Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 6: Traction battery packs and systems

This document specifies requirements for lithium-ion traction battery packs or systems used in battery electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell electric road vehicles. This document describes the most relevant environmental stresses and specifies tests and test boundary conditions. This document establishes a classification of battery packs or systems and defines different stress levels for testing when a classification is applicable and required. The objective of this document is to specify standard test procedures and conditions to enable the observation of the reliability of the lithium-ion traction battery in the vehicle. This document specifies tests for a battery pack or system of voltage class A and B. This document provides the necessary information to set up a dedicated test plan for a battery pack or system subject to agreement between the customer and supplier. If required, the relevant test procedures and/or test conditions can also be selected from this document. NOTE This document only covers requirements and test conditions for a traction battery pack or system used in passenger cars.

Véhicules routiers — Spécifications d'environnement et essais de l'équipement électrique et électronique pour les véhicules à propulsion électrique — Partie 6: Packs et systèmes de batterie de traction

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Jul-2020
Completion Date
02-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19453-6
First edition
2020-07
Road vehicles — Environmental
conditions and testing for electrical
and electronic equipment for
drive system of electric propulsion
vehicles —
Part 6:
Traction battery packs and systems
Véhicules routiers — Spécifications d'environnement et essais
de l'équipement électrique et électronique pour les véhicules à
propulsion électrique —
Partie 6: Packs et systèmes de batterie de traction
Reference number
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Operating modes .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Operating mode 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3 Operating mode 6 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Operating mode 7 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Functional status classification ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Functional status checks .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.1 Electrical requirements check ................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.2 Equipotential bonding ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1.3 Insulation resistance .................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.4 Withstand voltage test ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2 Mechanical requirements check .............................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2.1 Technical tightness check of battery pack or system enclosure ............................................. 7

7.2.2 Leak tightness check of internal temperature control system ................................................. 7

8 Tests and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8.1 Mechanical categories of battery packs or systems ................................................................................................ 8

8.1.1 Category 1 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1.2 Category 2 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.3 Category 3 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.2 Thermo-mechanical pre-conditioning .......................................................................................................10

8.3 Thermal cycling tests ......................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 Thermal cycling for DUT without internal temperature control system .....................10

8.3.3 Thermal cycling for DUT with internal temperature control system ..............................12

8.3.4 Thermal cycling with electric operation ..................................................................................................14

8.4 Structural durability and strength tests .........................................................................................................................16

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.4.2 Fixture ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.4.3 Pre-conditioning for mechanical tests .......................................................................................................17

8.4.4 Durability test ..................................................................................................................................................................17

8.4.5 Mechanical shock .........................................................................................................................................................24

8.4.6 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5 Water protection ................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5.1 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5.2 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................25

8.6 Dust protection ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.6.1 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.6.2 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................26

8.7 Humid heat condensation test ................................................................................................................................................26

8.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)

8.7.2 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.7.3 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8 Damp heat, steady state test.....................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.2 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.2 Mixed gas corrosion ...................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.3 Salt-spray test for external mounting location ...................................................................................30

8.9.4 Salt corrosion test for internal mounting location ..........................................................................31

8.10 Chemical resistance .........................................................................................................................................................................34

Annex A (informative) Example of leak tightness check ...............................................................................................................35

Annex B (informative) Test concept for additional mechanical loads on a battery pack or

system ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

Annex C (informative) Example of electrical and thermal profile for the mechanical

durability test .......................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex D (informative) Example of electrical profile for heat dissipation..................................................................41

Annex E (informative) Example of acceptance criterion for corrosion infiltration ..........................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................44

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32,

Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19453 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
Introduction

For over fifty years, traction batteries for electric vehicles have been developed to achieve high energy

density and high power output. Specifically, lead-acid battery, Ni-Cd battery and Ni-MH battery

with aqueous electrolyte were most applied to electric vehicles in the early days. Thermal activated

batteries, such as molten salt batteries like sodium sulphur battery and Zebra battery were also

examined. Lithium ion battery penetrated the consumer market in portable battery application from

1991. Currently, it is the most promising candidate of traction battery for electric vehicles. ISO 6469-1

specifies safety requirement of RESS (Rechargeable Energy Storage System) and the ISO 12405

series has been published to specify performance and reliability tests. This document focuses on

environmental and endurance tests of lithium ion battery systems.

