Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 2: Test methods for adhesives

ISO 13007-2:2010 describes methods for determining characteristics for adhesives used in the installation of ceramic tiles. The test methods described are determination of open time, determination of slip, determination of shear adhesion strength, determination of tensile adhesion strength, determination of transverse deformation and determination of chemical resistance.

Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles — Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai pour les colles

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
05-Sep-2010
Withdrawal Date
05-Sep-2010
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
25-Oct-2013
Completion Date
25-Oct-2013
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13007-2
Second edition
2010-09-15
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
Carreaux céramiques — Mortiers de joints et colles —
Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai pour les colles
Reference number
ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 General test conditions and procedures ............................................................................................1

3.1 Sampling.................................................................................................................................................1

3.2 Test conditions ......................................................................................................................................1

3.3 Test materials ........................................................................................................................................2

3.4 Mixing procedures.................................................................................................................................2

3.5 Test substrate ........................................................................................................................................3

3.6 Failure patterns......................................................................................................................................3

3.7 Test report..............................................................................................................................................3

4 Test methods .........................................................................................................................................4

4.1 Determination of open time..................................................................................................................4

4.2 Determination of slip.............................................................................................................................6

4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength — D, R ............................................................................7

4.4 Determination of tensile adhesion strength — C...............................................................................9

4.5 Determination of transverse deformation.........................................................................................12

4.6 Determination of chemical resistance...............................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Concrete test slab.......................................................................................................32

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13007-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 189, Ceramic tiles.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13007-2:2005), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO 13007-2:2005/Cor.1:2007.

ISO 13007 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives:

⎯ Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for adhesives
⎯ Part 2: Test methods for adhesives
⎯ Part 3: Terms, definitions and specifications for grouts
⎯ Part 4: Test methods for grouts
iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives —
Part 2:
Test methods for adhesives
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13007 describes methods for determining characteristics for adhesives used in the installation

of ceramic tiles. The test methods described are the following:
a) determination of open time;
b) determination of slip;
c) determination of shear adhesion strength;
d) determination of tensile adhesion strength;
e) determination of transverse deformation;
f) determination of chemical resistance.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this part of ISO 13007. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13006, Ceramic tiles — Definitions, classification, characteristics and marking

ISO 13007-1, Ceramic tiles — Grouts and adhesives — Part 1: Terms, definitions and specifications for

adhesives
3 General test conditions and procedures
3.1 Sampling
A representative sample of at least 2 kg shall be used.
3.2 Test conditions

Standard test conditions shall be (23 ± 2) °C and (50 ± 5) % relative humidity and the speed of air in the

testing area less than 0,2 m/s. Other test conditions may be specified in Clause 4. The tolerance in the time of

conditioning for all test specimens shall be as shown in Table 1.
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
Table 1 — Allowable tolerance window for testing time
a b
Sample conditioning time Allowed tolerance for testing
24 h ±0,5 h
7 days ±3 h
14 days ±6 h
21 days ±9 h
28 days ±12 h
Testing shall be performed within the specified time window.
Allowed tolerance in testing time for all samples requiring conditioning.
3.3 Test materials

Condition all test materials, including water for at least 24 h under standard conditions. The adhesive under

test shall be within its shelf life, if this is specified.
3.3.1 Ceramic tiles

The tiles shall be checked prior to conditioning to ensure that they are unused, clean and dry. The type of tile

shall be as specified under the specific test procedures given in Clause 4.
3.4 Mixing procedures
3.4.1 Cementitious adhesives — C

The amount of water and liquid admix, or one or the other, required for preparing the adhesive shall be as

stated by the manufacturer in mass fraction, i.e. liquid to dry powder (in the case where a range of values is

given, the average shall be used).

Using a minimum quantity of 2 kg of the powder and the recommended quantity of liquid, prepare the

adhesive in a mixer of the planetary type using the slow speed settings (140 ± 5) r/min and (62 ± 5) r/min

planetary movement (see Figures 1 and 2).
Carry out the following procedure:
a) pour the liquid into the pan;
b) scatter the dry powder over the liquid;
c) mix for 30 s;
d) take out the mixing paddle;
e) scrape down the paddle and pan within 1 min;
f) replace the paddle and mix for 1 min.

