Information technology -- Future Network -- Problem statement and requirements

ISO/IEC TR 29189-9:2017 describes the general characteristics of Networking of Everything (NoE), which can be applied to Future Networks, especially from an Internet of Things (IoT) perspective. This document specifies: - a conceptual model of NoE and its definition; - problem statements in conventional networking; - standardization activities of other standards-development organizations; - requirements for NoE from an IoT perspective; - technical aspects. NOTE: Since networking issues are an integral part of IoT and Future Networks, while standards of IoT or Future Networks are under development in other standards-development organizations, this document focuses on networking issues to integrate diverse networking techniques to provide users' service and/or things requirement.

Technologies de l'information -- Réseaux du futur -- Énoncé du problème et exigences

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Publication Date
26-Apr-2017
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6060 - International Standard published
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07-Mar-2017
Completion Date
27-Apr-2017
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 29181-9
First edition
2017-04
Information technology — Future
Network — Problem statement and
requirements —
Part 9:
Networking of everything
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du
problème et exigences —
Partie 9: Réseautique universelle
Reference number
ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Overview of Networking of Everything (NoE) ........................................................................................................................ 4

6 Problem statement ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 User’s perception .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1.1 Static network selection ............................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1.2 Inconvenient network change .............................................................................................................................. 7

6.1.3 Reconnection to network ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.4 Separate accounting ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.5 Thing-user centric communications ............................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Network’s perception ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.1 Cooperation among ISPs ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Inter-services between different types of networks ......................................................................... 7

6.2.3 Reliable data transmission after path setup ............................................................................................ 7

6.2.4 Different accounting policy ..................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.5 Thing-user centric networks ................................................................................................................................. 8

7 Related standardization and research activities ................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 ISO JTC1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1.1 JTC1 WG10 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2 ITU-T ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2.1 Next Generation Network (NGN) ....................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Future Networks .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.3 Smart Ubiquitous Networking (SUN) .........................................................................................................10

7.2.4 ITU-T SG 20 ........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ........................................................................................................................11

7.4 IEEE ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.5 oneM2M .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 General requirements for NoE ............................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 Network transparency ..................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Optimized network performance ........................................................................................................................................14

8.3 One universal accounting............................................................................................................................................................14

8.4 Security and privacy ........................................................................................................................................................................14

8.5 Instantaneous integration of networks for the thing-user ............................................................................14

9 Technical requirements for NoE........................................................................................................................................................15

9.1 Agent functions for NoE ...............................................................................................................................................................15

9.2 Network functions for NoE ........................................................................................................................................................15

9.3 Integrated functions of NoE ......................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) U-health use case in NoE ...................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Spatial collaborative work use case in NoE ...................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC 6,

Telecommunications and information exchange between systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 29181 series, published under the general title Information technology —

Future network — Problem statement and requirements, is available on the ISO website.

iv © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
Introduction

This document defines the problem statement and requirements for the future network in the

networking of everything, which would be the Internet of Things (IoT) network aspects.

Considering that many standards-development organizations, including ITU-T, already produced their

own IoT-related standards or recommendations (such as ITU-T Y.2060, Y.2061, and Y.2069), this document

has a clear scope, with new terms and definitions that are consistent with those already in existence.

This document focuses on providing the solutions to other standards-development organizations’

requirements; discussing how various networking technologies should be integrated for users.

This document focuses on networking issues, excluding how virtual things can be associated with

physical things or devices. The problems of current networks and requirements for Future Networks

are discussed in other parts of ISO/IEC 29181. This document only discusses the problems of current

networking technologies and policies, and the requirements for the networking of Future Networks,

especially considering future super realistic services like IoT.
Use cases in the Network of Everything are provided in Annexes A and B.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
Information technology — Future Network — Problem
statement and requirements —
Part 9:
Networking of everything
1 Scope

This document describes the general characteristics of Networking of Everything (NoE), which can be

applied to Future Networks, especially from an Internet of Things (IoT) perspective. This document

specifies:
— a conceptual model of NoE and its definition;
— problem statements in conventional networking;
— standardization activities of other standards-development organizations;
— requirements for NoE from an IoT perspective;
— technical aspects.

NOTE Since networking issues are an integral part of IoT and Future Networks, while standards of IoT or

Future Networks are under development in other standards-development organizations, this document focuses

on networking issues to integrate diverse networking techniques to provide users’ service and/or things

requirement.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
actuator
device that triggers a physical action following stimulation by an input signal
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2061]
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
3.2
collaborative work group

group of thing-users that can perform planning a job, recruiting thing-users, and coordinating thing-

users without human intervention
3.3
composite QoS

overall performance provided by all networks which are instantaneously interconnected to provide a

service to a user
3.4
context
information that can used to characterize the environment of a user
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2002]
3.5
device

piece of equipment with the mandatory capabilities of communication and the

optional capabilities of sensing, actuation, data capture, data storage, and data processing

[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2060]
3.6
everything

piece of equipment with capabilities of communication with any type

network appropriately according to the network environments (or conditions), or user’s (predefined)

requirements like accounts, contracts, QoS, security, or privacy

Note 1 to entry: It can be regarded as combined equipment with a device and physical thing in IoT

terminologies. Simply “everything” in the NoE can be regarded as any “device with things” in the IoT.

