Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels — Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) piping systems with fusion jointing and mechanical jointing — Part 1: General

This document specifies the general properties of unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) compounds for the manufacture of pipes, fittings and valves made from these compounds, intended to be buried and used for the supply of gaseous fuels. It also specifies the test parameters for the test methods to which it refers. The ISO 16486 series is applicable to PA-U piping systems, the components of which are connected by fusion jointing and/or mechanical jointing. This document establishes a calculation and design scheme on which to base the maximum operating pressure (MOP) of a PA-U piping system.

Systèmes de canalisations en matières plastiques pour la distribution de combustibles gazeux — Systèmes de canalisations en polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) avec assemblages par soudage et assemblages mécaniques — Partie 1: Généralités

Le présent document spécifie les propriétés générales des compositions de polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) pour la fabrication de tubes, raccords et robinets fabriqués à partir de la composition, destinés à être enterrés et utilisés pour la distribution de combustibles gazeux. Il spécifie également les paramètres d'essai pour les méthodes d'essai auxquelles il fait référence. La série ISO 16486 s'applique aux systèmes de canalisations en PA-U dont les composants sont raccordés par des assemblages par soudage et/ou par des assemblages mécaniques. Ce document établit un schéma de calcul et de conception sur lequel baser la pression maximale de service (MOP) d'un système de canalisations en PA-U.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Aug-2020
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
22-Nov-2021
Completion Date
22-Nov-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16486-1
Second edition
2020-08
Plastics piping systems for the supply
of gaseous fuels — Unplasticized
polyamide (PA-U) piping systems
with fusion jointing and mechanical
jointing —
Part 1:
General
Systèmes de canalisations en matières plastiques pour la distribution
de combustibles gazeux — Systèmes de canalisations en polyamide
non plastifié (PA-U) avec assemblages par soudage et assemblages
mécaniques —
Partie 1: Généralités
Reference number
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Geometrical characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Material characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Related to service conditions ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Material .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Material of the components ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Compound ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 Additives ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.2 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.3 Identification compound .......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Rework material ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.5 Characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.6 Change of compound formulation .................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Fusion compatibility .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Classification and designation ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Maximum operating pressure (MOP) ...............................................................................................................................10

5.6 Effects of transport of liquid hydrocarbons and hydrogen ............................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Assessment of degree of pigment or carbon black dispersion

in unplasticized polyamide compounds ...................................................................................................................................11

Annex B (normative) Chemical resistance ..................................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (normative) Hoop stress at burst ..................................................................................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Continuous liquid hydrocarbon exposure from transported fluid or

soil contamination ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex E (informative) Permeation resistance against different gases ..........................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 138, Plastics pipes, fittings and valves

for the transport of fluids, Subcommittee SC 4, Plastics pipes and fittings for the supply of gaseous fuels,

in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

TC 155, Plastics piping systems and ducting systems, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16486-1:2012), which has been

technically revised. It also replaces ISO 16486-1:2012/Amd 1:2014.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— In subclause 5.2.5 characteristics include the need to saturate pipes for LTHS testing;

— In Table 1 the Carbon black content is changed to (1,0 to 2,5) % (by mass);

— In Table 2 former 6 hours has been changed to 16 hours for conditioning before hydrostatic strength

testing in line with the phrasing in the table header;
— In subclause 5.2.6 change of compound refers to PPI TR-3 as guidance;

— A new informative Annex D – Continuous liquid hydrocarbon exposure from transported fluid or

soil contamination – has been added;

— A new informative Annex E – Permeation resistance against different gases – has been added.

A list of all parts in the ISO 16486 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Introduction

This document specifies the general requirements for a piping system and its components made from

unplasticized polyamide (PA-U), which are intended to be used for the supply of gaseous fuels.

Requirements and test methods for components of the piping system are specified in ISO 16486-2,

ISO 16486-3, and ISO 16486-4.

Characteristics for fitness for purpose of the system and generic fusion parameters are covered in

ISO 16486-5.

Recommended practice for installation is given in ISO 16486-6, which will not be implemented as a

European Standard under the Vienna Agreement.