If required by the adhesive manufacturer's instructions, let the adhesive mature as specified and then mix for

an additional 15 s.
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
3.4.2 Dispersion adhesive — D, Reaction resin adhesive — R

If ready-to-use dispersion adhesives or reaction resin adhesives are used, the manufacturer's instructions

shall be followed.
3.5 Test substrate
3.5.1 Concrete test substrate

The mandatory concrete test substrate shall be (40 ± 5) mm thick, have a moisture content of less than 3 %

3 3

mass fraction and have a water absorption at the surface after 4 h of testing in range of 0,5 cm to 1,5 cm .

The cohesive strength, as referenced in A.4.3, shall be at least 1,5 N/mm . A method of manufacturing a

suitable concrete test slab and the procedures for measuring the cohesive strength and surface water

absorption is given in Annex A.
3.5.2 Other substrates

Other substrates may be used upon agreement, if the substrate is recommended for ceramic tile application

by the adhesive manufacturer. To demonstrate compatibility with other optional substrates, the adhesive shall

be applied to the selected substrate in accordance with the open time test method (4.1). When the result of

W 0,5 N/mm is achieved or cohesive failure occurs in the substrate, the requirement is considered satisfied.

3.6 Failure patterns
3.6.1 Adhesion failure — AF-S or AF-T

Failure occurs at the interface between adhesive and substrate (AF-S) or between tile and adhesive (AF-T).

The test value equals the adhesive strength [see Figure 3 a) and b)]. In some cases, failure can occur in the

adhesive layer between the tile and the pull-head plate (BF) [see Figure 3 c)]. In this case, the adhesive

strength is greater than the test value, and the test should be repeated.
3.6.2 Cohesive failure within the adhesive — CF-A
Failure occurs within the adhesive layer [see Figure 3 d)].
3.6.3 Cohesive failure in the substrate or in the tile — CF-S or CF-T

The failure occurs within the substrate (CF-S) [see Figure 3 e)] or within the body of the tile (CF-T)

[see Figure 3 f)]. In this case, the strength of the adhesive is greater than the test value.

The modes of failure may be a combination of any of the above. An approximate percentage of each shall be

recorded.
3.7 Test report
3.7.1 General
The test report shall specify the following:
a) reference to this part of ISO 13007, i.e. ISO 13007-2:2010;
b) date of test;
c) type of adhesive, commercial designation and manufacturer's name;
d) source, date obtained and complete identification of test sample;
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
e) handling and storage of samples before testing;
f) test conditions;
g) amount of water or liquid used for preparing adhesive;
h) any other factor that could have affected the result;
i) test results (individual and mean values and mode of failure, if required).
3.7.2 Test results of cementitious and dispersion adhesives
The test report shall specify the following:
a) open time;
b) slip;
c) shear adhesion strength;
d) adhesion strength;
e) deformation.
3.7.3 Test results of chemical resistance
The test report shall specify the following:
a) test conditions;
b) change in colour and surface appearance during the test;
c) total duration of the test and the exposure periods.
4 Test methods
4.1 Determination of open time
4.1.1 General

Open time shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the

following specific instructions.
4.1.2 Test materials

4.1.2.1 Ceramic tiles, Group BIII, belonging to porous body tile, complying with ISO 13006 of water

absorption (15 ± 3) % mass fraction, cut to facial dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm, with a thickness in

the range of 7 mm to 10 mm and a profile back pattern less than 0,25 mm deep.

4.1.2.2 Test substrate, made of concrete, conforming to the requirements given in 3.5.1.

4.1.3 Apparatus

4.1.3.1 Test mass, of less than 50 mm × 50 mm cross-sectional area, capable of exerting a uniform force

of (20 ± 0,05) N.
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)

4.1.3.2 Pull-head plates, consisting of square metallic plates, with dimensions of (50 ± 1) mm and a

minimum thickness of 10 mm with a suitable fitting for connection to the test machine.

4.1.3.3 Test machine, for direct pull tensile force test and with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the

test. The machine shall be capable of applying the load to the pull-head plate at the rate of (250 ± 50) N/s

through a suitable fitting that does not exert any bending force.
4.1.4 Procedure

Apply a thin layer of the adhesive, mixed in accordance with 3.4.1, to the concrete slab with a straight edge

trowel. Then apply a thicker layer and comb with a notched trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm

centres. The trowel shall be held at an angle of approximately 60° to the substrate at a right angle to one edge

of the slab and drawn across the slab parallel to that edge (in a straight line).

