated during the test;
e) a time measuring and/or recording device, reading in seconds.
5 Test procedure
5.1 Test preparation
5.1.1 General

When preparing a pumping test, there are a number of things to investigate and consider in advance,

such as:

— basic information on the ground and groundwater conditions according to ISO 22282-1;

— the required drawdown and/or the required discharge rate during the test;

— the discharge point for the pumped water and its location relative to the test well;

— the duration of the test.
5.1.2 Determining the discharge rate for the pumping test

The discharge rate Q shall be estimated to ensure that the test well can yield sufficient water, to allow

a pump of appropriate capacity to be selected, and to ensure that the discharge can be accepted at the

agreed disposal point.
The discharge rate can be estimated by one or more of the following methods:
— based on the purpose of the test and experience of local conditions;

— by theoretical assessment of the well capacity, according to the method described in Annex B;

— by analysis of information from the preliminary pumping phase, according to the method described

in Annex B.
5.2 Arranging the disposal of discharge water

It is presupposed that the disposal of discharge water is in accordance with relevant rules and

regulations.

If the discharge water is not disposed of via an engineered sewer network, it shall be disposed of at

sufficient distance from the test well that it will not have a significant impact on the observed pattern

of groundwater lowering.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.3 Executing and equipping the well
5.3.1 Design of the test well

The test well shall be designed to satisfy the following criteria (see Figure 1):

— of sufficient depth to penetrate below the groundwater level in the strata of interest; if the test well

does not fully penetrate the aquifer, it shall penetrate the saturated part of the aquifer to a depth of

at least 25 times the well screen diameter with a minimum of 3 m;

— of sufficient drilled diameter to accommodate the necessary filter materials and well screen of

sufficient diameter to accommodate pumping equipment of adequate capacity to achieve the

required discharge rate;

— with sufficient length and capacity of well screen to ensure that the required discharge rate can be

achieved;

— to have appropriate filter material to ensure that the discharge water contains an acceptably low

sediment content to avoid the risk of pump damage and ground settlement as a result of the removal

of fine particles from the soil; where the well is constructed in a stable rock, it may be possible to

construct a test well without the need for filter material.

The filter material shall be a highly permeable granular material of closely controlled particle size and

be formed of grains of inert minerals in relation to the aquifer groundwater chemistry (e.g. quartz,

feldspar). In granular soils, the filter's grading curve shall satisfy the double inequality:

5 d ≤ d ≤ 5 d
15 soil 15 filter 85 soil

where d designates the characteristic size of the filter or of the ground in place, such that the mass of

the soil fraction passing through a sieve with a square mesh of side d represents N % of the total mass

of material.

In fine grained soils or where the well screen is equipped with a geotextile mesh designed to act as a

filter, the filter material’s purpose is to backfill the annular space between the outside of the well screen

and the borehole wall. In those circumstances the filter media should be highly permeable coarse sand

or fine gravel, with a permeability coefficient at least 100 times that of the soil or rock being tested.

The thickness of the annular space for the filter pack shall be at least 50 mm. The inner diameter of the

test well shall be selected according to the purpose.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Key
1 well screen (slotted tube) 7 plain tube
2 filter material (filter pack) 8 device for measuring the water level
3 submersible pump 9 base of the screen
4 borehole casing L filter length
5 tube for measuring the water level D drilled diameter of the well
6 sealing plug
Figure 1 — Test well equipped for a pumping test — Example
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.3.2 Installation procedure

The test well shall be constructed in a similar way to piezometers in accordance with ISO 18674-4.

Great care shall be taken when installing the well materials. Particular attention shall be paid to the

following:

— The well screen shall be lowered into the borehole to the specified level and shall be installed

centrally in the well, with the top and bottom of the screen located at the design level. Care shall

be taken that the joints of the screen and casing do not leak, and that the screen and casing are

installed vertically and straight.

— If necessary, filter material shall be inserted in the annular space between the screen and the temporary

casing (or borehole wall). The filter material shall be placed progressively in stages to reduce the risk

of a blockage in the annular space. The filter material should be placed via a tremie pipe.

— If necessary, a sealing plug of low permeability material (such as bentonite) shall be created in the

annular space between the borehole wall and the well casing immediately above the filter material.

The purpose of the sealing plug is to prevent infiltration of surface water, or water from other

aquifers, into the well screen.
5.3.3 Preparation of the well

Prior to the pumping test the well shall be developed to increase the permeability of the soil around the

shell by washing, and to remove any drilling residues and mobile soil particles that could be entrained

by the water flow into the well. Such particles could clog the filter and damage the test pump.

Development shall be carried out by means of pumping. Possible methods include airlifting or pumping

using a robust pump that is not damaged by the presence of particles in the discharge water. If airlift

pumping is used, care shall be taken to avoid injecting air into the ground, as air bubbles in the ground

can affect the permeability.

Other methods for well development may be used in combination with pumping, including:

— jetting with water inside the well screen;

— surging or swabbing inside the well screen to induce water flow into and out of the well;

— chemical treatment (e.g. use of acids in carbonate rocks).
5.4 Executing and equipping the piezometers
5.4.1 Installation procedure
Piezometers shall be installed in accordance with ISO 18674-4.

