Steel wire ropes -- Requirements

ISO 2408:2017 specifies requirements for the manufacture, testing, acceptance, packing, marking and issuing of a certificate of quality of wire ropes. It is applicable to round strand ropes and compacted strand ropes made from wires ropes that are uncoated (bright), zinc-coated or Zn-Al coated. It is not applicable to ropes for - mining purposes, - aircraft control, - aerial ropeways and funiculars, and - lifts.

Câbles en acier -- Exigences

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jun-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-May-2017
Completion Date
16-Jun-2017
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2408
Fourth edition
2017-06
Steel wire ropes — Requirements
Câbles en acier — Exigences
Reference number
ISO 2408:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
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© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Material ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Wire ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1.2 Core ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1.3 Lubricant ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2 Rope manufacture ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Wire joints ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2.3 Lubrication ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.4 Preformation and postformation....................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.5 Construction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.6 Grade .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.7 Wire finish ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2.8 Direction and type of lay ........................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Designation and classification ................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Dimensions ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4.1 Diameter ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4.2 Lay length ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4.3 Rope length ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Breaking force .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.2 Ropes produced in series ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Verification of requirements and test methods ................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Rope manufacture ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3 Test on rope for diameter .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Test on rope for breaking force ................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.1 Method 1: Measured breaking force, F ......................................................................................................

m 8

5.4.2 Method 2: Calculated measured (post-spin) breaking force ..................................................... 8

5.4.3 Method 3: Calculated measured (pre-spin) breaking force ........................................................ 9

5.4.4 Method 4: Measured aggregate breaking force, F .........................................................................

e.m 9

6 Information for use ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.1 Certificate .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Test results .........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Packaging and marking.................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Packaging.............................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Marking .................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Dimensional and mechanical properties of round wires (before

rope making) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (normative) Sampling and acceptance criteria for type testing of ropes produced

in series .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (normative) Calculation of minimum breaking force for ropes in the tables of

Annex D and Annex H....................................................................................................................................................................................17

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ISO 2408:2017(E)

Annex D (normative) Tables of minimum breaking forces for more common rope classes,

sizes and grades .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex E (informative) Tests on wires taken from the rope .......................................................................................................43

Annex F (informative) Comparison between metric and imperial rope sizes .......................................................45

Annex G (informative) Rope grade approximations ..........................................................................................................................47

Annex H (informative) Large diameter wire ropes ............................................................................................................................48

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................50

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 105, Steel wire ropes.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 2408:2004), which has been technically

revised with the following main changes:
— “general purposes” and “minimum” have been deleted from the title;
— “oil and gas industry and fishing” has been deleted in the scope;

— the definitions of “calculated aggregate minimum breaking force of core, F ” have been increased;

— in Table 1, Rope grade 2160 has been increased to 2 360 MPa;

— the sentence “All wires of the same nominal diameter in the same wire layer shall be of the same

tensile strength grade.” in 4.1.1 has been deleted;

— in 4.2.2, the sentence “Twisting for wires up to and including 0,4 mm, and brazing for wires over

0,4 mm,” has been deleted and has been replaced with “the minimum distance between wire joints

within one strand shall be 20 × d”;

— “type” has been used to replace “duty” in 4.2.3, and the sentence “The purchaser should specify the

rope duty or any particular lubrication requirements” has been deleted;
— “Zn-Al coated” has been increased in 4.2.7;
— note d) in 4.5.1 has been deleted;

— the “breaking force testing requirements without ISO quality system” column in Table 4 has been

deleted;

— the requirement of measuring instrument for diameter measurement in 5.3 has been increased;

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
— these sentences in 5.4.1 have been deleted:

“a) the selected test piece shall have its ends secured to ensure that the rope does not unravel;

b) the minimum free test length excluding any rope terminations shall be 600 mm or 30 × nominal

rope diameter, whichever is the greater;

c) after 80 % of the minimum breaking force has been applied, the force shall be increased at a

rate of not more than 0,5 % of the minimum breaking force per second”;
— the “measured aggregate breaking force, F ” in 5.4.4 has been increased;
e.m