Assessment of conformity of the system is to form the subject of the future ISO/TS 16486-7 .

NOTE 1 Recommended practice for installation is also given in CEN/TS 12007-6, which has been prepared by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 234, Gas infrastructure.

NOTE 2 A list of ASTM standards related to polyamide pipes and fittings for the supply of gas is given in the

[1][2][3][4]
Bibliography .

Parts 1 (this document), 2, 3, 5 and 6 (and future Part 7) have been prepared by ISO/TC 138/SC 4. Part 4

has been prepared by ISO/TC 138/SC 7.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/WD TS 16486-7:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels —
Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) piping systems with fusion
jointing and mechanical jointing —
Part 1:
General
1 Scope

This document specifies the general properties of unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) compounds for the

manufacture of pipes, fittings and valves made from these compounds, intended to be buried and used

for the supply of gaseous fuels. It also specifies the test parameters for the test methods to which it refers.

The ISO 16486 series is applicable to PA-U piping systems, the components of which are connected by

fusion jointing and/or mechanical jointing.

This document establishes a calculation and design scheme on which to base the maximum operating

pressure (MOP) of a PA-U piping system.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 179-1, Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties — Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 307, Plastics — Polyamides — Determination of viscosity number
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles

ISO 527-2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics

ISO 1043-1, Plastics — Symbols and abbreviated terms — Part 1: Basic polymers and their special

characteristics
ISO 1110, Plastic — Polyamides — Accelerated conditioning of test specimens

ISO 1167-1, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of

the resistance to internal pressure — Part 1: General method

ISO 1167-2, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of

the resistance to internal pressure — Part 2: Preparation of pipe test pieces

ISO 1183-1, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 1: Immersion

method, liquid pycnometer method and titration method

ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density

gradient column method
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)

ISO 2505, Thermoplastics pipes — Longitudinal reversion — Test method and parameters

ISO 6259-1, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General test method

ISO 6259-3, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 3: Polyolefin pipes

ISO 6964, Polyolefin pipes and fittings — Determination of carbon black content by calcination and

pyrolysis — Test method

ISO 9080, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Determination of the long-term hydrostatic strength of

thermoplastics materials in pipe form by extrapolation

ISO 12162, Thermoplastics materials for pipes and fittings for pressure applications — Classification,

designation and design coefficient

ISO 13477, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Small-scale steady-state test (S4 test)

ISO 13478, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Full-scale test (FST)

ISO 13479, Polyolefin pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to crack

propagation — Test method for slow crack growth on notched pipes

ISO 13954, Plastics pipes and fittings — Peel decohesion test for polyethylene (PE) electrofusion assemblies

of nominal outside diameter greater than or equal to 90 mm
ISO 15512, Plastics — Determination of water content

ISO 16396-1, Plastics — Polyamide (PA) moulding and extrusion materials — Part 1: Designation system,

marking of products and basis for specifications

ISO 16396-2, Plastics — Polyamide (PA) moulding and extrusion materials — Part 2: Preparation of test

specimens and determination of properties

ISO 16486-5, Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels — Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U)

piping systems with fusion jointing and mechanical jointing — Part 5: Fitness for purpose of the system

ISO 16871, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Plastics pipes and fittings — Method for exposure to

direct (natural) weathering
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472, ISO 1043-1 and

ISO 16396-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Geometrical characteristics
3.1.1
nominal outside diameter

specified outside diameter of a component, which is identical to the minimum mean outside diameter

(3.1.4), d
em,min
Note 1 to entry: Expressed in millimetres.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
3.1.2
outside diameter at any point

outside diameter measured through the cross-section at any point on a pipe, or the spigot end of a

fitting, rounded up to the nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.3
mean outside diameter

measured length of the outer circumference of a pipe, or the spigot end of a fitting, divided by π (≈3,142),

rounded up to the nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.4
minimum mean outside diameter
em,min

minimum value for the mean outside diameter (3.1.3) as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.5
maximum mean outside diameter
em,max

maximum value for the mean outside diameter (3.1.3) as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.6
nominal wall thickness
wall thickness, in millimetres, corresponding to the minimum wall thickness, e
min
3.1.7
wall thickness at any point

