Information technology for learning, education and training -- Ubiquitous learning resource organization and description framework

This document specifies a framework to describe and organize learning resources in ubiquitous learning. It provides features to enable dynamic aggregation of resources in different learning contexts, in which the social interactions are recorded to facilitate social learning. The features that reflect the evolutionary history of resources based on learners’ contributions are also defined. The framework includes an aggregation model, content organization, context-aware learning services, and learning cell service provider.

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23126
First edition
2021-04
Information technology for learning,
education and training — Ubiquitous
learning resource organization and
description framework
Technologies pour l'éducation, la formation et l'apprentissage —
Description de l'organisation et ressources d'apprentissage
omniprésent
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Learning cell framework overview.................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Characteristics of learning cell .................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3 Components of the learning cell framework ................................................................................................................. 7

6 Detailed description of the components in the learning cell framework .................................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Aggregation model ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Content organization ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Basic semantic information .................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Contextual information ...........................................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Social information ...................................................................... ..................................................................................16

6.3.5 Evolvable information ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.4 Context-aware learning services ..........................................................................................................................................23

6.4.1 Context-aware services for learners ............................................................................................................23

6.4.2 Data interaction under the service ................................................................................................................25

6.5 Learning cell service provider ................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Use case 1: Learning cell knowledge community in China ............................................28

Annex B (informative) Use case 2: China Mobile’s "AND Education" ................................................................................30

Annex C (informative) Use case 3: “GoC” online programming education in China .........................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives) or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Introduction

Ubiquitous learning is becoming increasingly prevalent. Ubiquitous learning makes it possible for

students to learn anything, at anytime, anywhere, using any learning device. To support ubiquitous

learning for learners, a ubiquitous learning support model should be constructed to provide ubiquitous

services. The model consists of four parts: user interface; sensor layer; educational cloud system; and

learning resources and services (Figure 1). During the learning process, the user interface detects

learners’ learning status, logs, interactions and personal information in the real learning context

through the sensor layer. Subsequently, the educational cloud system conducts computing and analysis

before providing learners with adaptive learning resources and services (see Annexes A, B and C).

Figure 1 — Ubiquitous learning support model

Learning resources and services are central to learners’ learning processes. However, learners’

learning contexts can change as learners start and continue learning at different points across time and

location. Under these circumstances, learners need adaptive resources and services to achieve effective

learning. Traditional learning resources are designed and developed by experts for specific contexts.

In some cases, the content is mostly static and cannot dynamically change to meet the diverse needs of

learners who are accessing content in different environments. In addition, learners can encounter some

difficulties as they learn specific topics. Related experts, peers or resources supporting the learning of

the topic can be helpful for learners to expand their knowledge and knowledge-related connections.

As time passed, learners can also contribute to current knowledge and thus promote the updating or

evolution of knowledge while they achieve even higher-level knowledge. In order to make the learning

process effective, it is important to provide learners with continuously evolving resources:

a) Learning resources should have the ability to adapt to different learners’ needs under different

learning contexts.

b) Learning resources should support the interactions not only between learners and resources, but

also the interactions among learners and among resources.

c) Learning resources should evolve according to the contribution of learners or new knowledge so

that they can be continuously adapted for learners with diverse needs.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)

d) In order to support personalized learning, dynamic and distributed resource aggregation service

should be provided to learners with different learning requirements.

In summary, the ubiquitous learning support model needs to support diverse contexts, rich social

interactions, continuous evolution and dynamic aggregation of knowledge. To that end, learning

resources are the most important part for realizing the adaption of the learning process. In order to

support that adaption, not only experts but also learners should be involved in the co-construction

of learning resources. During the resource construction, resources should align with the contextual,

social, evolvable and dynamic aggregated features. And in order to make the resources constructed by

different contributors align with those features, a standardized guideline is needed for co-construction.

However, existing standards for learning resources design and development focus on different aspects

of static learning resources in terms of topic, description, related subjects, contributor and so on, and

there is no description of the contextual, social, evolvable and dynamic aspects. In order to support these

aspects, this document offers a ubiquitous learning resource organization and description framework,

which is also referred to as a “learning cell framework”. This document provides a description of the

main framework for ubiquitous learning resources. It does not provide detailed definition.

vi © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Information technology for learning, education and
training — Ubiquitous learning resource organization and
description framework
1 Scope

This document specifies a framework to describe and organize learning resources in ubiquitous

learning. It provides features to enable dynamic aggregation of resources in different learning contexts,

in which the social interactions are recorded to facilitate social learning. The features that reflect the

evolutionary history of resources based on learners’ contributions are also defined.