The piezometer tubes shall be installed at such a depth that the influence of the test well can be observed

and recorded adequately. Where possible, the piezometer closest to the test well shall be located at the

same depth as the bottom of the test well.
5.4.2 Preparation of piezometers

Before commencement of the test, piezometers shall be cleaned in accordance with ISO 18674-4. The

water level in the piezometers shall be measured for a period before and after the test in order to find

any natural variations in the groundwater level. Their response time shall be checked by watching the

water rise in the piezometer tube. The period of monitoring depends on the nature of the aquifer and

the purpose of the pumping test.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.5 Execution of the test
5.5.1 General
The test comprises up to four phases:
— a pre-pumping phase to monitor the undisturbed groundwater levels;
— a preliminary pumping phase to determine the discharge from the pumping test;
— the pumping test phase;
— the post-pumping test phase to monitor recovery of groundwater levels.
5.5.2 Pre-pumping monitoring

Prior to commencement of the pumping phase of the test, water levels in the test well and piezometers

shall be monitored to determine natural groundwater levels.

NOTE The duration of the pre-pumping phase depends on the purpose of the test and local conditions.

Typical durations of pre-pumping monitoring are between one day and ten days. Longer periods of pre-pumping

monitoring are necessary when groundwater levels are subject to tidal or other variations.

5.5.3 Preliminary pumping phase

Prior to the main pumping test, a short period of pumping shall be carried out to test the equipment.

NOTE Suitable durations for the equipment test are between 15 min and 2 h.

During the preliminary pumping phase, the correct functioning of pumps, control systems, valves, flow

measurement devices and water level measurement devices shall be checked. Discharge pipe work shall

be checked for leaks. Any corrective action deemed necessary shall be taken prior to commencement of

the pumping test.

For large-scale or complex pumping tests, the preliminary pumping phase can be used to provide

information on discharge rate and drawdown to assist in determination of discharge rate for the

pumping test (see Annex B).
5.5.4 Pumping test

The pumping test shall not be started until water levels in the test well and the piezometers have

stabilized following the preliminary pumping phase.
The pumping test can comprise:

— a variable rate test; this type of test involves pumping the test well in a step-wise fashion, either

increasing or decreasing, up to the maximum capacity of the test well or the pump; a variable rate

test can be used to assist in determination of the discharge rate for a constant rate test; and/or

— a constant rate test; this type of test involves pumping the test well at a constant rate for the duration

on the test.

If the pumping test comprises a variable rate test followed by a constant rate test, there may be a period

of post pumping monitoring following the end of the variable rate test. In this case, the period between

the end of the variable rate test and the beginning of the constant rate test should be long enough to

allow water levels to stabilize.

Whenever the discharge is started or changed, the change in pumping rate shall be carried out rapidly.

At the start of the pumping test the discharge rate shall be stabilized within 2 min after starting the

pumping.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
The time at the start of the test is defined as t = 0.

During the pumping test measurements of water level shall be made according to the requirements

of the purpose of the test and the ground conditions. In general, measurements shall be taken more

frequently at the start of the pumping test, or when flow rate has been changed during a variable rate

test, when water levels are likely to be changing rapidly. During the later stages of a pumping test, when

water levels are changing more slowly, readings can be taken less frequently.

The following time increments between readings should be used unless alternative time increments

can be justified based on the purpose of the test and the ground conditions. If the groundwater levels in

the test well and piezometers are likely to continue to change at a significant rate, it may be necessary

to take readings more frequently than the guidelines below:
— ≤ 30 s for t ≤ 5 min;
— ≤ 1 min for t = 5 min to 15 min;
— ≤ 5 min for t = 15 min to 30 min;
— ≤ 10 min for t = 30 min to 1 h;
— ≤ 30 min for t = 1 h to 4 h;
— ≤ 1 h for t > 4 h.

Where a pumping test is carried out in conditions where groundwater is subject to tidal variations,

water level readings shall be taken at frequent intervals throughout the test duration. In tidal conditions

the interval between readings should not exceed 15 min.

The pump discharge shall be measured at least four times in the first hour. If the discharge is stable,

the discharge can be measured once a day. If the discharge is not stable, the pump discharge shall be

determined each hour.

Levels of open water bodies in the vicinity of the test site, where variation is likely to interfere with the

pumping test (and vice versa), shall be recorded periodically throughout the test.

Pumping shall be continued until the end of the specified pump test period or, if the test is required to

achieve steady-state c
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 22282-4
Deuxième édition
2021-03
Reconnaissance et essais
géotechniques — Essais
géohydrauliques —
Partie 4:
Essais de pompage
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic testing —
Part 4: Pumping tests
Numéro de référence
ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
© ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes, définitions et symboles ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Termes et définitions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Symboles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Équipement ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Mode opératoire d’essai ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Préparation de l’essai........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Détermination du débit de décharge pour l’essai de pompage ................................................. 3

5.2 Dispositions relatives à l’évacuation de l’eau rejetée ........................................................................................... 3

5.3 Réalisation et aménagement du puits ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3.1 Conception du puits d’essai ....................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3.2 Mode opératoire d’installation .............................................................................................................................. 6

5.3.3 Préparation du puits ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Réalisation et aménagement des piézomètres ........................................................................................................... 6

5.4.1 Mode opératoire d’installation .............................................................................................................................. 6