measured wall thickness at any point around the circumference of a component, rounded up to the

nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.8
minimum wall thickness at any point
min

minimum value for the wall thickness at any point (3.1.7) around the circumference of a component, as

specified
3.1.9
standard dimension ratio
SDR

ratio of the nominal outside diameter (3.1.1), d , of a pipe to its nominal wall thickness, e

n n
3.2 Materials
3.2.1
compound

homogenous mixture of base polymer (PA-U) and additives, i.e. antioxidants, pigments, UV stabilisers,

at a dosage level necessary for the processing and use of components conforming to the requirements

of this document
3.2.2
rework material

material from a manufacturer's own production (of compounds [3.2.1] and of pipes, fittings or valves)

that has been reground or pelletized for reuse by that same manufacturer
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
3.3 Material characteristics
3.3.1
lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL

quantity, with the dimensions of stress, which represents the 97,5 % lower confidence limit of the

predicted hydrostatic strength at a temperature θ and time t
Note 1 to entry: The quantity is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: Temperature, θ, is expressed in degrees Celsius and time, t, is expressed in years.

3.3.2
minimum required strength
MRS

value of σ (3.3.1) at 20 °C and 50 years, rounded down to the next smaller value of the R10 series or

LPL
the R20 series
[5] [6]

Note 1 to entry: The R10 series conforms to ISO 3 and the R20 series conforms to ISO 497 .

3.3.3
categorized required strength at temperature θ and time t
CRS
θ,t

value of σ (3.3.1) at temperature θ and time t, rounded down to the next smaller value of the

LPL
R10 series or the R20 series
Note 1 to entry: CRS at 20 °C and 50 years equals MRS (3.3.2).
θ,t

Note 2 to entry: Temperature, θ, is expressed in degrees Celsius and time, t, is expressed in years.

[5] [6]

Note 3 to entry: The R10 series conforms to ISO 3 and the R20 series conforms to ISO 497 .

3.3.4
design coefficient

coefficient with a value greater than 1, which takes into consideration service conditions as well

as properties of the components of a piping system other than those represented in the lower

confidence limit
3.3.5
design stress
s,θ,t

stress derived by dividing the MRS (3.3.2) or CRSθ,t (3.3.3) by the design coefficient (3.3.4), C, i.e.

σ = MRS/C, or σ = CRS /C
s s,θ,t θ,t
3.4 Related to service conditions
3.4.1
gaseous fuel

any fuel which is in a gaseous state at a temperature of 15 °C, at a pressure of one bar (0,1 MPa)

3.4.2
maximum operating pressure
MOP

maximum effective pressure of the gas in the piping system, expressed in bar, which is allowed in

continuous use

Note 1 to entry: The MOP takes into account the physical and the mechanical characteristics of the components

of a piping system and the influence of the gas on these characteristics.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
a charpy notched impact strength
C design coefficient
d outside diameter at any point
d mean outside diameter
d maximum mean outside diameter
em,max
d minimum mean outside diameter
em,min
d nominal outside diameter
e wall thickness at any point
e minimum wall thickness at any point
min
e nominal wall thickness
L length
P pressure at burst
p critical pressure
Σ is the hoop stress to be induced by the pressure at burst
σ lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL
σ design stress

NOTE 1 The symbols d and e correspond to d and e given in other International Standards, e.g.

e ey y
[7]
ISO 11922-1 .
4.2 Abbreviated terms
CRS categorized required strength at temperature, θ, and time, t
θ,t
MOP maximum operating pressure
MRS minimum required strength
PA-U unplasticized polyamide
R series of preferred numbers, conforming to the Renard series
RT room temperature
SDR standard dimension ratio
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
5 Material
5.1 Material of the components

The material from which the components, i.e. the pipes, fittings and valves, are made shall be

unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) in accordance with ISO 16396-1.
5.2 Compound
5.2.1 Additives

The compound shall be made of the PA-U base polymer to which are added only those additives that

are needed to facilitate the manufacture of pipes and fittings conforming to the applicable parts of

ISO 16486.
5.2.2 Colour
The colour of the compound shall be yellow or black.