The ISO 19453 series specifies the test conditions on environment and reliability for electrical and

electric equipment for the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles. The battery pack or system is the

electric system which charges and discharges electricity through the converter. The test condition for

mechanical load in ISO 19453-3 is too severe to apply to the battery pack or system from the standpoint

of frequency range and amplitude of vibration in the test input spectrum. The test conditions for

climatic load in ISO 19453-4 is also excessive to apply to the battery pack or system, because lithium ion

battery pack is designed to control temperature within adequate operational range. That is the reason

why appropriate conditions for the lithium ion battery are specified in this document.

The purpose of this document is to assist its user in systematically defining and/or applying a set of

internationally accepted environmental conditions, tests and operating requirements, which are based

on the anticipated actual environment in which the equipment will be operated and exposed to during

its life cycle. This document has been developed based on fundamental investigations and vehicle

measurements on voltage class A and B battery pack/system. The following environmental factors have

been considered in the development of the ISO 19453 series.
— World geography and climate

Electric propulsion vehicles are operated in nearly all terrestrial regions of the earth. Significant

variation in environmental conditions due to climatic environment, including diurnal and seasonal

cycles, can therefore be expected. Consideration has been given to worldwide ranges in the

temperature, humidity, precipitation and atmospheric conditions including dust, pollution and altitude.

— Type of electric propulsion vehicle

Operating environment in an electric propulsion vehicle can depend on its electric powertrain

architecture as well as its mass, size, supply voltage and so on. Consideration has been given to typical

types of series production electric propulsion vehicle architectures such as hybrid electric vehicles,

battery electric vehicles, range extender hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, but not including

equipment specific for fuel cell system.
— Vehicle use conditions and operating modes

Environmental conditions in and on the vehicle vary significantly with vehicle use (e.g. driving,

charging during parking, etc.). Operating modes, such as starting, driving, braking, stopping and so

on, have been considered, in particular, for traction battery system.
— Battery durability

For battery system, it is necessary to be resistant to environmental conditions experienced during

manufacture, shipping, handling, storage, vehicle assembly, vehicle usage and vehicle maintenance

and repair.
— Component mass and volume

The mass of battery pack is generally in the range of around 20 kg up to 60 kg for HEV, 80 kg to 150 kg for

PHEV, more than 200 kg for BEV (weight assumptions from year 2020). The battery pack has generally

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)

a large volume and thermal capacity. It is necessary not only to prepare a large chamber but it will also

take a long time to keep the thermal equivalent when performing a thermal shock test.

— Mounting location in the vehicle

HEV battery packs are generally installed inside the vehicle, PHEV battery packs are installed both

outside and inside, and BEV battery packs are generally installed outside. The environmental condition

such as water splashing, dust, salt spray, humidity or corrosion for battery packs installed outside

vehicle interior is more severe than for battery packs installed inside. In this document, test conditions

are specified according to mounting location.
a) Applicability to manufacturers’ responsibility

Due to technology limitations or variations in vehicle design, the vehicle manufacturer may be required

to place a component in a location where it cannot withstand the environmental conditions described

in the ISO 19453 series. Under these circumstances, it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer

to provide the necessary environmental protection.
b) Applicability to wiring harnesses, cables and electrical connectors

Although some environmental conditions and tests in the ISO 19453 series may be relevant to vehicle

wiring harnesses, cables and connectors, its scope is not sufficient to be used as a complete standard.