5.4.2 Préparation des piézomètres .................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Réalisation de l’essai ......... ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.5.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Surveillance préalable au pompage ................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.3 Phase de pompage préliminaire ........................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.4 Essai de pompage ................................... ............................................................................................................................ 7

5.5.5 Surveillance après pompage .................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Incertitude de mesure ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.7 Interruptions du pompage ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.8 Démantèlement ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Résultats d’essai ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Rapport .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Procès-verbal établi sur site .................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.1.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10

7.1.2 Procès-verbal d’installation .................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1.3 Procès-verbal des valeurs mesurées et des résultats d’essai .................................................. 10

7.2 Rapport d’essai .................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

Annexe A (informative) Procès-verbal des valeurs mesurées et des résultats de l’essai de

pompage — Exemple .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annexe B (informative) Détermination du débit de décharge de l’essai de pompage .................................15

Annexe C (informative) Interprétation des résultats d’essai de pompage ..............................................................19

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

iii
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a

été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir

www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été préparé par le comité technique ISO/TC 182, Géotechnique, en collaboration

avec le comité technique CEN/TC 341, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques, du Comité européen de

normalisation (CEN), conformément à l'Accord de coopération technique entre l'ISO et le CEN (Accord

de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 22282-4:2012), qui a fait l'objet

d'une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— modifications rédactionnelles;
— correction des formules.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 22282 est disponible sur le site web de l'ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
Introduction

Les règles générales sur la planification et l'exécution des essais géohydrauliques sur le terrain sont

couvertes par l'ISO 22282-1.
Un essai de pompage consiste en principe à:

— rabattre le niveau piézométrique de la nappe phréatique par pompage dans un puits (le puits

d'essai);

— mesurer le débit pompé et le niveau d'eau dans le puits d'essai et les piézomètres, avant, pendant et

après le pompage, en fonction du temps.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais
géohydrauliques —
Partie 4:
Essais de pompage
1 Domaine d’application

Ce document traite des exigences relatives aux essais de pompage réalisés dans le cadre d’une mission

de reconnaissance géotechnique conformément à l’EN 1997-1 et l’EN 1997-2.

Ce document s’applique aux essais de pompage réalisés sur des formations aquifères dont la perméabilité

est telle que le pompage à partir d’un puits peut créer un rabattement du niveau piézométrique en

quelques heures ou jours selon les conditions de terrain et l’objectif. Il traite des essais de pompage

réalisés dans les sols et les roches.

Les essais concernés par ce document sont ceux destinés à évaluer les paramètres hydrodynamiques

d’une formation aquifère et les paramètres du puits, tels que
— la perméabilité de la formation aquifère,
— le rayon d’influence du pompage,
— le débit de pompage d’un puits,

— la réponse en termes de rabattement dans une formation aquifère pendant le pompage,

— l’effet pariétal,
— l’emmagasinement du puits,
— la réponse en termes de remontée dans une formation aquifère après pompage.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).

ISO 14688-1, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Identification et classification des sols — Partie 1:

Identification et description

ISO 14689, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Identification, description et classification des roches

ISO 18674-4, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Surveillance géotechnique par instrumentation in

situ — Partie 4: Mesure de la pression interstitielle: Piézomètres

ISO 22282-1, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géohydrauliques — Partie 1: Règles

générales

ISO 22475-1, Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Méthodes de prélèvement et mesurages

piézométriques — Partie 1: Principes techniques pour le prélèvement des sols, des roches et des eaux

souterraines
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
3 Termes, définitions et symboles
3.1 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 22282-1 s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Symboles
Symbole Désignation Unité
D diamètre foré du puits m
d épaisseur de la formation aquifère m
L longueur mouillée de la crépine du tube perforé placé dans le puits m
Q débit m /s

Q débit de décharge, débit de pompage évalué à la fin de la préparation du puits m /s

Q débit de l’essai de pompage m /s
S coefficient d’emmagasinement —
T transmissivité m /s
t temps s
v Vitesse —
a pente de la droite caractérisant le rabattement dans le puits —
b ordonnée à l’origine de la droite caractérisant le rabattement dans le puits —
c unité conventionnelle de rabattement du refoulement préliminaire de la pompe —

d dimension, qui peut être interpolée à partir de la courbe granulométrique, de la maille car- —

rée de tamis de dimension, d pour laquelle le pourcentage en poids de passant est égal à N %

e distance entre le fond du puits et la surface de la nappe libre au repos dans une formation m

aquifère
Δh abaissement du niveau d’eau dans le puits m
Δh' abaissement du niveau de l’eau dans le puits au bout de 2 h m

Δh abaissement du niveau de l’eau dans le puits, fixé pendant l’essai préliminaire et ne devant m

pas être dépassé

Δh abaissement maximal du niveau d’eau dans le puits pendant l’essai de pompage m

max
4 Équipement

L’équipement et les instruments suivants doivent être utilisés pour la réalisation d’un essai de pompage:

a) un puits d’essai et des piézomètres (conformément à l’ISO 18674-4);

b) une pompe et un tube associé permettant de pomper dans le puits d’essai; les pompes doivent

être équipées d’une conduite de refoulement suffisamment longue pour décharger l’eau pompée

suffisamment loin afin de ne pas affecter la zone d’essai; le débit de la pompe doit être suffisant

pour extraire du puits une décharge au moins égale à celle correspondant à la décharge estimée

pour atteindre le rabattement maximal programmé;
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)