The carbon black used in the production of black compound shall have an average (primary) particle

size of 10 nm to 25 nm.
5.2.3 Identification compound

When applicable, the compound used for identification stripes shall be manufactured from a PA-U

polymer manufactured from the same type of base polymer as used in the compound for pipe

production.

When applicable, the compound used for an identification layer shall be of the same base polymer and

of the same MRS as the compound used for pipe production.
5.2.4 Rework material
Rework material shall not be used.
5.2.5 Characteristics

The compounds from which the components are manufactured shall be in accordance with Tables 1 and 2.

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable test method, the test pieces shall be conditioned for at least

16 h at 23 °C and 50 % relative humidity in accordance with ISO 291 before testing in accordance with

Table 2.

The test pieces shall not be tested within the period of 48 h after their manufacture.

Long-term hydrostatic strength data shall be generated on saturated polyamide pipe specimens

representing the most severe case to prevent rising humidity content of the pipe over test duration

and resulting effects on the analysis of time to failure test results. The saturation process in water can

be accelerated according to ISO 1110. Data shall show the uptake of water until saturation over time

according to ISO 15512.

NOTE In ISO 16486-2:2020, Annex B, information is given about the saturation performance of pipes in water.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Table 1 — Characteristics of the compound in the form of granules
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
Density PA-U 11 compound: Test 23 °C ISO 1183-1
(1 020 to 1 050) kg/m temperature ISO 1183-2
PA-U 12 compound:
(1 000 to 1 040) kg/m
Viscosity number ≥180 ml/g Solvent m-Cresol ISO 307
Water content ≤0,10 % ISO 15512, Method B
or E
Carbon black content (1,0 to 2,5) % (by mass) ISO 6964
Pigment or carbon black A.3 In accordance with
dispersion Annex A
Only for black compound.
Table 2 — Characteristics of compound in form of pipe/bar
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
Chemical Change in mean hoop In accordance with Annex B In accordance
resistance stress at burst between with Annex B
specimens tested in rea-
gent and in the correspond-
ing control fluid ≤20 %
Change in tensile strength
at yield of injection moulded
bar specimens tested in rea-
gent and in the correspond-
ing control fluid ≤20 %
Resistance to The weathered test pieces Preconditioning ≥7,0 GJ/m ISO 16871
weathering shall have the following (weathering):
characteristics: cumulative solar
radiation

a) Elongation at Elongation at break: ≥160 % Testing speed 25 mm/min a) ISO 6259-1,

break after ISO 6259-3
weathering
ISO 527-1,
ISO 527-2
5 2
NOTE 1 bar = 0,1 MPa = 10 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
For test pieces taken from samples in the form of pipe/bar.

For test pieces in the form of injection moulded bar prepared according to ISO 16396-2.

For material classification and designation, see 5.4.

The critical pressure, p shall be determined for each new PA-U compound and for every pipe dimension with

d > 90 mm.

The temperature of cooling for the crack initiation groove shall be appropriate to produce a high-speed crack or cracks

emanating from the initiation. For some PA-U compounds a crack initiation groove temperature between 0 °C and −60 °C

has been found to be suitable.

The critical pressure, p , shall be determined on a pipe produced from the same batch of PA-U compound and the

c,S4
same lot of pipes, as the pipe submitted to the full-scale test.

The value of p determined in this test is the reference value, p , to be referred to in the requirement of the S4