It is therefore not recommended that the ISO 19453 series is directly applied to such devices and

equipment.
c) Applicability to parts or assemblies inside equipment

The ISO 19453 series describes environmental conditions and tests to be applied to electrical and

electronic equipment directly mounted in or on the vehicle. It is not intended for direct application to

parts or assemblies that are part of the equipment. For example, the ISO 19453 series should not be

directly applied to integrated circuits (ICs) and discrete components, electrical connectors, printed

circuit boards (PCBs), gauges, etc. that are attached in or on the equipment. Electrical, mechanical,

climatic and chemical loads for such parts and assemblies can be quite different from those described

in the ISO 19453 series. Therefore, for those sub-components applying test conditions of the ISO 16750

series can be considered as a reference.

On the other hand, it is desirable to use the ISO 19453 series to help derive environmental conditions

and test requirements for parts and assemblies that are intended for use in road vehicle equipment.

d) Applicability relative to system integration and validation

The user of the ISO 19453 series is cautioned to understand that its scope is limited to conditions and

testing at the equipment level and therefore does not represent all conditions and testing necessary

for complete verification and validation of the vehicle system, for example cold water shock tests

were omitted from this document. Environmental and reliability testing of equipment parts and

vehicle systems may be required. For example, the ISO 19453 series does not necessarily ensure that

environmental and reliability requirements for solder joints, solderless connections, integrated circuits

and so on are met. Such items are assured at the part, material or assembly level. Additionally, vehicle

and system level testing might be required to validate the equipment in the vehicle application.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for
electrical and electronic equipment for drive system of
electric propulsion vehicles —
Part 6:
Traction battery packs and systems
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for lithium-ion traction battery packs or systems used in

battery electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell electric road vehicles. This document describes the most

relevant environmental stresses and specifies tests and test boundary conditions. This document

establishes a classification of battery packs or systems and defines different stress levels for testing

when a classification is applicable and required. The objective of this document is to specify standard

test procedures and conditions to enable the observation of the reliability of the lithium-ion traction

battery in the vehicle.

This document specifies tests for a battery pack or system of voltage class A and B.

This document provides the necessary information to set up a dedicated test plan for a battery pack

or system subject to agreement between the customer and supplier. If required, the relevant test

procedures and/or test conditions can also be selected from this document.

NOTE This document only covers requirements and test conditions for a traction battery pack or system

used in passenger cars.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6469-3, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Electrical safety

ISO 6469-3:2018/Amd 1, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Electrical

safety — Amendment 1: Withstand voltage test for electric power sources
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 19453-1, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 1: General

ISO 19453-4, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 4: Climatic loads

ISO 19453-5, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 5: Chemical loads

ISO 20653, Road vehicles — Degrees of protection (IP code) — Protection of electrical equipment against

foreign objects, water and access

IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing — Part 2-14: Tests — Test N: Change of temperature

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing — Part 2-27: Tests — Test Ea and guidance: Shock

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)

IEC 60068-2-38, Environmental testing — Part 2-38: Tests — Test Z/AD: Composite temperature/humidity

cyclic test

IEC 60068-2-60, Environmental testing — Part 2-60: Tests — Test Ke: Flowing mixed gas corrosion test

IEC 60068-2-64, Environmental testing — Part 2-64: Tests — Test Fh: Vibration, broad-band random and

guidance
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 19453-1, ISO 20653 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
BMS
battery management system

electronic system that controls, manages, detects or calculates electric and thermal functions of the

battery pack or system and that provides communication between the battery pack or system and

other vehicle controllers
3.2
electric chassis

conductive parts of a vehicle that are electrically connected and whose potential is taken as reference

3.3
ITCS
internal temperature control system

internal thermal management system of a battery pack or system that can heat or cool the battery pack

or system to a target temperature determined by the BMS (3.1)
EXAMPLE Liquid based heating/cooling system.
3.4
main contactor

electronic or mechanic switching/disconnect device for the battery pack or system main power supply

live part (3.5)
3.5
main power supply live part

conductor or conductive part intended to be energized in normal use, but by convention not the electric

chassis (3.2) or the class A auxiliary voltage supply
3.6
MAST
multiaxial simulation table

multiaxial system to induce vibrations or shocks in all three axial dimensions to the DUT