3.7
identifier

series of digits, characters and symbols or any other form of data used to identify subscriber(s), user(s),

network element(s), function(s), network entity(ies) providing services/applications, or other entities

(e.g. physical or logical objects)
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2091]
3.8
Internet of Things
IoT

global infrastructure for the information society enabling advanced services by interconnecting

(physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving, interoperable information and

communication technologies
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2060]
3.9
machine-to-machine application
M2M

application enabled by the communication between two or intervention in the process of communication

[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2240]
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
3.10
network agent

virtual object that (1) monitors and coordinates each individual networks, (2) provides information

of networks which are capable to the user device, and (3) (re)selects an optimal network through

negotiation between user devices and appropriate networks

Note 1 to entry: This network agent can be implemented in each network platform separately with limited

operations depending on its features. Also it may be implemented in diverse shapes such as a one single agent

server, distributed agent servers among each networks, or software in each network platform.

3.11
Networking of Everything
NoE

technologies where every kind of systems communicates with each other regardless of the types of

devices or things attached to the devices

Note 1 to entry: Everything (or any device with things) can access any network appropriately and communicate

with everything (or any device with things) according to the network environments (e.g. available networks,

network conditions, etc) and the thing’s requirements (e.g. account, contracts, privacy, security, require QoS,

etc.). For example, NoE can provide a capability that a communication will be handed over from mobile LTE

telecommunication network to WLAN access network with seamless manner, if needed.

3.12
object

intrinsic representation of an entity that is described at an appropriate level of abstraction in terms of

its attributes and functions
[SOURCE: ITU-T Q.1300]
3.13
proximity defined network
PDN

network configured among devices in close proximity, using conventional LAN or WAN technologies:

which are in not only physically close proximity, but also closely related, or logically close proximity

3.14
sensor

electronic device that senses a physical condition or chemical compound and delivers an electronic

signal proportional to the observed characteristic
[SOURCE: ITU-T Q.2221]
3.15
sensor node

device consisting of sensor(s) and optional actuator(s) with capabilities of sensed data processing and

networking
[SOURCE: ITU-T Q.2221]
3.16
thing

object of the physical world (physical things) or of the information world (virtual thing), which is

capable of being identified and integrated into communication networks
[SOURCE: ITU-T Y.2060]

Note 1 to entry: Physical things are capable of being sensed, actuated, and connected such as robots, goods,

electrical equipment. Virtual things are capable of being stored, processed and accessed such as multimedia

content and application software.
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)
3.17
thing-user
thing which uses the network service or the service provided by other things
Note 1 to entry: Physical things and virtual things can be a thing-user.
4 Abbreviated terms
ISP inter service provider
LTE long term evolution
NGN next generation networks
SOA service-oriented architecture
TCP transmission control protocol
QoS quality of service
UDP user datagram protocol
USN ubiquitous sensor networks
5 Overview of Networking of Everything (NoE)

Currently, there are various different types of networks in the market such as mobile telecommunication

networks, IP-based data networks, etc. However since each network is usually operated by different

owners, even though multiple networks are even available to the same device, user device has no choice

but to access to the predetermined (pre-contractual) network. Even though a device can access to two

or more different networks, still there are inconveniences;
— it should be done manually,
— it takes relatively long time to change the networks,
— there is no choice to prioritize the network search sequence,

— there is no consideration for power consumption to find an appropriate network.

There are also problems with networking itself, especially between different types of networks.

Since mostly each network is operated and maintained by separate individual groups, there are lots

of technical and administrative difficulties in inter-networking. Even two different networks owned

by the same owner are still operated independently without considerations of interconnectivity or

handover between two networks. Users are forced to use only the network that the ISP provided.

In the Future Network, any piece of equipment with capabilities of communication becomes a user of the

network: a thing-user. Trillions of NoE devices will be accommodated in the network. The connections

perceived by thing-users will raise the networking scale to an unprecedented level.

The NoE device is capable of being sensed, actuated, collaborated and socialized. The NoE device

varies in intelligence. The intelligent thing-user will be smart enough to perceive the goal, comprehend

actionable knowledge and project strategies. The intelligent thing-user requires a network to

accommodate the autonomous collaborative working, which is performed by planning a job, recruiting

thing workers, and coordinating thing workers without human intervention.
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ISO/TR 29181-9:2017(E)

This document describes how NoE can enable Future Network users to overcome those problems.

However, since the scope of NoE is too wide, this document addresses the followings from the network

handover point of view and heterogeneous service network integration:
— NoE conceptual models;
— types of networks;
— network discovery and selection;
— network status monitoring;
— handover between different types of networks;
— fast and reliable efficient connection;
— heterogeneous service network integration.