The framework includes an aggregation model, content organization, context-aware learning services,

and learning cell service provider.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
entity

any concrete or abstract thing that exists, did exist, or might exist, including associations among

these things
EXAMPLE A person, an object, an event, an idea, a process, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Entity is a supportive element of identifier.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121433, modified — domain of removed, notes to entry

updated]
3.2
environment

context, surroundings or conditions in which a person learns, lives or operates

Note 1 to entry: Environment information includes time zones, geographical information, applicable norms and

standards for telecommunication, technical implementation (firewalls, useable or allowed ports, bandwidth, file

size restrictions, etc.), infrastructure support, current noise levels, and other environmental factors that may

impact on delivery modes required by the learner.
3.3
identifier
sequence of characters capable of uniquely identifying an entity (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.19, modified — notes to entry removed]
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
3.4
knowledge
human or organizational asset enabling effective decisions and action in context
Note 1 to entry: Knowledge can be individual, collective or organizational.

Note 2 to entry: There are diverse views on the scope covered within knowledge, based on context and purpose. The

definition above is general as to the various perspectives. Examples of knowledge include insights and know-how.

Note 3 to entry: Knowledge is acquired through learning or experience.
[SOURCE: ISO 30401:2018, 3.25]
3.5
knowledge cloud

collection of learning cell (3.7) and knowledge cluster (3.6) aggregated semantically based on several

related or similar topics to satisfy particular requirements for learning
3.6
knowledge cluster

collection of two or more learning cells (3.7) aggregated semantically based on a specific topic

Note 1 to entry: Knowledge cluster is a supportive element of knowledge cloud.

Note 2 to entry: Knowledge cluster can be involved in learning communities to support learners’ learning.

3.7
learning cell

dynamic structure for ubiquitous learning resource (3.13), which defines the basic elements and their

relations, and provides a personalized presentation [learning cell entity (3.9)] to support the diverse

needs of learners based on a specific learning objective

Note 1 to entry: The structure is context adaptive, involves social factors to support social learning, realizes the

evolution based on learners’ interactions and contributions, and can dynamically aggregate content, based on

the contextual, social and evolvable information and present learners with personalized learning cell entity (3.9).

Note 2 to entry: Learning cell has four characteristics: contextual, social, evolvable and dynamic aggregated.

Note 3 to entry: Learning cell is a supportive element of knowledge cloud and knowledge cluster.

Note 4 to entry: Learning cell can be involved in learning communities to support learners’ learning.

3.8
learning cell container

space where learning resource (3.13) or learning ingredient (3.11) is extracted from different learning

systems and managed according to specific topic or topics

Note 1 to entry: In this space, the resources or ingredients collected from the learning systems can be reorganized

and retained in a well-structured manner.
3.9
learning cell entity

instance of a learning cell (3.7) that can be used in different learning contexts to support different

learning needs

Note 1 to entry: A learning cell entity is a presentation of a learning cell within a specific context.

3.10
learning community

area in which learners with the same interests can interact, access, and share information using

resources such as learning cell (3.7) and knowledge clusters (3.6) to achieve specific learning objectives

or outcomes
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
3.11
learning ingredient

component that can be used to form a learning cell (3.7), such as content, activity, tools and metadata

Note 1 to entry: A learning ingredient is a supportive element of learning cell.
3.12
learning objective

description of a goal of training or learning in terms of the knowledge, skills or performance expected

of a learner

Note 1 to entry: A learning objective may also be referred to as a learning outcome.

Note 2 to entry: A learning objective is often defined based on the requirements of a curriculum criterion or a set

of criteria.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.5.2, modified — notes to entry added]
3.13
learning resource
resource (3.17) used for learning, education and training
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.20]
3.14
obligation status

indication of whether or not a value for the attribute is to be provided

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.20, modified — note to entry removed]
3.15
person
person class
any entity (3.1) which is a natural or legal person
3.16
personal learning space

place for a learner to manage his/her learning profile, assignments, interactive data, evaluation and

associated information generated during the learning process

Note 1 to entry: This personal space may be shared with learner’s permission to instructor(s), other learner(s),

and other systems to support further learning of the individual, other individuals, and the system itself. Learner

data and interactions are private in the personal space and learner consent is required to share this data.