After 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min or more, place at least 10 test tiles 50 mm apart, on the adhesive within

30 s: place tiles on no more than 4 ribs for all adhesives. Load each tile with (20 ± 0,05) N for 30 s.

After 27 days of storage under standard conditions, bond the pull-head plates to the tiles with a suitable high

strength adhesive (e.g. epoxy adhesive).

After a further 24 h storage under standard conditions, determine the tensile adhesion strength of the

adhesive by applying a force increasing at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.
4.1.5 Evaluation and expression of results

The individual tensile adhesion strengths are quoted to 0,1 N/mm using Equation (1):

S = (1)
where
S is the individual tensile adhesion strength, in newtons per square millimetre;
F is the total tensile load, in newtons;
A is the bonding area, in square millimetres (2 500 mm ).
The tensile adhesion strength for each time interval is determined as follows:
a) determine the mean of the 10 values;
b) discard the values falling out of the range of ±20 % of the mean value;
c) if five or more values remain, determine the new mean;
d) if less than five values remain, repeat the test;
e) determine the mode of failure of the test units (see 3.6).

The open time, in minutes, is the maximum time interval at which the adhesive meets the tensile adhesion

strength requirement defined in ISO 13007-1 for open time.
4.1.6 Test report

The information listed in 3.7.1, list items a) to i), shall be provided plus 3.7.2, list item a) (open time in minutes).

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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
4.2 Determination of slip
4.2.1 General

Slip shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in Clause 3 and the following

specific instructions.
4.2.2 Test materials

4.2.2.1 Ceramic tiles, belonging to Group BI , fully vitrified in accordance with ISO 13006 with a water

absorption u 0,5 % mass fraction, unglazed, with plain adhering surface and with facial dimensions of

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm and mass of (200 ± 10) g and a thickness in the range of 8 mm to 10 mm.

4.2.2.2 Concrete test substrate, conforming to requirements given in 3.5.
4.2.3 Apparatus
4.2.3.1 Steel straight edge.
4.2.3.2 Clamps.
4.2.3.3 Masking tape, 25 mm wide.

4.2.3.4 Spacers, two (25 ± 0,5) mm × (25 ± 0,5) mm × (10 ± 0,5) mm thick spacers made from stainless

steel.

4.2.3.5 Mass, capable of exerting a force of (50 ± 0,1) N with a cross-sectional area of less than

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.
4.2.3.6 Vernier calliper, accurate to 0,01 mm.
4.2.4 Procedure

Secure the steel straight edge at the top of the concrete substrate such that its bottom edge is horizontal when

the slab is raised to its vertical position. Position 25 mm-wide masking tape immediately below the steel

straight edge and apply a thin layer of the adhesive to the concrete slab with a straight-edge trowel.

Apply a thicker layer of adhesive to the surface of the concrete substrate such that it just overlaps the bottom

edge of the masking tape. Comb the adhesive at right angles to the straight edge with a notched trowel having

6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm centres.

Hold trowel at an angle of 60° to the substrate and parallel to the straight edge.

Immediately remove the masking tape, position 25 mm spacers (or the spacing bar) as shown against the

straight edge and after 2 min place a type BI tile against the spacers, as shown in Figure 4, and load with a

mass of (50 ± 0,1) N for (30 ± 5) s.

Remove the spacers and measure the gap between the straight edge and the tile with the Vernier caliper to

within ±0,1 mm. Immediately and carefully lift the slab into a vertical position. After (20 ± 2) min re-measure

the gap, as before, at its maximum point. The maximum slip of the tile under its own mass is the difference

between the two readings.

Carry out the test for each of three tiles, for each adhesive. Report the results in millimetres and the mean

value.
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
4.2.5 Test report

The information listed in 3.7.1, list items a) to i), shall be provided plus 3.7.2, list item b): slip in mm (individual

and mean values).
4.3 Determination of shear adhesion strength — D, R
4.3.1 General

Shear adhesion strength shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in

Clause 3 and the following specific instructions.
4.3.2 Test materials and apparatus
4.3.2.1 Ceramic tiles, of the following specification.

a) Dispersion adhesives (D) — Group BIII, glazed porous body tiles in accordance with ISO 13006; with

water absorption (15 ± 3) % mass fraction, with facial dimensions of (108 ± 1) mm × (108 ± 1) mm and a

thickness in the range of 7 mm to 10 mm and a profile back pattern less than 0,25 mm thick.

b) Reaction resin adhesives (R) — Group BI , fully vitrified tiles in accordance with ISO 13006; with water

absorption u 0,2 % mass fraction, unglazed with plane adhering surface and with facial dimensions of

(100 ± 1) mm × (100 ± 1) mm.