NOTE Les essais de pompage sont généralement réalisés à l’aide de pompes électriques submersibles,

installées dans le puits d’essai. Toutefois, selon les conditions, les essais de pompage peuvent également être

réalisés à l’aide de pompes aspirantes situées en surface, d’un équipement de remontés pneumatique ou d’un

équipement d’assèchement spécial tel que des pointes filtrantes ou des éjecteurs.

c) un système permettant de réguler et de mesurer le débit de décharge (m /s); les dispositifs de

mesure du débit de décharge doivent être convenablement étalonnés et doivent être précis pour la

gamme de débits prévus pendant l’essai;

d) un système permettant de mesurer le niveau d’eau dans le puits d’essai et les piézomètres; la

turbulence provoquée par le pompage dans le puits d’essai doit être prise en compte; les dispositifs

doivent être capables de mesurer les niveaux d’eau sur la plage des rabattements prévus pendant

l’essai;

e) un dispositif de mesure et/ou d’enregistrement du temps, donnant une indication en secondes.

5 Mode opératoire d’essai
5.1 Préparation de l’essai
5.1.1 Généralités

Lors de la préparation d’un essai de pompage, un certain nombre d’éléments doivent préalablement être

étudiés et pris en compte, tels que:

— les informations de base relatives aux conditions du sol et de la nappe, conformément à l’ISO 22282-1;

— le rabattement requis et/ou le débit de décharge requis pendant l’essai;

— le point de rejet de l’eau pompée et son emplacement par rapport au puits d’essai;

— la durée de l’essai.
5.1.2 Détermination du débit de décharge pour l’essai de pompage

Le débit de décharge, Q , doit être estimé pour s’assurer que le puits d’essai peut fournir suffisamment

d’eau, pour pouvoir choisir une pompe ayant un débit approprié et pour s’assurer que le rejet peut être

accepté au niveau du point d’évacuation convenu.

Le débit de décharge peut être estimé par une ou plusieurs des méthodes suivantes:

— en se fondant sur l’objectif de l’essai et sur l’expérience relative aux conditions locales;

— par une évaluation théorique de la productivité du puits, selon la méthode décrite à l’Annexe B;

— par une analyse des informations obtenues lors de la phase de pompage préliminaire, selon la

méthode décrite à l’Annexe B.
5.2 Dispositions relatives à l’évacuation de l’eau rejetée

Il est supposé que l’évacuation de l’eau rejetée est conforme à la législation et aux réglementations en

vigueur.

Si l’eau rejetée n’est pas évacuée par le biais d’un réseau d’assainissement, elle doit être rejetée à

une distance suffisante du puits d’essai pour ne pas avoir d’impact significatif sur le modèle observé

d’abaissement du niveau de la nappe.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
5.3 Réalisation et aménagement du puits
5.3.1 Conception du puits d’essai

Le puits d’essai doit être conçu de manière à remplir les critères suivants (voir Figure 1):

— avoir une profondeur suffisante pour pénétrer au-dessous du niveau de la nappe dans les couches

étudiées. Si le puits d’essai ne pénètre pas totalement dans la formation aquifère, il doit pénétrer

dans la partie saturée de la formation aquifère sur une profondeur au moins égale à 25 fois le

diamètre de la crépine du puits, avec un minimum de 3 m;

— avoir un diamètre foré suffisant pour mettre en place les matériaux filtrants nécessaires et une

crépine de diamètre suffisant; avoir un diamètre suffisant pour installer un équipement de pompage

ayant un débit adéquat pour atteindre le débit de décharge requis;

— avoir une crépine de longueur et de capacité suffisantes pour s’assurer que le débit de décharge

requis puisse être atteint;

— avoir un matériau filtrant approprié pour s’assurer que l’eau rejetée ait une teneur en sédiments

suffisamment faible pour éviter tout risque de détérioration de la pompe et de tassement de terrain

à la suite de l’extraction des fines particules du sol; lorsque le puits est réalisé dans une roche stable,

il se peut qu’il soit possible de construire un puits d’essai ne nécessitant pas de matériau filtrant.

Le matériau filtrant doit être un matériau granulaire hautement perméable ayant une granulométrie

étroitement contrôlée et doit être constitué de grains de minéraux inertes par rapport à la composition

chimique de l’eau souterraine de la formation aquifère (par exemple quartz, feldspath). Dans les sols

grenus, la courbe granulométrique du filtre doit satisfaire la double inégalité suivante:

5 d ≤ d ≤ 5 d
15 sol 15 filtre 85 sol

d désigne la taille caractéristique du filtre ou du terrain en place, telle que la masse de la fraction du sol

passant à travers un tamis avec une largeur de la maille carrée de tamis de dimension, d, représentant

N % de la masse totale du matériau.

Dans les sols fins ou lorsque la crépine est équipée d’une toile géotextile conçue pour servir de filtre,

le but du matériau filtrant est de combler l’espace annulaire entre la face extérieure de la crépine et la

paroi du trou de forage. Dans certaines circonstances, il convient que le matériau filtrant soit un sable

grossier ou une grave fine hautement perméable, avec un coefficient de perméabilité au moins égal à

100 fois celui du sol ou de la roche soumis(e) à essai.