3.17
resource

entity (3.1) that can be identified and referenced by an unambiguous and stable identifier (3.3) in a

recognized identification system
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.30]
3.18
resource class

set of resources (3.17) that can be identified by listing or description of boundaries and meaning and

whose properties and behaviour follow the same rule
Note 1 to entry: A resource class has the following attributes:
— Identifier.
— Name.
— Definition.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
— SubclassOf [multiple inheritance].
— Note.

EXAMPLE Learning Resources (set of all learning resources), Persons (set of all Persons), Rights (set of all

rights objects), and Documents (set of all documents).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.31]
3.19
sharable learning cell description interface
SLDI

interface to provide registration and open access for services and resources in different learning systems

3.20
social knowledge network
SKN

network constituted by person, knowledge and their relations based on specific knowledge that

supports learners’ knowledge and peer discovery during the ubiquitous learning process

Note 1 to entry: A social knowledge network represents all the nodes that have a relationship with specific

knowledge, and the nodes include person nodes and knowledge nodes.
3.21
ubiquitous learning

learning that is stimulated and supported through diverse channels and always readily accessible

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TS 29140:2020, 3.15]
4 Abbreviated terms
LOM learning object metadata
MLR metadata for learning resources
ITLET information technology for learning, education and training
API application programming interface
5 Learning cell framework overview
5.1 General

The learning cell framework supports learners’ ubiquitous learning. An overview of the ubiquitous

learning model supported by the learning cell framework is provided in Figure 2, which illustrates the

process for learners to acquire ubiquitous learning services in different situations. In this model, the

situations (classroom, home, bus station and so on) where learners’ learning requirements rise are

defined. In different situations, learners can interact with learning cells embedded in different devices.

During this process, the learning cell service will detect learners’ personalized information and learning

status with various sensors. Detected information will be sent to the educational cloud computing

centre for analysis. The educational cloud computing centre conducts analysis and decides learners’

current states and needs. The needs include several kinds of personalized services, such as knowledge

network, social network, and other learning services (learning tools, learning activities, cognitive map

and so on). These services will be dynamically collected, aggregated with the form of the learning cell

and then present to learners with an adaptive presentation.
4 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)

After these processes, learners can acquire adaptive learning support. With learners’ further

interactions, the learning cell can also be enriched. This document defines the core factors in a

ubiquitous learning resource, and these constitute the organization and description framework.

Figure 2 — Ubiquitous learning supported by the learning cell framework

The learning cell framework defines the characteristics of learning resources, in which different

situations are supported for contextualized learning. At the same time, social knowledge network is

used to support social learning and learning activities can be used to help the progression of the learners

and learning resources. At last, the learning resources can be dynamically aggregated from different

sources. Moreover, the framework also provides a detailed introduction of how these characteristics are

represented with specific properties. Subclauses 5.2 and 5.3 define the characteristics and components

of the learning cell framework.
5.2 Characteristics of learning cell

The learning cell has four essential characteristics: contextual, social, evolvable, and dynamic-

aggregated. These characteristics can help realize the previously mentioned resource requirements

Contextual: The learning cell provides a changeable and dynamic structure that can adjust the

elements and their organization in the structure so as to support learners’ learning under different

contexts. After that learners in different contexts can access resources that are aligned with their

contexts both in terms of structure and display. This means that the presentation of the resource will

match the learners’ contexts.

Social: The learning cell provides social elements in its structure. The social elements are presented to

learners with the form of social knowledge network, which contains person nodes, knowledge nodes,

and the relations among these nodes. The nodes and relations in the social knowledge network are

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)

created by learners’ social interactions with different knowledge and related person nodes, such as

other learners. The interactions will be retained as the SKN and used for computing and analysis.

Evolvable: The learning cell defines elements to record the interaction history and aggregation history

of resources during the learning process. The interaction history is based on the contributions of

different learners and promotes the learning cell transformation from insufficient to sufficient, low-

quality to high-quality. The control of this process will be realized by algorithms. Also, when new

resources are created, they will be classified semantically by algorithm, and thus cluster to a higher-

level resource with higher quality.

Dynamic-aggregated: The learning cell defines the aggregate process how a learning cell entity can

be formed and presented to learners dynamically. Contextual information is the basic condition for

realizing the dynamic aggregation. A computing centre in the learning cell first conducts data analysis

based on the contextual information and decides the elements involved in the learning cell entity. Then

the sequences or structure of different elements will be computed, thus aggregating the elements

together in a well-ordered manner. Also, when the context changes, the learning cell will detect the

change and conduct re-aggregation dynamically. In this way, the resource is dynamically aggregated.