4.3.2.2 Template, comprising a smooth non-absorbent frame (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene), in

accordance with Figure 5 for D adhesives and Figure 7 for R adhesives.
4.3.2.3 Spacers, of 0,8 mm in diameter, and approximately 40 mm long.

4.3.2.4 Mass, of less than 100 mm × 100 mm cross-sectional area, capable of exerting a uniform force of

(70 ± 0,15) N.

4.3.2.5 Test machine, with suitable capacity and sensitivity for the test and with a variable testing speed.

The machine shall be capable of applying the load to the tile through a suitable jig.

4.3.2.6 Shear test jig, suitable for use to transfer into shear from the compression or tensile load exerted

by the testing machine. Examples of suitable jigs are shown in Figures 9 and 10.

4.3.2.7 Air circulating oven, capable of controlling the temperature to within ±3 °C.

4.3.3 Procedure

Each test unit shall be prepared with two Group BIII tiles for D adhesives or Group BI tiles for R adhesives.

Draw a straight line on the adhering side of one tile 6 mm from the tile edge (to serve as a guide for

overlapping the tile as explained as follows).

Place the template (see Figures 5 and 7) over the unglazed back of the first test tile. Trowel sufficient

adhesive across the template and then screed it clean such as to neatly and completely fill the holes in the

template. Carefully remove the template vertically (see Figures 6 and 8).
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)

Place spacer rods at each corner of the first tile, approximately 20 mm over the tile. After 2 min, place a

second standard test tile over the coated tile, offset to provide an overlap between tiles with displacement of

6 mm, using the previously scribed line as a guide and ensuring that the edges of the tiles are parallel

(see Figure 6 for D adhesives and Figure 8 for R adhesives).

Place the test units on a plane surface and carefully load with (70 ± 0,15) N for 3 min. After removing the

mass, carefully remove the spacer rods, without disturbing the relative position of the tiles in the test units.

A total of 10 test units is required per conditioning.
4.3.4 Adhesion strength — D, R

4.3.1.1 Condition 10 test units in standard test conditions (see 3.2); 7 days for R adhesives or 14 days for

D adhesives.

4.3.1.2 After conditioning has been completed, place the test units in a shear test jig and apply a shear

force by moving the crosshead at a speed of (5 ± 0,5) mm/min until failure occurs. Report the results in

newtons.
4.3.5 Adhesion strength after water immersion — D, R

Condition 10 test units in standard conditions (see 3.2) for 21 days for adhesives (D2) or 7 days for

accelerated drying adhesives (D2A) and reaction resin adhesives (R). Then immerse in water at (23 ± 2) °C

21 days for reaction resin adhesives or 7 days for dispersion adhesives (D2; D2A). Remove the units and

wipe with a cloth. Test them as described in 4.4.4.2.
Report the results in newtons.

NOTE This test is only for those dispersion adhesives used in internal installations subject to wet conditions.

4.3.6 Adhesion strength after heat ageing — D

Condition 10 test units in standard conditions (see 3.2) for 14 days and then place them in an air-circulating

oven at (70 ± 2) °C for a further 14 days, ensuring that air is free to circulate around each test unit.

Condition the units for a further 24 h in standard conditions and test them as described in 4.3.4.

Report the results in newtons.
4.3.7 Adhesion strength at elevated temperature — D

Use the procedure described in 4.3.6, but test the tile adhesion 1 min after removal of test unit from air

circulating oven.
Report the results in newtons.
4.3.8 Adhesion strength after thermal shock — R

After conditioning 10 test units in standard conditions for 7 days, place the test pieces in a water bath

maintained at (23 ± 2) °C for 30 min and then in a (100 ± 2) °C water bath for a further 30 min.

Repeat the cycle for a total of four times and then place the test pieces in the (23 ± 2) °C bath for

approximately 30 min for cooling.

Remove each test piece from the water, wipe off the excess water and test as described in 4.3.4.

Report the results in newtons.
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
4.3.9 Evaluation and expression of results
2 2

Divide the individual values, in newtons, by the area of adhesive contact (D: 5480 mm , R: 1660 mm ).