L’épaisseur de l’espace annulaire pour le matériau filtrant doit être d’au moins 50 mm. Le diamètre

intérieur du puits d’essai doit être choisi en fonction de l’objectif.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
Légende
1 crépine (tube crépiné) 7 tube support de la crépine
2 matériau filtrant 8 dispositif de mesure du niveau d’eau
3 pompe submersible 9 base de la crépine
4 tubage du trou de forage L longueur du filtre
5 tube pour le mesurage du niveau d’eau D diamètre foré du puits
6 bouchon étanche
Figure 1 — Puits équipé en vue d’un essai de pompage — Exemple
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
5.3.2 Mode opératoire d’installation

Le puits d’essai doit être construit de la même manière que les piézomètres conformes à l’ISO 18674-4.

Un grand soin doit être apporté à l’installation des matériaux dans le puits. Une attention particulière

doit être portée aux opérations suivantes:

— La crépine doit être descendue dans le trou de forage jusqu’au niveau spécifié et doit être centrée

dans le puits, le haut et le bas de la crépine étant situés au niveau de calcul. Il faut veiller à ce que les

joints de la crépine et du tubage ne fuient pas et à ce que la crépine et le tubage soient installés en

position verticale et droite.

— Si nécessaire, un matériau filtrant doit être inséré dans l’espace annulaire entre la crépine et

le tubage temporaire (ou la paroi du trou de forage). Le matériau filtrant doit être mis en place

progressivement par étapes afin de réduire le risque d’obstruction dans l’espace annulaire. Il

convient que le matériau filtrant soit mis en place à l’aide d’un tube à trémie.

— Si nécessaire, un bouchon étanche en matériau de faible perméabilité (par exemple bentonite)

doit être créé dans l’espace annulaire entre la paroi du tube de forage et le tubage du puits, juste

au-dessus du matériau filtrant. Le bouchon mâle a pour fonction d’empêcher l’infiltration de l’eau

superficielle, ou de l’eau provenant d’autres formations aquifères, dans la crépine.

5.3.3 Préparation du puits

Avant l’essai de pompage, le puits doit être préparé afin d’éliminer tous les résidus de forage et les

particules de sol mobiles qui pourraient être entraînés par l’écoulement d’eau dans le puits. Ces

particules pourraient colmater le filtre et endommager la pompe d’essai.

La préparation doit être réalisée par pompage. Les méthodes possibles comprennent la remontée

pneumatique ou le pompage à l’aide d’une pompe robuste qui n’est pas endommagée par la présence de

particules dans l’eau rejetée. Si une remontée pneumatique est utilisée, il faut veiller à ne pas injecter

d’air dans le terrain car les bulles d’air peuvent avoir une incidence sur la perméabilité du terrain.

D’autres méthodes de préparation du puits peuvent être associées au pompage, notamment:

— le curage au jet d’eau à l’intérieur de la crépine,

— le pistonnage à l’intérieur de la crépine pour induire un écoulement d’eau dans et hors du puits, et

— un traitement chimique (par exemple utilisation d’acides dans les roches carbonatées).

5.4 Réalisation et aménagement des piézomètres
5.4.1 Mode opératoire d’installation
Les piézomètres doivent être installés conformément à l’ISO 18674-4.

Les tubes piézométriques doivent être installés à une profondeur telle que l’influence du puits d’essai

puisse être observée et enregistrée de manière adéquate. Si possible, le piézomètre le plus proche du

puits d’essai doit être situé à la même profondeur que le fond du puits d’essai.
5.4.2 Préparation des piézomètres

Avant le début de l’essai, les piézomètres doivent être nettoyés conformément à l’ISO 18674-4. Le niveau

d’eau dans les piézomètres doit être mesuré pendant une période avant et après l’essai afin de détecter

toute variation naturelle du niveau de la nappe. Leur temps de réponse doit être contrôlé en observant

la montée de l’eau dans le tube piézométrique. La période de surveillance dépend de la nature de la

formation aquifère et de l’objectif de l’essai de pompage.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 22282-4:2021(F)
5.5 Réalisation de l’essai
5.5.1 Généralités
L’essai comprend jusqu’à quatre phases:

— une phase préalable au pompage afin de surveiller les niveaux de la nappe non perturbée;

— une phase de pompage préliminaire afin de déterminer le débit de l’essai de pompage;

— la phase d’essai de pompage;

— la phase d’essai après pompage afin de surveiller le rétablissement des niveaux de la nappe.

5.5.2 Surveillance préalable au pompage

Avant de commencer la phase de pompage de l’essai, les niveaux d’eau dans le puits d’essai et les

piézomètres doivent être surveillés afin de déterminer les niveaux naturels de la nappe.

NOTE La durée de la phase préalable au pompage dépendra de l’objectif de l’essai et des conditions locales.

Les durées de surveillance préalable au pompage sont habituellement de 1 jour à 10 jours. Des périodes plus

longues de surveillance préalable au pompage sont nécessaires lorsque les niveaux d’eau sont soumis à la marée

ou à d’autres variations.
5.5.3 Phase de pompage préliminaire

Avant l’essai de pompage principal, une courte période de pompage doit être effectuée pour soumettre

à essai l’équipement.
NOTE Les durées appropriées pour l’essai de l’équipement sont de 15 min à 2 h.