Figure 3 — Functions supported by learning cell framework

To realize these characteristics, this document defines how the system is supported by learning cell

framework functions (see Figure 3). It includes three core elements: devices, connected network, and

educational cloud computing centre. When ubiquitous learning begins, learners send their requirements

through adaptive devices. Then the requests and related data collected by the sensors embedded in the

environment are sent through the connected network to the educational cloud computing centre. After

receiving the requested information, the context-aware module conducts analysis, and then transfers

the analysed information to the recommendation and decision module. The recommendation and

decision module are responsible for indexing, searching and selecting ingredients from the learning

cell container, including learning objectives, content, activities, semantic information and cognitive

network. Then the extracted ingredients are aggregated through the aggregation module into learning

cell. Finally, the learning cell is displayed adaptively after format matching, such as matching type, size,

and resolution of the device. Users can interact with the learning cell and promote the evolution of the

learning cell.
6 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
5.3 Components of the learning cell framework

The components of the learning cell framework are shown in Figure 4. The aggregation model defines

the structure of a learning cell. The content organization provides detailed description for the elements

and features in a learning cell. Context-aware learning services can support learners’ situated learning

based on the model and the organization, and finally the learning cell service provider can help the

learning cell service be used by different systems or platforms:

— Aggregation model: The learning cell aggregation model defines the core elements and aggregation

process of learning cell framework. With this model, learning systems which in line with the learning

cell standard can conduct resource aggregation and provide learners with adaptive entities to

different learners in different contexts.

— Content organization: The content organization defines the detailed semantic information and

their organization which support the composition of the learning cell. The semantic information

includes basic semantic information, contextual information, social information and evolvable

information.

— Context-aware learning services: Context-aware learning services provide APIs for learners

to access resource aggregation services for ubiquitous learning. The services are based on the

learners’ contextual information and personal profile. With the information authorized, the system

can provide learners with adaptive learning services.

— Learning cell service provider: The learning cell service provider defines the process of how to

realize learning cell services in different systems. It stores the service information and guidelines

on how to register the services. Moreover, different systems can communicate with each other and

with the registered services.
Figure 4 — Components of learning cell framework
6 Detailed description of the components in the learning cell framework
6.1 General

The four components of the learning cell framework play different roles during the ubiquitous learning.

The a
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23126
First edition
Information technology for learning,
education and training — Ubiquitous
learning resource organization and
description framework
Technologies pour l'éducation, la formation et l'apprentissage —
Description de l'organisation et ressources d'apprentissage
omniprésent
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Learning cell framework overview.................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Characteristics of learning cell .................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3 Components of the learning cell framework ................................................................................................................. 7

6 Detailed description of the components in the learning cell framework .................................................7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Aggregation model ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Content organization ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Basic semantic information .................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Contextual information ...........................................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Social information ...................................................................... ..................................................................................16

6.3.5 Evolvable information ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.4 Context-aware learning services ..........................................................................................................................................23

6.4.1 Context-aware services for learners ............................................................................................................23

6.4.2 Data interaction under the service ................................................................................................................25

6.5 Learning cell service provider ................................................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Use case 1: Learning cell knowledge community in China ............................................28

Annex B (informative) Use case 2: China Mobile’s "AND Education" ................................................................................30

Annex C (informative) Use case 3: “GoC” online programming education in China .........................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives) or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Introduction

Ubiquitous learning is becoming increasingly prevalent. Ubiquitous learning makes it possible for

students to learn anything, at anytime, anywhere, using any learning device. To support ubiquitous

learning for learners, a ubiquitous learning support model should be constructed to provide ubiquitous

services. The model consists of four parts: user interface; sensor layer; educational cloud system; and

learning resources and services (Figure 1). During the learning process, the user interface detects

learners’ learning status, logs, interactions and personal information in the real learning context

through the sensor layer. Subsequently, the educational cloud system conducts computing and analysis

before providing learners with adaptive learning resources and services (see Annexes A, B and C).

Figure 1 — Ubiquitous learning support model

Learning resources and services are central to learners’ learning processes. However, learners’

learning contexts can change as learners start and continue learning at different points across time and

location. Under these circumstances, learners need adaptive resources and services to achieve effective

learning. Traditional learning resources are designed and developed by experts for specific contexts.