c,S4 c,S4,REF
test specified in ISO 16486-2.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
b) Hydrostatic No failure during the test End caps Type A b) ISO 1167-1,
strength period of any test piece ISO 1167-2
Orientation Free
after
Conditioning time 16 h
weathering
Type of test Water-in-water
Circumferential
(hoop) stress:
PA-U 11 160 and 10,0 MPa
PA-U 12 160
PA-U 11 180 and 11,5 MPa
PA-U 12 180
Test period 165 h
Test temperature 80 °C
c) Cohesive Length of initiation rupture Test temperature 23 °C c) ISO 13954
resistance for ≤L /3 in brittle failure
Joint:
electrofusion
Condition 1,
joint after
ISO 16486-5,
weathering of
Table B.3
pipe
Resistance to p ≥ 1,5 MOP Test temperature 0 °C In accordance
rapid crack with ISO 13478
propagation
(Critical
pressure, p )
(e ≥ 5 mm)
(Full-scale test)
Resistance to Test temperature 0 °C ISO 13477
rapid crack
propagation
(critical
pressure, p )
c,S4
(S4 test)
Longitudinal ≤3 % Heating fluid Air ISO 2505
reversion Test temperature 150 °C
pipe shall retain its original
Length of test piece 200 mm
appearance
Duration of expo- According to
sure time ISO 2505
5 2
NOTE 1 bar = 0,1 MPa = 10 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
For test pieces taken from samples in the form of pipe/bar.

For test pieces in the form of injection moulded bar prepared according to ISO 16396-2.

For material classification and designation, see 5.4.

The critical pressure, p shall be determined for each new PA-U compound and for every pipe dimension with

d > 90 mm.

The temperature of cooling for the crack initiation groove shall be appropriate to produce a high-speed crack or cracks

emanating from the initiation. For some PA-U compounds a crack initiation groove temperature between 0 °C and −60 °C

has been found to be suitable.

The critical pressure, p , shall be determined on a pipe produced from the same batch of PA-U compound and the

c,S4
same lot of pipes, as the pipe submitted to the full-scale test.

The value of p determined in this test is the reference value, p , to be referred to in the requirement of the S4

c,S4 c,S4,REF
test specified in ISO 16486-2.
8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
Resistance
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 16486-1
Deuxième édition
2020-08
Systèmes de canalisations en matières
plastiques pour la distribution de
combustibles gazeux — Systèmes
de canalisations en polyamide non
plastifié (PA-U) avec assemblages
par soudage et assemblages
mécaniques —
Partie 1:
Généralités
Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels —
Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) piping systems with fusion jointing
and mechanical jointing —
Part 1: General
Numéro de référence
ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
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Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Caractéristiques géométriques ................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.2 Matières ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

3.3 Caractéristiques de la matière ................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Relatives aux conditions de service ...................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symboles et abréviations ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 Symboles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Abréviations .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 Matière ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 Matière des composants ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Composition .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.1 Additifs ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Couleur ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 Composition pour l’identification ..................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Matière rebroyée.............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.5 Caractéristiques ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.6 Changement de formulation de composition .......................................................................................... 9

5.3 Compatibilité au soudage .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Classification et désignation ......... ............................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Pression maximale de service (MOP) ...............................................................................................................................10

5.6 Effets du transport d'hydrocarbures liquides et d'hydrogène ....................................................................10

Annexe A (normative) Évaluation du degré dispersion des pigments ou du noir de carbone

dans compositions de polyamide non plastifié .................................................................................................................11

Annexe B (normative) Résistance chimique ..............................................................................................................................................15

Annexe C (normative) Contrainte de paroi à la rupture ...............................................................................................................18

Annexe D (informative) Exposition continue aux hydrocarbures liquides due au transport

de fluides ou à la contamination du sol .....................................................................................................................................20

Annexe E (informative) Résistance à la perméation pour différents gaz ....................................................................21

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 138, Tubes, raccords et robinetterie

en matières plastiques pour le transport des fluides, sous-comité SC 4, Tubes et raccords en matières

plastiques pour réseaux de distribution de combustibles gazeux, en collaboration avec le comité technique

CEN/TC 155, Systèmes de canalisations et de gaines en plastiques, du Comité européen de normalisation

(CEN) conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre l’ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 16486-1:2012), qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique. Elle remplace également l’ISO 16486-1:2012/Amd 1:2014.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— dans le paragraphe 5.2.5, les caractéristiques comprennent la nécessité de saturer les tubes pour les

essais de LTHS;

— dans le Tableau 1, la teneur en noir de carbone est égale à (1,0 à 2,5) % (en masse);

— dans le Tableau 2, la durée de conditionnement avant les essais de résistance hydrostatique est

passée de 6 h à 16 h, en accord avec ce qui est indiqué dans l'en-tête du tableau;

— dans le paragraphe 5.2.6, le changement de composition fait référence à la PPI TR-3 en tant que

recommandation;

— ajout d’une nouvelle Annexe D informative - Exposition continue aux hydrocarbures liquides due au

transport de fluides ou à la contamination du sol;

— ajout d’une nouvelle Annexe E informative - Résistance à la perméation pour différents gaz.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 16486 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
Introduction

Le présent document spécifie les exigences générales pour un système de canalisations et ses composants

en polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) destiné à être utilisé pour la distribution de combustibles gazeux.