Au cours de la phase de pompage préliminaire, le bon fonctionnement des pompes, des systèmes de

régulation, des appareils de robinetterie, des dispositifs de mesure du débit et des dispositifs de mesure

du niveau d’eau doit être vérifié. L’étanchéité de la tuyauterie de refoulement doit être vérifiée. Toute

action corrective jugée nécessaire doit être entreprise avant de débuter l’essai de pompage.

Pour des essais de pompage complexes ou à grande échelle, la phase de pompage préliminaire peut

être utilisée pour obtenir des informations sur le débit de décharge et le rabattement pour faciliter la

détermination du débit de décharge requis pour l’essai de pompage (voir Annexe B).

5.5.4 Essai de pompage

L’essai de pompage ne doit pas être débuté avant que les niveaux d’eau dans le puits d’essai et les

piézomètres ne se soient stabilisés après la phase de pompage préliminaire.
L’essai de pompage peut comprendre:

— un essai à débit variable; ce type d’essai implique de pomper le puits d’essai de manière progressive,

soit croissante soit décroissante, jusqu’à la capacité maximale du puits d’essai ou au débit maximal

de la pompe; un essai à débit variable peut être réalisé pour faciliter la détermination du débit de

décharge pour un essai à débit constant; et/ou

— un essai à débit constant; ce type d’essai implique de pomper dans le puits d’essai à un débit constant

pendant toute la durée de l’essai.

Si l’essai de pompage comprend un essai à débit variable suivi d’un essai à débit constant, il est possible

de prévoir une période de surveillance après pompage à la fin de l’essai à débit variable. Dans ce cas, il

convient que la période entre la fin de l’essai à débit var
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22282-4
Second edition
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Geohydraulic testing —
Part 4:
Pumping tests
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais géohydrauliques —
Partie 4: Essais de pompage
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
ISO 2021
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Determining the discharge rate for the pumping test ..................................................................... 3

5.2 Arranging the disposal of discharge water ..................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Executing and equipping the well .......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3.1 Design of the test well ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3.2 Installation procedure .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...... 6

5.3.3 Preparation of the well ............................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Executing and equipping the piezometers ......... ............................................................................................................. 6

5.4.1 Installation procedure .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...... 6

5.4.2 Preparation of piezometers .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.5 Execution of the test ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 Pre-pumping monitoring .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.3 Preliminary pumping phase................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.4 Pumping test .................. .................................................... .................................................................................................. 7

5.5.5 Post-pumping monitoring ....................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Uncertainty of measurement ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Interruptions in pumping .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.8 Decommissioning ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6 Test results .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Reports............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Field report ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1.2 Installation record .......................................................................................................................................................10

7.1.3 Record of measured values and test results ..........................................................................................10

7.2 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Record of measured values and test results of the pumping test —

Example .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Determining the pumping test discharge .......................................................................................15

Annex C (informative) Interpretation of the pumping test results ....................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical

investigation and testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22282-4:2012), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— editorial changes;
— correction of formulae.
A list of all parts in the ISO 22282 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Introduction

General rules on the planning and execution of geohydraulic field tests are covered by ISO 22282-1.

A pumping test consists in principle of:

— drawing down the piezometric surface of the groundwater by pumping from a well (the test well);

— measuring the pumped discharge and the water level in the test well and piezometers, before, during

and after pumping, as a function of time.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic
testing —
Part 4:
Pumping tests
1 Scope

This document establishes requirements for pumping tests as part of geotechnical investigation service

in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

This document applies to pumping tests performed on aquifers whose permeability is such that

pumping from a well can create a lowering of the piezometric head within hours or days depending on

the ground conditions and the purpose. It covers pumping tests carried out in soils and rock.

The tests concerned by this document are those intended for evaluating the hydrodynamic parameters

of an aquifer and well parameters, such as:
— permeability of the aquifer,
— radius of influence of pumping,
— pumping rate of a well,
— response of drawdown in an aquifer during pumping,
— skin effect,
— well storage,
— response of recovery in an aquifer after pumping.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 18674-4, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geotechnical monitoring by field instrumentation —

Part 4: Measurement of pore water pressure: Piezometers

ISO 22282-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Geohydraulic testing — Part 1: General rules

ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling methods and groundwater

measurements — Part 1: Technical principles for the sampling of soil, rock and groundwater

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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 22282-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Symbols
Symbol Designation Unit
D drilled diameter of the well m
d thickness of the aquifer m
L wetted length of screen of the perforated pipe placed in the well m
Q flow rate m /s

Q discharge rate, assessed pumping discharge at the end of the well preparation m /s

Q discharge rate of the pumping test m /s
S storage coefficient —
T transmissivity m /s
t time s
v velocity —
a slope of the line that characterizes the drawdown in the well —

b ordinate at the origin of the line that characterizes the drawdown in the well —

c conventional drawdown unit of the preliminary pump discharge —

d size which may be interpolated from the grading curve, of the square sieve mesh of side d —

for which the weight percent of undersize is equal to N percent

e distance between the bottom of the well and the surface of the unconfined groundwater at m

rest in an aquifer
Δh drawdown of the water level in the well m
Δh' drawdown of the water level in the well after 2 h m

Δh drawdown of the water level in the well, set during the preliminary test and not to be m

exceeded
Δh maximum drawdown of the water level in the well during the pumping test m
max
4 Equipment
The following equipment and instruments shall be used to conduct a pumping test:
a) a test well and piezometers in accordance with ISO 18674-4;

b) a pump and associated pipework capable of pumping from the test well; the pumps shall be equipped

with a suitably long discharge pipe so that the water from the pump is discharged sufficiently far

away so that it does not affect the test area; the capacity of the pump shall be sufficient to extract

from the well a discharge at least equal to that corresponding to that estimated to achieve the

maximum planned drawdown;

NOTE Pumping tests are commonly carried out using electric submersible pumps, installed within the

test well. However, depending on conditions, pumping tests can also be carried out using suction pumps

located at the surface, airlift equipment, or special dewatering equipment such as well points or eductors.