In some cases, the content is mostly static and cannot dynamically change to meet the diverse needs of

learners who are accessing content in different environments. In addition, learners can encounter some

difficulties as they learn specific topics. Related experts, peers or resources supporting the learning of

the topic can be helpful for learners to expand their knowledge and knowledge-related connections.

As time passed, learners can also contribute to current knowledge and thus promote the updating or

evolution of knowledge while they achieve even higher-level knowledge. In order to make the learning

process effective, it is important to provide learners with continuously evolving resources:

a) Learning resources should have the ability to adapt to different learners’ needs under different

learning contexts.

b) Learning resources should support the interactions not only between learners and resources, but

also the interactions among learners and among resources.

c) Learning resources should evolve according to the contribution of learners or new knowledge so

that they can be continuously adapted for learners with diverse needs.
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d) In order to support personalized learning, dynamic and distributed resource aggregation service

should be provided to learners with different learning requirements.

In summary, the ubiquitous learning support model needs to support diverse contexts, rich social

interactions, continuous evolution and dynamic aggregation of knowledge. To that end, learning

resources are the most important part for realizing the adaption of the learning process. In order to

support that adaption, not only experts but also learners should be involved in the co-construction

of learning resources. During the resource construction, resources should align with the contextual,

social, evolvable and dynamic aggregated features. And in order to make the resources constructed by

different contributors align with those features, a standardized guideline is needed for co-construction.

However, existing standards for learning resources design and development focus on different aspects

of static learning resources in terms of topic, description, related subjects, contributor and so on, and

there is no description of the contextual, social, evolvable and dynamic aspects. In order to support these

aspects, this document offers a ubiquitous learning resource organization and description framework,

which is also referred to as a “learning cell framework”. This document provides a description of the

main framework for ubiquitous learning resources. It does not provide detailed definition.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23126:2021(E)
Information technology for learning, education and
training — Ubiquitous learning resource organization and
description framework
1 Scope

This document specifies a framework to describe and organize learning resources in ubiquitous

learning. It provides features to enable dynamic aggregation of resources in different learning contexts,

in which the social interactions are recorded to facilitate social learning. The features that reflect the

evolutionary history of resources based on learners’ contributions are also defined.

The framework includes an aggregation model, content organization, context-aware learning services,

and learning cell service provider.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
entity

any concrete or abstract thing that exists, did exist, or might exist, including associations among

these things
EXAMPLE A person, an object, an event, an idea, a process, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Entity is a supportive element of identifier.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121433, modified — domain of removed, notes to entry

updated]
3.2
environment

context, surroundings or conditions in which a person learns, lives or operates

Note 1 to entry: Environment information includes time zones, geographical information, applicable norms and

standards for telecommunication, technical implementation (firewalls, useable or allowed ports, bandwidth, file

size restrictions, etc.), infrastructure support, current noise levels, and other environmental factors that may

impact on delivery modes required by the learner.
3.3
identifier
sequence of characters capable of uniquely identifying an entity (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.19, modified — notes to entry removed]
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3.4
knowledge
human or organizational asset enabling effective decisions and action in context
Note 1 to entry: Knowledge can be individual, collective or organizational.

Note 2 to entry: There are diverse views on the scope covered within knowledge, based on context and purpose. The

definition above is general as to the various perspectives. Examples of knowledge include insights and know-how.

Note 3 to entry: Knowledge is acquired through learning or experience.
[SOURCE: ISO 30401:2018, 3.25]
3.5
knowledge cloud

collection of learning cell (3.7) and knowledge cluster (3.6) aggregated semantically based on several

related or similar topics to satisfy particular requirements for learning
3.6
knowledge cluster

collection of two or more learning cells (3.7) aggregated semantically based on a specific topic

Note 1 to entry: Knowledge cluster is a supportive element of knowledge cloud.

Note 2 to entry: Knowledge cluster can be involved in learning communities to support learners’ learning.

3.7
learning cell

dynamic structure for ubiquitous learning resource (3.13), which defines the basic elements and their

relations, and provides a personalized presentation [learning cell entity (3.9)] to support the diverse

needs of learners based on a specific learning objective

Note 1 to entry: The structure is context adaptive, involves social factors to support social learning, realizes the

evolution based on learners’ interactions and contributions, and can dynamically aggregate content, based on

the contextual, social and evolvable information and present learners with personalized learning cell entity (3.9).