— in 6.1.1, g) maximum wire diameter and h) metallic cross-sectional area have been added;

— in 6.1.2 b) mass of coating, “(if applicable)” has been added;
— markings have been detailed in 6.2;

— the sentence “The value of wire exceeding the grades in the table should be agreed by the supplier

and purchaser” has been added in Annex A;
— B.2 has been added in Annex B;

— in Annex C (previously Annex D), the metallic cross-section ratio, the weight ratio, and the calculating

ratio for compacted strand wire rope columns have been added;

— in Annex D (previously Annex C), 6 × 19 M, 8 × 7, 18 × 19S, 18 × 19W, 36(M) × 7 have been added in

rope construction and tables for 4 × 19 class, 4 × 36 class and K4 × 35N class have been added;

— “rope grade equivalents” has been changed to “rope grade approximations” in Annex G, and a note

has been added;
— Annex H has been added;
— editorial revisions have been made.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to a worldwide demand for a specification giving

requirements for steel wire ropes.

As in previous editions, this document specifies metric sizes and grades of rope for the more common

classes of rope; see Annex F. A comparison of rope grades is provided in Annex G.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2408:2017(E)
Steel wire ropes — Requirements
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for the manufacture, testing, acceptance, packing, marking and

issuing of a certificate of quality of wire ropes. It is applicable to round strand ropes and compacted

strand ropes made from wires ropes that are uncoated (bright), zinc-coated or Zn-Al coated.

It is not applicable to ropes for
— mining purposes,
— aircraft control,
— aerial ropeways and funiculars, and
— lifts.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2232:1990, Round drawn wire for general purpose non-alloy steel wire ropes and for large diameter

steel wire ropes — Specifications

ISO 3108, Steel wire ropes for general purposes — Determination of actual breaking load

ISO 4345, Steel wire ropes — Fibre main cores — Specification

ISO 4346, Steel wire ropes for general purposes — Lubricants — Basic requirements

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 7800, Metallic materials — Wire — Simple torsion test
ISO 17893, Steel wire ropes — Vocabulary, designation and classification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17893 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
calculated aggregate minimum breaking force of core

value of the aggregate minimum breaking force obtained by calculation from the cross-sectional area

(based on nominal wire diameter) and tensile strength grade of each wire in the core, as given in the

manufacturer’s rope design
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
4 Requirements
4.1 Material
4.1.1 Wire

Before rope making, wires shall conform to the diameter, torsion and, where applicable, coating

requirements specified in Annex A.

NOTE 1 Annex A is based on ISO 2232 but with extended wire sizes and wire tensile strength grades.

NOTE 2 For a given wire size and tensile strength grade, the torsional properties of the wires in

ISO 10425:2003, A.2 meet or exceed the values given in Annex A.

For those ropes where a rope grade is applicable, the tensile strength grades of the wires shall be

subject to the limits given in Table 1.

Table 1 — Tensile strength grades of wires (excluding centre and filler wires) for given rope

grades
Rope grade Range of wire tensile strength grades
N/mm
1570 1 370 to 1 770
1770 1 570 to 1 960
1960 1 770 to 2 160
2160 1 960 to 2 360

NOTE 3 The minimum breaking force values of those ropes of grades 1570, 1770, 1960 and 2160 as covered by

Table D.1 to Table D.14 are calculated on the basis of rope grade and not individual wire tensile strength grades.

The methods of test shall be in accordance with ISO 2232.
4.1.2 Core

Cores of single-layer stranded ropes shall normally be of steel or fibre, although other types such as

composites (e.g. steel plus fibre or steel plus polymer) or solid polymer may also be supplied.

The purchaser should specify any particular core type requirements.

Fibre cores for single-layer stranded ropes shall conform to ISO 4345 and rope diameters 8 mm and

above shall be doubly closed (i.e. from yarn into strand and from strand into rope).

Natural fibre cores shall be treated with an impregnating compound to inhibit rotting and decay.

Steel cores shall be either an independent wire rope (IWRC) or a wire strand (WSC).