This document focuses on the handover of networking and the integrated networking of physical things

over heterogeneous access network, even though it is based on the other networking parameters such

as QoS/Composite QoS, routing/switching, mobility, security, collaboration, and so on.

Figure 1 defines a virtual abstract object named network agent which is to describe those networking

mechanism of handover, even between different types of networks and heterogeneous service network

integration. In real implementation, it may be implemented in diverse shapes such as a single agent

server, distributed agent servers among each networks, or software in each network platform.

Each network provides its platform over which M2M or IoT services are available. Those IoT-like services

(mostly M2M services) are still restrictive to specific devices for specific services. In a Future Network

environment, IoT services should be open or easy to access with simple registration or a contract.

A network agent – perceived from a user’s viewpoint -– monitors the status of all possible networks

around the network agent. The networks around it may be viewed hierarchically based on the distance

so that the network agent may see mainly available networks.

NOTE Figure 1 is the modified version of Figure 2 of ITU-T Y.2060, indicating that NoE focuses on

“communication networks” in the physical world.
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Figure 1 — Conceptual model of NoE and its scope from the network handover point of view

When a user wants to communicate, the device gets some advice from the network agent which searches

the appropriate network based on the application. For example, if the application is a simple voice

telephone, the network agent will find a 2G-like cheap network or WLAN VoIP. After VoIP in the WLAN

is selected, during the communication, it may happen that the remote access network is overloaded.

Then the network agent (located in the remote access network area) will hand its channel to the LTE

network seamlessly.

When a thing-user wants to coordinate a collaborative work group, the thing device gets some advice

from the network agent which discovers appropriate thing devices in a proximity defined network and

provides connections for a collaborative work group. For example, if the application is an autonomous

building door access service for a delivery drone which is performed by the building security guard

robot and the building door access controller, and if the thing devices are served by different service

networks, the network agent will coordinate the thing devices to form a proximity defined network

integrated over heterogeneous service networks.

To provide those kinds of services, this document considers NoE from the viewpoint of handover even

between heterogeneous access networks and integration of heterogeneous service networks.

6 Problem statement
6.1 User’s perception
6.1.1 Static network selection

Currently when a person buys a smart phone and contracts to a mobile telecom company, he does not

have any choice to select a network. Even though he is in the location where different types of network

are available, still he does not have any choice regardless of his QoS request. For example, he has to

connect to a wideband expensive network for a simple and short chat.
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6.1.2 Inconvenient network change

Even when he can switch from one network to the other, still he does it manually, or waits for a relatively

long time to be switched. Even though two or more networks are available, still no one knows which

network is suitable for him.
6.1.3 Reconnection to network

While he is using a network, if somehow he decides to change the network to another, he has to start

from the beginning since the new network does not know any information about the user’s device,

content types, etc. It may cause a critical delay to a time-sensitive application.

6.1.4 Separate accounting

If he wants to access different networks wherever needed, he has to contract separately with different

accounts and manage separate bills. It is very serious when travelling to foreign countries with different

accounting policies.
6.1.5 Thing-user centric communications

If an intelligent thing-user wants to organize a collaborative work group autonomously with things in

proximity connected over heterogeneous service networks, there is no solution for supporting thing-

user centric communications. The protocols of service networks are defined in the application layer

and are designed for specific service purpose only, without considering sharing the service capability

with other thing-users.
6.2 Network’s perception
6.2.1 Cooperation among ISPs

Each ISP now cooperates with other ISP to provide transit services, even among different countries.

However, as the request for diverse big data or time-sensitive short data delivery is increased, the

policy should be revisited.
6.2.2 Inter-services between different types of networks

Up to now, each network has evolved with its own features. The mobile telecommunication industry

by which most of internet services will be provided has expanded very fast. On the other hand,

mobile internet devices provide telecommunication voice service. However, a user still has to select

one network for the same service without knowing the network status. The user has to restart his

connection if his chosen was wrong. Even worse, the user has to restart from the beginning if the

delivery was not successful at the final stage as the quality of network is getting worse as time goes by.

6.2.3 Reliable data transmission after path setup

For reliable data transmission, TCP-like connection is established prior to data transmission. Time-

sensitive data are transmitted through UDP-like connectionless service. However, when a sequence of

data which should be time-sensitive and reliable are to be transmitted even through different types

of networks, there is no mechanism to provide such a service. For example, if a doctor wants to send a

series with short vital pulse information from his LTE smartphone to expensive equipment connected

to the hospital internet, the vital information cannot be delivered seamlessly unless the mobile

telecommunication network can hand them over to the hospital internet in time.

1) The ‘connection’ referred in this document is not a technical term. It may be a ‘connection’ usually perceived by

general users.
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6.2.4 Different accounting policy

For the same service with same quality and same amount of data, user has to pay different amount of

money even to the same company. Regardless of user’s preference, network charges only for the access.

6.2.5 Thing-user centric networks

The current networks are designed for human-to-human or human-to-object interaction. I

...

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