3.7
PSD
power spectral density
measure of signal's power content versus frequency

Note 1 to entry: A PSD is typically used to characterize broadband random signals. The amplitude of the PSD is

normalized by the spectral resolution employed to digitize the signal.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19453-6:2020(E)
3.8
rated capacity

total number of ampere-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged battery pack or system

under test conditions defined by the battery pack or system manufact
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 19453-6
ISO/TC 22/SC 32
Road vehicles — Environmental
Secretariat: JISC
conditions and testing for electrical
Voting begins on:
2020-04-08 and electronic equipment for
drive system of electric propulsion
Voting terminates on:
2020-06-03
vehicles —
Part 6:
Traction battery packs and systems
Véhicules routiers — Spécifications d'environnement et essais
de l'équipement électrique et électronique pour les véhicules à
propulsion électrique —
Partie 6: Packs et systèmes de batterie de traction
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Operating modes .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Operating mode 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3 Operating mode 6 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Operating mode 7 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Functional status classification ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Functional status checks .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.1 Electrical requirements check ................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.2 Equipotential bonding ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1.3 Insulation resistance .................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.4 Withstand voltage test ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2 Mechanical requirements check .............................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2.1 Technical tightness check of battery pack or system enclosure ............................................. 7

7.2.2 Leak tightness check of internal temperature control system ................................................. 7

8 Tests and requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8.1 Mechanical categories of battery packs or systems ................................................................................................ 8

8.1.1 Category 1 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1.2 Category 2 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.3 Category 3 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.2 Thermo-mechanical pre-conditioning .......................................................................................................10

8.3 Thermal cycling tests ......................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 Thermal cycling for DUT without internal temperature control system .....................10

8.3.3 Thermal cycling for DUT with internal temperature control system ..............................12

8.3.4 Thermal cycling with electric operation ..................................................................................................14

8.4 Structural durability and strength tests .........................................................................................................................16

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.4.2 Fixture ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.4.3 Pre-conditioning for mechanical tests .......................................................................................................17

8.4.4 Durability test ..................................................................................................................................................................17

8.4.5 Mechanical shock .........................................................................................................................................................24

8.4.6 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5 Water protection ................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5.1 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.5.2 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................25

8.6 Dust protection ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.6.1 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.6.2 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................26

8.7 Humid heat condensation test ................................................................................................................................................26

8.7.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)

8.7.2 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.7.3 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8 Damp heat, steady state test.....................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.2 Test ............................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.8.3 Requirement .....................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.2 Mixed gas corrosion ...................................................................................................................................................29

8.9.3 Salt-spray test for external mounting location ...................................................................................30

8.9.4 Salt corrosion test for internal mounting location ..........................................................................31

8.10 Chemical resistance .........................................................................................................................................................................34

Annex A (informative) Example of leak tightness check ...............................................................................................................35

Annex B (informative) Test concept for additional mechanical loads on a battery pack or

system ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

Annex C (informative) Example of electrical and thermal profile for the mechanical

durability test .......................................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex D (informative) Example of electrical profile for heat dissipation..................................................................41

Annex E (informative) Example of acceptance criterion for corrosion infiltration ..........................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................44

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32,

Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19453 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
Introduction

For over fifty years, traction batteries for electric vehicles have been developed to achieve high energy

density and high power output. Specifically, lead-acid battery, Ni-Cd battery and Ni-MH battery with

aqueous electrolyte were most applied to electric vehicles in the early days. Thermal activated batteries,

such as molten salt batteries like sodium sulfur battery and Zebra battery were also examined. Lithium

ion battery penetrated the consumer market in portable battery application from 1991. Currently, it

is the most promising candidate of traction battery for electric vehicles. ISO 6469-1 specifies safety

requirement of RESS (Rechargeable Energy Storage System) and the ISO 12405 series has been

published to specify performance and reliability tests. This document focuses on environmental and

endurance tests of lithium ion battery systems.