Steel cores of single-layer stranded ropes larger than 12 mm diameter shall be an independent wire

rope (IWRC), unless specified otherwise.
4.1.3 Lubricant
Lubricants shall conform to ISO 4346.
4.2 Rope manufacture
4.2.1 General
All the wires in a strand shall have the same direction of lay.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2408:2017(E)

The core, except for compacted (swaged) ropes, shall be designed (steel) or selected (fibre) so that in a

new rope under tension on the closing machine, there is clearance between the outer strands.

The completed rope shall be evenly laid and free from loose wires, distorted strands and other

irregularities.
The new wire rope shall not have a three-dimensional wave.

Rope ends that have no end fittings shall, when necessary, be secured so as to maintain the integrity of

the wire rope and prevent its unlaying.
4.2.2 Wire joints

Wires over 0,4 mm in diameter shall, where necessary, have their ends joined by welding.

Wires up to and including 0,4 mm diameter shall, where necessary, be joined by brazing, welding or by

ends being simply inserted in the strand’s formation.

The minimum distance between wire joints within one strand shall be 20 × rope diameter (d).

4.2.3 Lubrication

The amount of lubrication and type of lubricant shall be appropriate to the rope type and its use.

4.2.4 Preformation and postformation

Ropes shall be preformed and/or postformed unless specified otherwise by the purchaser.

NOTE Large diameter wire rope, some parallel-closed and rotation-resistant ropes, can be non-preformed

or be only partially preformed.
4.2.5 Construction

The rope construction shall be either one of those covered in Annex D, Annex H or as stated by the

manufacturer.

If the purchaser only specifies the rope classification, the manufacturer should state the rope

construction clearly.
The purchaser should specify the rope construction or classification.
4.2.6 Grade

The rope grades for the more common classes of ropes shall be as given in Table D.1 to Table D.22.

Other rope grades, including those as given in ISO 10425, may be supplied by agreement between the

purchaser and the manufacturer, providing all of the other requirements are met.
NOTE Not all ropes will necessarily have a rope grade.
4.2.7 Wire finish

The finish of the wires shall be uncoated (bright), zinc-coated quality B, zinc coated quality A or Zn-

Al coated.

For ropes of bright wire finish, substitution of bright wires by zinc-coated wires shall be limited to

inner wires, centre wires, filler wires and core wires.

For ropes of zinc coated wire finish, all of the wires shall be zinc coated, including those of any steel core.

Where zinc-coated is specified, this may also include Zn-Al alloy.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
4.2.8 Direction and type of lay
The direction and type of rope lay shall be one of the following:
a) right ordinary lay (sZ);

NOTE 1 Formerly referred to as right hand ordinary (designated RHO) and right regular lay

(designated RRL).
b) left ordinary lay (zS);

NOTE 2 Formerly referred to as left hand ordinary (designated LHO) and left regular lay (designated LRL).

c) right lang lay (zZ);

NOTE 3 Formerly referred to as right hand langs (designated RHL) or right lang lay (designated RLL).

d) left lang lay (sS);

NOTE 4 Formerly referred to as left hand langs (designated LHL) or left lang lay (designated LLL).

The direction and type of rope lay should be specified by the purchaser.
4.3 Designation and classification

Rope designation and classification shall conform to the system requirements of ISO 17893.

4.4 Dimensions
4.4.1 Diameter
4.4.1.1 General
The nominal diameter shall be the dimension by which the rope is designated.
4.4.1.2 Tolerance

When measured in accordance with 5.3, the measured diameter shall be within the tolerances given in

Table 2.
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
Table 2 — Tolerances on rope diameter
Tolerance as percentage of nominal diameter
Nominal rope
diameter
Ropes with strands that are
Rope type
Ropes with strands that
exclusively of wire or incorporate
incorporate fibre centres
solid polymer centres
2 ≤ d < 4 —
+7 +9
4 ≤ d < 6
0 0
Round steel wire
+6 +8
6 ≤ d < 8
rope 0 0
+5 +7
8 ≤ d < 60
0 0
d ≥ 60 —
Compacted strand
d ≥ 10 —
rope
For example, 6 × 24 FC-FC.
4.4.1.3 Difference between diameter measurements

The difference between any two of the four measurements taken in accordance with 5.3 and expressed

as a percentage of the nominal rope diameter shall not exceed the values given in Table 3.