Note 2 to entry: Learning cell has four characteristics: contextual, social, evolvable and dynamic aggregated.

Note 3 to entry: Learning cell is a supportive element of knowledge cloud and knowledge cluster.

Note 4 to entry: Learning cell can be involved in learning communities to support learners’ learning.

3.8
learning cell container

space where learning resource (3.13) or learning ingredient (3.11) is extracted from different learning

systems and managed according to specific topic or topics

Note 1 to entry: In this space, the resources or ingredients collected from the learning systems can be reorganized

and retained in a well-structured manner.
3.9
learning cell entity

instance of a learning cell (3.7) that can be used in different learning contexts to support different

learning needs

Note 1 to entry: A learning cell entity is a presentation of a learning cell within a specific context.

3.10
learning community

area in which learners with the same interests can interact, access, and share information using

resources such as learning cell (3.7) and knowledge clusters (3.6) to achieve specific learning objectives

or outcomes
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3.11
learning ingredient

component that can be used to form a learning cell (3.7), such as content, activity, tools and metadata

Note 1 to entry: A learning ingredient is a supportive element of learning cell.
3.12
learning objective

description of a goal of training or learning in terms of the knowledge, skills or performance expected

of a learner

Note 1 to entry: A learning objective may also be referred to as a learning outcome.

Note 2 to entry: A learning objective is often defined based on the requirements of a curriculum criterion or a set

of criteria.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.5.2, modified — notes to entry added]
3.13
learning resource
resource (3.17) used for learning, education and training
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.20]
3.14
obligation status

indication of whether or not a value for the attribute is to be provided

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.20, modified — note to entry removed]
3.15
person
person class
any entity (3.1) which is a natural or legal person
3.16
personal learning space

place for a learner to manage his/her learning profile, assignments, interactive data, evaluation and

associated information generated during their learning process

Note 1 to entry: This personal space may be shared with learner’s permission to instructor(s), other learner(s),

and other systems to support further learning of the individual, other individuals, and the system itself. Learner

data and interactions are private in the personal space and learner consent is required to share this data.

3.17
resource

entity (3.1) that can be identified and referenced by an unambiguous and stable identifier (3.3) in a

recognized identification system
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.30]
3.18
resource class

set of resources (3.17) that can be identified by listing or description of boundaries and meaning and

whose properties and behaviour follow the same rule
Note 1 to entry: A resource class has the following attributes:
— Identifier;
— Name;
— Definition;
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— SubclassOf [multiple inheritance];
— Note.

EXAMPLE Learning Resources (set of all learning resources), Persons (set of all Persons), Rights (set of all

rights objects), and Documents (set of all documents).
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.31]
3.19
sharable learning cell description interface
SLDI

interface to provide registration and open access for services and resources in different learning systems

3.20
social knowledge network
SKN

network constituted by person, knowledge and their relations based on specific knowledge that

supports learners’ knowledge and peer discovery during the ubiquitous learning process

Note 1 to entry: A social knowledge network represents all the nodes that have a relationship with specific

knowledge, and the nodes include person nodes and knowledge nodes.
3.21
ubiquitous learning

learning that is stimulated and supported through diverse channels and always readily accessible

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TS 29140:2020, 3.15]
4 Abbreviated terms
LOM learning object metadata
MLR metadata for learning resources
ITLET information technology for learning, education and training
API application programming interface
5 Learning cell framework overview
5.1 General

The learning cell framework supports learners’ ubiquitous learning. An overview of the ubiquitous

learning model supported by the learning cell framework is provided in Figure 2, which illustrates the

process for learners to acquire ubiquitous learning services in different situations. In this model, the

situations (classroom, home, bus station and so on) where learners’ learning requirements rise are

defined. In different situations, learners can interact with learning cells embedded in different devices.

During this process, the learning cell service will detect learners’ personalized information and learning

status with various sensors. Detected information will be sent to the educational cloud computing

centre for analysis. The educational cloud computing centre conducts analysis and decides learners’

current states and needs. The needs include several kinds of personalized services, such as knowledge

network, social network, and other learning services (learning tools, learning activities, cognitive map

and so on). These services will be dynamically collected, aggregated with the form of the learning cell

and then present to learners with an adaptive presentation.
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After these processes, learners can acquire adaptive learning support. With learners’ further

interactions, the learning cell can also be enriched. This document defines the core factors in a

ubiquitous learning resource, and these constitute the organization and description framework.