The ISO 19453 series specifies the test conditions on environment and reliability for electrical and

electric equipment for the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles. The battery pack or system is the

electric system which charges and discharges electricity through the converter. The test condition for

mechanical load in ISO 19453-3 is too severe to apply to the battery pack or system from the standpoint

of frequency range and amplitude of vibration in the test input spectrum. The test conditions for

climatic load in ISO 19453-4 is also excessive to apply to the battery pack or system, because lithium ion

battery pack is designed to control temperature within adequate operational range. That is the reason

why appropriate conditions for the lithium ion battery are specified in this document.

The purpose of this document is to assist its user in systematically defining and/or applying a set of

internationally accepted environmental conditions, tests and operating requirements, which are based

on the anticipated actual environment in which the equipment will be operated and exposed to during

its life cycle. This document has been developed based on fundamental investigations and vehicle

measurements on voltage class A and B battery pack/system. The following environmental factors have

been considered in the development of the ISO 19453 series.
— World geography and climate

Electric propulsion vehicles are operated in nearly all terrestrial regions of the earth. Significant

variation in environmental conditions due to climatic environment, including diurnal and seasonal

cycles, can therefore be expected. Consideration has been given to worldwide ranges in the

temperature, humidity, precipitation and atmospheric conditions including dust, pollution and altitude.

— Type of electric propulsion vehicle

Operating environment in an electric propulsion vehicle can depend on its electric powertrain

architecture as well as its mass, size, supply voltage and so on. Consideration has been given to typical

types of series production electric propulsion vehicle architectures such as hybrid electric vehicles,

battery electric vehicles, range extender hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, but not including

equipment specific for fuel cell system.
— Vehicle use conditions and operating modes

Environmental conditions in and on the vehicle vary significantly with vehicle use (e.g. driving,

charging during parking, etc.). Operating modes, such as starting, driving, braking, stopping and so

on, have been considered, in particular, for traction battery system.
— Battery durability

For battery system, it is necessary to be resistant to environmental conditions experienced during

manufacture, shipping, handling, storage, vehicle assembly, vehicle usage and vehicle maintenance

and repair.
— Component mass and volume

The mass of battery pack is generally in the range of around 20 kg up to 60 kg for HEV, 80 kg to 150 kg for

PHEV, more than 200 kg for BEV (weight assumptions from year 2020). The battery pack has generally

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ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)

a large volume and thermal capacity. It is necessary not only to prepare a large chamber but also it will

take long time to keep thermal equivalent when performing thermal shock test.
— Mounting location in the vehicle

HEV battery packs are generally installed inside the vehicle, PHEV battery packs are installed both

outside and inside, and BEV battery packs are generally installed outside. The environmental condition

such as water splashing, dust, salt spray, humidity or corrosion for battery packs installed outside

vehicle interior is more severe than for battery packs installed inside. In this document, test conditions

are specified according to mounting location.
a) Applicability to manufacturers’ responsibility

Due to technology limitations or variations in vehicle design, the vehicle manufacturer may be required

to place a component in a location where it cannot withstand the environmental conditions described

in the ISO 19453 series. Under these circumstances, it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer

to provide the necessary environmental protection.
b) Applicability to wiring harnesses, cables and electrical connectors

Although some environmental conditions and tests in the ISO 19453 series may be relevant to vehicle

wiring harnesses, cables and connectors, its scope is not sufficient to be used as a complete standard.

It is therefore not recommended that the ISO 19453 series be directly applied to such devices and

equipment.
c) Applicability to parts or assemblies inside equipment

The ISO 19453 series describes environmental conditions and tests to be applied to electrical and

electronic equipment directly mounted in or on the vehicle. It is not intended for direct application to

parts or assemblies that are part of the equipment. For example, the ISO 19453 series should not be

directly applied to integrated circuits (ICs) and discrete components, electrical connectors, printed

circuit boards (PCBs), gauges, etc. that are attached in or on the equipment. Electrical, mechanical,

climatic and chemical loads for such parts and assemblies can be quite different from those described

in the ISO 19453 series. Therefore, for those sub-components applying test conditions of the ISO 16750

series can be considered as a reference.