Les exigences et les méthodes d’essai pour les composants du système de canalisations sont spécifiées

dans l’ISO 16486-2, l’ISO 16486-3 et l’ISO 16486-4.

Les caractéristiques d’aptitude à l’emploi du système et les paramètres de soudage sont traités dans

l’ISO 16486-5.

Les pratiques recommandées pour l’installation sont données dans l’ISO 16486-6, qui n’est pas

transposée comme Norme européenne dans le cadre de l’Accord de Vienne.

L’évaluation de la conformité du système fera l’objet de la future ISO/TS 16486-7 .

NOTE 1 Les pratiques recommandées pour l’installation sont aussi données dans le CEN/TS 12007-6, qui a été

élaboré par le Comité technique CEN/TC 234, Infrastructures gazières.

NOTE 2 La Bibliographie fournit une liste de normes ASTM relatives aux tubes et raccords en polyamide

[1][2][3][4]
destinés à la distribution de gaz .

Les parties 1 (le présent document), 2, 3, 5 et 6 (ainsi que la future partie 7) ont été élaborées par

l’ISO/TC 138/SC 4. La partie 4 a été élaborée par l’ISO/TC 138/SC 7.

1) En cours de préparation. Stade au moment de la publication: ISO/WD TS 16486-7:2020.

vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
Systèmes de canalisations en matières plastiques pour
la distribution de combustibles gazeux — Systèmes de
canalisations en polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) avec
assemblages par soudage et assemblages mécaniques —
Partie 1:
Généralités
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie les propriétés générales des compositions de polyamide non plastifié (PA-

U) pour la fabrication de tubes, raccords et robinets fabriqués à partir de la composition, destinés à être

enterrés et utilisés pour la distribution de combustibles gazeux. Il spécifie également les paramètres

d’essai pour les méthodes d’essai auxquelles il fait référence.

La série ISO 16486 s’applique aux systèmes de canalisations en PA-U dont les composants sont raccordés

par des assemblages par soudage et/ou par des assemblages mécaniques.

Ce document établit un schéma de calcul et de conception sur lequel baser la pression maximale de

service (MOP) d’un système de canalisations en PA-U.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 179-1, Plastiques — Détermination des caractéristiques au choc Charpy — Partie 1: Essai de choc non

instrumenté
ISO 291, Plastiques — Atmosphères normales de conditionnement et d'essai
ISO 307, Plastiques — Polyamides — Détermination de l'indice de viscosité
ISO 472, Plastiques — Vocabulaire

ISO 527-1, Plastiques — Détermination des propriétés en traction — Partie 1: Principes généraux

ISO 527-2, Plastiques — Détermination des propriétés en traction — Partie 2: Conditions d'essai des

plastiques pour moulage et extrusion

ISO 1043-1, Plastiques — Symboles et termes abrégés — Partie 1: Polymères de base et leurs caractéristiques

spéciales
ISO 1110, Plastiques — Polyamides — Conditionnement accéléré d'éprouvettes

ISO 1167-1, Tubes, raccords et assemblages en matières thermoplastiques pour le transport des fluides —

Détermination de la résistance à la pression interne — Partie 1: Méthode générale

ISO 1167-2, Tubes, raccords et assemblages en matières thermoplastiques pour le transport des fluides —

Détermination de la résistance à la pression interne — Partie 2: Préparation des éprouvettes tubulaires

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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)

ISO 1183-1, Plastiques — Méthodes de détermination de la masse volumique des plastiques non alvéolaires —

Partie 1: Méthode par immersion, méthode du pycnomètre en milieu liquide et méthode par titrage