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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)

c) a system for regulating and measuring the discharge rate (m /s); devices for measuring the

discharge rate shall be suitably calibrated and shall be accurate for a range of flow rates anticipated

during the test;

d) a system for measuring the water level in the test well and piezometers; the turbulence in the test

well caused by pumping shall be considered; the devices shall be capable of measuring water levels

over the range of drawdowns anticipated during the test;
e) a time measuring and/or recording device, reading in seconds.
5 Test procedure
5.1 Test preparation
5.1.1 General

When preparing a pumping test, there are a number of things to investigate and consider in advance,

such as:

— basic information on the ground and groundwater conditions according to ISO 22282-1;

— the required drawdown and/or the required discharge rate during the test;

— the discharge point for the pumped water and its location relative to the test well;

— the duration of the test.
5.1.2 Determining the discharge rate for the pumping test

The discharge rate Q shall be estimated to ensure that the test well can yield sufficient water, to allow

a pump of appropriate capacity to be selected, and to ensure that the discharge can be accepted at the

agreed disposal point.
The discharge rate can be estimated by one or more of the following methods:
— based on the purpose of the test and experience of local conditions;

— by theoretical assessment of the well capacity, according to the method described in Annex B;

— by analysis of information from the preliminary pumping phase, according to the method described

in Annex B.
5.2 Arranging the disposal of discharge water

It is presupposed that the disposal of discharge water is in accordance with relevant rules and

regulations.

If the discharge water is not disposed of via an engineered sewer network, it shall be disposed of at

sufficient distance from the test well that it will not have a significant impact on the observed pattern

of groundwater lowering.
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.3 Executing and equipping the well
5.3.1 Design of the test well

The test well shall be designed to satisfy the following criteria (see Figure 1):

— of sufficient depth to penetrate below the groundwater level in the strata of interest; if the test well

does not fully penetrate the aquifer, it shall penetrate the saturated part of the aquifer to a depth of

at least 25 times the well screen diameter with a minimum of 3 m;

— of sufficient drilled diameter to accommodate the necessary filter materials and well screen of

sufficient diameter to accommodate pumping equipment of adequate capacity to achieve the

required discharge rate;

— with sufficient length and capacity of well screen to ensure that the required discharge rate can be

achieved;

— to have appropriate filter material to ensure that the discharge water contains an acceptably low

sediment content to avoid the risk of pump damage and ground settlement as a result of the removal

of fine particles from the soil; where the well is constructed in a stable rock, it may be possible to

construct a test well without the need for filter material.

The filter material shall be a highly permeable granular material of closely controlled particle size and

be formed of grains of inert minerals in relation to the aquifer groundwater chemistry (e.g. quartz,

feldspar). In granular soils, the filter's grading curve shall satisfy the double inequality:

5 d ≤ d ≤ 5 d
15 soil 15 filter 85 soil

where d designates the characteristic size of the filter or of the ground in place, such that the mass of

the soil fraction passing through a sieve with a square mesh of side d represents N % of the total mass

of material.

In fine grained soils or where the well screen is equipped with a geotextile mesh designed to act as a

filter, the filter material’s purpose is to backfill the annular space between the outside of the well screen

and the borehole wall. In those circumstances the filter media should be highly permeable coarse sand

or fine gravel, with a permeability coefficient at least 100 times that of the soil or rock being tested.

The thickness of the annular space for the filter pack shall be at least 50 mm. The inner diameter of the

test well shall be selected according to the purpose.
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
Key
1 well screen (slotted tube) 7 plain tube
2 filter material (filter pack) 8 device for measuring the water level
3 submersible pump 9 base of the screen
4 borehole casing L filter length
5 tube for measuring the water level D drilled diameter of the well
6 sealing plug
Figure 1 — Test well equipped for a pumping test — Example
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.3.2 Installation procedure

The test well shall be constructed in a similar way to piezometers in accordance with ISO 18674-4.

Great care shall be taken when installing the well materials. Particular attention shall be paid to the

following:

— The well screen shall be lowered into the borehole to the specified level and shall be installed

centrally in the well, with the top and bottom of the screen located at the design level. Care shall

be taken that the joints of the screen and casing do not leak, and that the screen and casing are

installed vertically and straight.

— If necessary, filter material shall be inserted in the annular space between the screen and the temporary

casing (or borehole wall). The filter material shall be placed progressively in stages to reduce the risk

of a blockage in the annular space. The filter material should be placed via a tremie pipe.

— If necessary, a sealing plug of low permeability material (such as bentonite) shall be created in the

annular space between the borehole wall and the well casing immediately above the filter material.