Figure 2 — Ubiquitous learning supported by the learning cell framework

The learning cell framework defines the characteristics of learning resources, in which different

situations are supported for contextualized learning. At the same time, social knowledge network is

used to support social learning and learning activities can be used to help the progression of the learners

and learning resources. At last, the learning resources can be dynamically aggregated from different

sources. Moreover, the framework also provides a detailed introduction of how these characteristics are

represented with specific properties. Subclauses 5.2 and 5.3 define the characteristics and components

of the learning cell framework.
5.2 Characteristics of learning cell

The learning cell has four essential characteristics: contextual, social, evolvable, and dynamic-

aggregated. These characteristics can help realize the previously mentioned resource requirements

Contextual: The learning cell provides a changeable and dynamic structure that can adjust the

elements and their organization in the structure so as to support learners’ learning under different

contexts. After that learners in different contexts can access resources that are aligned with their

contexts both in terms of structure and display. This means that the presentation of the resource will

match the learners’ contexts.

Social: The learning cell provides social elements in its structure. The social elements are presented to

learners with the form of social knowledge network, which contains person nodes, knowledge nodes,

and the relations among these nodes. The nodes and relations in the social knowledge network are

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created by learners’ social interactions with different knowledge and related person nodes, such as

other learners. The interactions will be retained as the SKN and used for computing and analysis.

Evolvable: The learning cell defines elements to record the interaction history and aggregation history

of resources during the learning process. The interaction history is based on the contributions of

different learners and promotes the learning cell transformation from insufficient to sufficient, low-

quality to high-quality. The control of this process will be realized by algorithms. Also, when new

resources are created, they will be classified semantically by algorithm, and thus cluster to a higher-

level resource with higher quality.

Dynamic-aggregated: The learning cell defines the aggregate process how a learning cell entity can

be formed and presented to learners dynamically. Contextual information is the basic condition for

realizing the dynamic aggregation. A computing centre in the learning cell first conducts data analysis

based on the contextual information and decides the elements involved in the learning cell entity. Then

the sequences or structure of different elements will be computed, thus aggregating the elements

together in a well-ordered manner. Also, when the context changes, the learning cell will detect the

change and conduct re-aggregation dynamically. In this way, the resource is dynamically aggregated.

Figure 3 — Functions supported by learning cell framework

To realize these characteristics, this document defines how the system is supported by learning cell

framework functions (see Figure 3). It includes three core elements: devices, connected network, and

educational cloud computing centre. When ubiquitous learning begins, learners send their requirements

through adaptive devices. Then the requests and related data collected by the sensors embedded in

the environment are sent through the connected network to the educational cloud computing centre.

After receiving the requested information, the context-aware module conducts analysis, and then

transfers the analysed information to the recommendation and decision module. The recommendation

and decision module is responsible for indexing, searching and selecting ingredients from the learning

cell container, including learning objectives, content, activities, semantic information and cognitive

network. Then the extracted ingredients are aggregated through the aggregation module into learning

cell. Finally, the learning cell is displayed adaptively after format matching, such as matching type, size,

and resolution of the device. Users can interact with the learning cell and promote the evolution of the

learning cell.
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5.3 Components of the learning cell framework

The components of the learning cell framework are shown in Figure 4. The aggregation model defines

the structure of a learning cell. The content organization provides detailed description for the elements

and features in a learning cell. Context-aware learning services can support learners’ situated learning

based on the model and the organization, and finally the learning cell service provider can help the

learning cell service be used by different systems or platforms:

— Aggregation model: The learning cell aggregation model defines the core elements and aggregation

process of learning cell framework. With this model, learning systems which in line with the learning

cell standard can conduct resource aggregation and provide learners with adaptive entities to

different learners in different contexts.

— Content organization: The content organization defines the detailed semantic information and

their organization which support the composition of the learning cell. The semantic information

includes basic semantic information, contextual information, social information and evolvable

information.

— Context-aware learning services: Context-aware learning services provide APIs for learners

to access resource aggregation services for ubiquitous learning. The services are based on the

learners’ contextual information and personal profile. With the information authorized, the system

can provide learners with adaptive learning services.

— Learning cell service provider: The learning cell service provider defines the process of how to

realize learning cell services in different systems. It stores the service information and guidelines

on how to register the services. Moreover, different systems can communicate with each other and

with the registered services.
Figure 4 — Components of learning cell framework
6 Detailed description of the components in
...

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