Determine the shear adhesion strength in the following way:
a) determine the mean of 10 values;
b) discard the values falling out of the range of ± 20 % from the mean value;
c) if five or more values remain, determine the new mean value;
d) if less than five values remain, repeat the test.
4.3.10 Test report

The information listed in 3.7.1, list items a) to i), shall be provided plus 3.7.2 list item c): shear adhesion

strength for each condition, in newtons per square millimetre.
4.4 Determination of tensile adhesion strength — C
4.4.1 General

Tensile adhesion strength shall be tested following the general test conditions and procedures given in

Clause 3 and the following specific instructions.
4.4.2 Test materials

4.4.2.1 Ceramic tiles, belonging to Group BI , fully vitrified, complying with ISO 13006, with a water

absorption of u 0,5 % mass fraction, unglazed and with a plain, matt, adhering surface, with facial dimensions

of (50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm.
4.4.2.2 Test substrate, conforming to requirements given in 3.5.
4.4.3 Apparatus

4.4.3.1 Mass, less than 50 mm × 50 mm cross-sectional area, capable of exerting a force of

(20 ± 0,05) N.

4.4.3.2 Pull-head plate, consisting of square metallic plates, with dimensions of

(50 ± 1) mm × (50 ± 1) mm and a minimum thickness of 10 mm with a suitable fitting for connection to the test

machine.

4.4.3.3 Tensile testing apparatus, consisting of a test machine for direct pull tensile force test, with

suitable capacity and sensitivity for the test. The machine shall be capable of applying the load to the pull-

head plate at the rate of (250 ± 50) N/s through a suitable fitting that does not exert any bending force.

4.4.3.4 Air circulating oven, capable of controlling the temperature to within ±3 °C.

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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
4.4.4 Procedure
4.4.4.1 Preparation of test units

Apply a thin layer of the adhesive, to the concrete slab with a straight edge trowel. Then apply a thicker layer

and comb with a notched trowel having 6 mm × 6 mm notches at 12 mm centres.

The trowel shall be held at an angle of approximately 60° to the substrate at a right angle to one edge of the

slab and drawn across the slab parallel to that edge (in a straight line).

After 5 min place 10 type BI tiles on the adhesive at a distance apart of 50 mm and load each tile

(20 ± 0,05) N for 30 s.
4.4.4.2 Tensile adhesion strength

After 27 days of storage under standard conditions, bond the pull-head plates to the tiles with a suitable high

strength adhesive (e.g. epoxy).

After a further 24 h storage under standard conditions, determine the tensile adhesion strength of the

adhesive by applying a force at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.

If fast-setting properties of adhesives are to be tested, bond the pull-head plates a minimum of 2 h before

determining the tensile adhesion strength.
Report the results in newtons.
4.4.4.3 Tensile adhesion strength after water immersion

Condition the test units in standard conditions for 7 days and immerse in water at the standard temperature.

After 20 days, remove the test units from the water, wipe with a cloth and bond the pull-head plates to the tiles.

After a further 7 h in standard conditions, immerse the test units in water at the standard temperature.

The following day, remove the test units from water and immediately determine the tensile adhesion strength

of the adhesive by applying a force at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.
Report the results in newtons.
4.4.4.4 Tensile adhesion strength after heat ageing

Condition the test units in standard conditions for 14 days and then place the units in an air-circulating oven at

(70 ± 3) °C for a further 14 days. Remove from the oven and bond the pull-head plates to the tiles with a

suitable high strength adhesive (e.g. epoxy).

Condition the test units for a further 24 h in standard conditions and immediately determine the tensile

adhesion strength of the adhesive by applying a force at a constant rate of (250 ± 50) N/s.

Report the results in newtons.
4.4.4.5 Tensile adhesion strength after freeze-thaw cycle

Prepare the test units in accordance with 4.4.4.1. In addition, a layer of the adhesive approximately 1 mm

thick shall be applied with a straight-edged trowel to the back face of the type tile before placing.

Condition the test units for 7 days in standard conditions and immerse in water for 21 days before carrying out

25 freeze-thaw cycles.
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ISO 13007-2:2010(E)
For each freeze-thaw cycle:

a) remove the test units from the water and lower the temperature to (−15 ± 3) °C within 2 h ± 20 min.

b) maintain the test units at (−15 ± 3) °C for 2 h ± 20 min.

c) immerse in water at (20 ± 3) °C and raise the temperature to (15 ± 3) °C and maintain this temperature for

a minimum
...

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