Table 3 — Permissible differences between any two diameter measurements
Differences as percentage of nominal diameter
Nominal rope diameter
Ropes with strands that are
Rope type d
exclusively of wire or Ropes with strands that
mm a
incorporate solid polymer incorporate fibre centres
centres
2 ≤ d < 4 7 —
4 ≤ d < 6 6 8
Round steel
6 ≤ d < 8 5 7
wire rope
8 ≤ d < 60 4 6
d ≥ 60 4 —
Compacted
d ≥ 10 4 —
strand rope
For example, 6 × 24 FC-FC.
4.4.2 Lay length

For single-layer ropes of 6 × 7 class, the length of lay of the finished rope shall not exceed 8 × d.

For other single-layer ropes with round strands (except those with three or four strands), parallel

closed ropes and rotation-resistant ropes with round strands or shaped strands, the length of lay of the

finished rope shall not exceed 7,5 × d.

For single-layer ropes with shaped strands, e.g. triangular strand, the length of lay of the finished rope

shall not exceed 10 × d.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
4.4.3 Rope length

The length of rope supplied, under no load, shall be equivalent to the specified length subject to the

following tolerances:
— ≤400 m: % ;
+20
— >400 m and ≤1 000 m: m ;
— >1 000 m: % .
4.5 Breaking force
4.5.1 General

The minimum breaking force, F , for a given rope diameter and construction shall be either

min
a) as given in Table D.1 to Table D.22 or Table H.1, or
b) as stated by the manufacturer.

For the determination of minimum breaking forces of rope diameters not listed in Table D.1 to Table D.22

or Table H.1, calculations in accordance with Annex C can be used.

When tested in accordance with 5.4.1, the measured breaking force, F , shall be greater than or equal

to the minimum breaking force, F .
min
Breaking force testing requirements shall be in accordance with Table 4.

NOTE The requirements for breaking force testing take into account: a) the rope size; b) whether or not

ropes are produced in series, i.e. repeatedly produced; c) whether or not the minimum breaking force factor is

consistent throughout a range of diameters.
4.5.2 Ropes produced in series

The manufacturer shall be able to provide the results from type testing in accordance with the sampling

and acceptance criteria in Annex B.

Type testing shall be repeated on any rope that has its design changed in any way which results in a

modified (e.g. increased) breaking force. If the same design, apart from wire tensile strength grades,

is used for ropes of a lower grade or lower breaking force, or both, than the one which has successfully

passed the type testing requirements, it shall not be necessary to repeat the tests on those ropes

provided the breaking force is calculated with the same spinning loss.

Subsequent production lengths of ropes produced in series shall be deemed to conform to the breaking

force requirements when the manufacturer has satisfactorily completed, on a sample from every 20th

production length
a) the appropriate type tests (see Annex B), and

b) a periodic breaking force test in accordance with Method 1 (see 5.4.1) or one of the alternative

methods, known as Method 2 (see 5.4.2), Method 3 (see 5.4.3) and Method 4 (see 5.4.4).

6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2408:2017(E)
Table 4 — Breaking force testing requirements
Rope Min. breaking
Breaking force testing requirements
diameter force factor

Up to and Same factor Breaking force test in accordance with 5.4.1 (Method 1) on a sample from

including throughout a each production length;

60 mm subgroup of rope Or, if produced in series, type testing in accordance with the sampling

diameters regime and acceptance criteria of B.1 plus periodic breaking force test in

accordance with 5.4.1 (Method 1), 5.4.2 (Method 2), 5.4.3 (Method 3) or
5.4.4 (Method 4)on a sample from every 20th production length relating to
the subgroup of diameters.

Different factor Breaking force test in accordance with 5.4.1 (Method 1) on a sample from

throughout a each production length;

subgroup of rope Or, if produced in series, type testing in accordance with the sampling

diameters regime and acceptance criteria of B.2 plus periodic test in acco
...

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