The purpose of the sealing plug is to prevent infiltration of surface water, or water from other

aquifers, into the well screen.
5.3.3 Preparation of the well

Prior to the pumping test the well shall be developed to increase the permeability of the soil around the

shell by washing, and to remove any drilling residues and mobile soil particles that could be entrained

by the water flow into the well. Such particles could clog the filter and damage the test pump.

Development shall be carried out by means of pumping. Possible methods include airlifting or pumping

using a robust pump that is not damaged by the presence of particles in the discharge water. If airlift

pumping is used, care shall be taken to avoid injecting air into the ground, as air bubbles in the ground

can affect the permeability.

Other methods for well development may be used in combination with pumping, including:

— jetting with water inside the well screen;

— surging or swabbing inside the well screen to induce water flow into and out of the well;

— chemical treatment (e.g. use of acids in carbonate rocks).
5.4 Executing and equipping the piezometers
5.4.1 Installation procedure
Piezometers shall be installed in accordance with ISO 18674-4.

The piezometer tubes shall be installed at such a depth that the influence of the test well can be observed

and recorded adequately. Where possible, the piezometer closest to the test well shall be located at the

same depth as the bottom of the test well.
5.4.2 Preparation of piezometers

Before commencement of the test, piezometers shall be cleaned in accordance with ISO 18674-4. The

water level in the piezometers shall be measured for a period before and after the test in order to find

any natural variations in the groundwater level. Their response time shall be checked by watching the

water rise in the piezometer tube. The period of monitoring depends on the nature of the aquifer and

the purpose of the pumping test.
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
5.5 Execution of the test
5.5.1 General
The test comprises up to four phases:
— a pre-pumping phase to monitor the undisturbed groundwater levels;
— a preliminary pumping phase to determine the discharge from the pumping test;
— the pumping test phase;
— the post-pumping test phase to monitor recovery of groundwater levels.
5.5.2 Pre-pumping monitoring

Prior to commencement of the pumping phase of the test, water levels in the test well and piezometers

shall be monitored to determine natural groundwater levels.

NOTE The duration of the pre-pumping phase depends on the purpose of the test and local conditions.

Typical durations of pre-pumping monitoring are between one day and ten days. Longer periods of pre-pumping

monitoring are necessary when groundwater levels are subject to tidal or other variations.

5.5.3 Preliminary pumping phase

Prior to the main pumping test, a short period of pumping shall be carried out to test the equipment.

NOTE Suitable durations for the equipment test are between 15 min and 2 h.

During the preliminary pumping phase, the correct functioning of pumps, control systems, valves, flow

measurement devices and water level measurement devices shall be checked. Discharge pipe work shall

be checked for leaks. Any corrective action deemed necessary shall be taken prior to commencement of

the pumping test.

For large-scale or complex pumping tests, the preliminary pumping phase can be used to provide

information on discharge rate and drawdown to assist in determination of discharge rate for the

pumping test (see Annex B).
5.5.4 Pumping test

The pumping test shall not be started until water levels in the test well and the piezometers have

stabilized following the preliminary pumping phase.
The pumping test can comprise:

— a variable rate test; this type of test involves pumping the test well in a step-wise fashion, either

increasing or decreasing, up to the maximum capacity of the test well or the pump; a variable rate

test can be used to assist in determination of the discharge rate for a constant rate test; and/or

— a constant rate test; this type of test involves pumping the test well at a constant rate for the duration

on the test.

If the pumping test comprises a variable rate test followed by a constant rate test, there may be a period

of post pumping monitoring following the end of the variable rate test. In this case, the period between

the end of the variable rate test and the beginning of the constant rate test should be long enough to

allow water levels to stabilize.

Whenever the discharge is started or changed, the change in pumping rate shall be carried out rapidly.

At the start of the pumping test the discharge rate shall be stabilized within 2 min after starting the

pumping.
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ISO 22282-4:2021(E)
The time at the start of the test is defined as t = 0.

During the pumping test measurements of water level shall be made according to the requirements

of the purpose of the test and the ground conditions. In general, measurements shall be taken more

frequently at the start of the pumping test, or when flow rate has been changed during a variable rate

test, when water levels are likely to be changing rapidly. During the later stages of a pumping test, when

water levels are changing more slowly, readings can be taken less frequently.

The following time increments between readings should be used unless alternative time increments

can be justified based on the purpose of the test and the ground conditions. If the groundwater levels in

the test well and piezometers are likely to continue to change at a significant rate, it may be necessary

to take readings more frequently than the guidelines below:
— ≤ 30 s for t ≤ 5 min;
— ≤ 1 min for t = 5 min to 15 min;
— ≤ 5 min for t = 15 min to 30 min;
— ≤ 10 min for t = 30 min to 1 h;
— ≤ 30 min for t = 1 h to 4 h;
— ≤ 1 h for t > 4 h.

Where a pumping test is carried out in conditions where groundwater is subject to tidal variations,

water level readings shall be taken at frequent intervals throughout the test duration. In tidal conditions

the interval between readings should not exceed 15 min.

The pump discharge shall be measured at least four times in the first hour. If the discharge is stable,

the discharge can be measured once a day. If the discharge is not stable, the pump discharge shall be

determined each hour.

Levels of open water bodies in the vicinity of the test site, where variation is likely to interfere with the

pumping test (and vice versa), shall be recorded periodically t
...

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