On the other hand, it is desirable to use the ISO 19453 series to help derive environmental conditions

and test requirements for parts and assemblies that are intended for use in road vehicle equipment.

d) Applicability relative to system integration and validation

The user of the ISO 19453 series is cautioned to understand that its scope is limited to conditions and

testing at the equipment level and therefore does not represent all conditions and testing necessary

for complete verification and validation of the vehicle system, for example cold water shock tests

were omitted from this document. Environmental and reliability testing of equipment parts and

vehicle systems may be required. For example, the ISO 19453 series does not necessarily ensure that

environmental and reliability requirements for solder joints, solderless connections, integrated circuits

and so on are met. Such items are assured at the part, material or assembly level. Additionally, vehicle

and system level testing might be required to validate the equipment in the vehicle application.

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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)
Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for
electrical and electronic equipment for drive system of
electric propulsion vehicles —
Part 6:
Traction battery packs and systems
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for lithium-ion traction battery packs or systems used in

battery electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell electric road vehicles. This document describes the most

relevant environmental stresses and specifies tests and test boundary conditions. This document

establishes a classification of battery packs or systems and defines different stress levels for testing

when a classification is applicable and required. The objective of this document is to specify standard

test procedures and conditions to enable the observation of the reliability of the lithium-ion traction

battery in the vehicle.

This document specifies tests for a battery pack or system of voltage class A and B.

This document provides the necessary information to set up a dedicated test plan for a battery pack

or system subject to agreement between the customer and supplier. If required, the relevant test

procedures and/or test conditions can also be selected from this standard.

NOTE This document only covers requirements and test conditions for a traction battery pack or system

used in passenger cars.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6469-3, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Electrical safety

ISO 6469-3:2018/Amd 1, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Electrical

safety — Amendment 1: Withstand voltage test for electric power sources
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO 19453-1, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 1: General

ISO 19453-4, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 4: Climatic loads

ISO 19453-5, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment

for drive system of electric propulsion vehicles — Part 5: Chemical loads

ISO 20653, Road vehicles — Degrees of protection (IP code) — Protection of electrical equipment against

foreign objects, water and access

IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing — Part 2-14: Tests — Test N: Change of temperature

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing — Part 2-27: Tests — Test Ea and guidance: Shock

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ISO/FDIS 19453-6:2020(E)

IEC 60068-2-38, Environmental testing — Part 2-38: Tests — Test Z/AD: Composite temperature/humidity

cyclic test

IEC 60068-2-60, Environmental testing — Part 2-60: Tests — Test Ke: Flowing mixed gas corrosion test

IEC 60068-2-64, Environmental testing — Part 2-64: Tests — Test Fh: Vibration, broad-band random and

guidance
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 19453-1, ISO 20653 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
BMS
battery management system

electronic system that controls, manages, detects or calculates electric and thermal functions of the

battery pack or system and that provides communication between the battery pack or system and

other vehicle controllers
3.2
electric chassis

conductive parts of a vehicle that are electrically connected and whose potential is taken as reference

3.3
ITCS
internal temperature control system

internal thermal management system of a battery pack or system that can heat or cool the battery pack

or system to a target temperature determined by the BMS (3.1)
EXAMPLE Liquid based heating/cooling system.
3.4
main contactor

electronic or mechanic switching/disconnect device for the battery pack or system main power supply

live part (3.5)
3.5
main power supply live part

conductor or conductive part intended to be energized in normal use, but by convention not the electric

chassis (3.2) or the class A auxiliary voltage supply
3.6
MAST
multiaxial simulation table
multi
...

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