ISO 1183-2, Plastiques — Méthodes de détermination de la masse volumique des plastiques non

alvéolaires — Partie 2: Méthode de la colonne à gradient de masse volumique

ISO 2505, Tubes en matières thermoplastiques — Retrait longitudinal à chaud — Méthode d'essai et

paramètres

ISO 6259-1, Tubes en matières thermoplastiques — Détermination des caractéristiques en traction —

Partie 1: Méthode générale d'essai

ISO 6259-3, Tubes en matières thermoplastiques — Détermination des caractéristiques en traction —

Partie 3: Tubes en polyoléfines

ISO 6964, Tubes et raccords en polyoléfines — Détermination de la teneur en noir de carbone par calcination

et pyrolyse — Méthode d'essai

ISO 9080, Systèmes de canalisations et de gaines en matières plastiques — Détermination de la résistance

hydrostatique à long terme des matières thermoplastiques sous forme de tubes par extrapolation

ISO 12162, Matières thermoplastiques pour tubes et raccords pour applications avec pression —

Classification, désignation et coefficient de calcul

ISO 13477, Tubes en matières thermoplastiques pour le transport des fluides — Détermination de la

résistance à la propagation rapide de la fissure (RCP) — Essai à petite échelle à état constant (essai S4)

ISO 13478, Tubes en matières thermoplastiques pour le transport des fluides — Détermination de la

résistance à la propagation rapide de la fissure (RCP) — Essai grandeur nature (FST)

ISO 13479, Tubes en polyoléfines pour le transport des fluides — Détermination de la résistance à la

propagation de la fissure — Méthode d'essai de la propagation lente de la fissure d'un tube entaillé (essai

d'entaille)

ISO 13954, Tubes et raccords en matières plastiques — Essai de décohésion par pelage des assemblages

électrosoudables en polyéthylène (PE) de diamètres extérieurs nominaux supérieurs ou égaux à 90 mm

ISO 15512, Plastiques — Dosage de l'eau

ISO 16396-1, Plastiques — Matériaux polyamides (PA) pour moulage et extrusion — Partie 1: Système de

désignation, marquage des produits et base de spécification

ISO 16396-2, Plastiques — Matériaux polyamides (PA) pour moulage et extrusion — Partie 2: Préparation

des éprouvettes et détermination des propriétés

ISO 16486-5, Systèmes de canalisations en matières plastiques pour la distribution de combustibles

gazeux — Systèmes de canalisations en polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) avec assemblages par soudage et

assemblages mécaniques — Partie 5: Aptitude à l’emploi du système

ISO 16871, Systèmes de canalisations et de gaines en matières plastiques — Tubes et raccords en matières

plastiques — Méthode pour l'exposition directe aux intempéries
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 472, l’ISO 1043-1 et

l’ISO 16396-1, ainsi que les suivants, s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Caractéristiques géométriques
3.1.1
diamètre extérieur nominal

diamètre extérieur spécifié d’un composant, qui est identique au diamètre extérieur moyen minimal

(3.1.4), d
em,min
Note 1 à l'article: Il est exprimé en millimètres.
3.1.2
diamètre extérieur en un point quelconque

diamètre extérieur mesuré dans sa section transversale à un point quelconque d’un tube ou du bout

mâle d’un raccord, arrondi au 0,1 mm supérieur le plus proche
3.1.3
diamètre extérieur moyen

longueur mesurée de la circonférence externe d’un tube ou du bout mâle d’un raccord, divisée par π

(≈ 3,142) et arrondie au 0,1 mm supérieur le plus proche
3.1.4
diamètre extérieur moyen minimal
em,min

valeur minimale du diamètre extérieur moyen (3.1.3) spécifiée pour une dimension nominale donnée

3.1.5
diamètre extérieur moyen maximal
em,max

valeur maximale du diamètre extérieur moyen (3.1.3) spécifiée pour une dimension nominale donnée

3.1.6
épaisseur de paroi nominale

épaisseur de la paroi, en millimètres, correspondant à l’épaisseur minimale de paroi, e

min
3.1.7
épaisseur de paroi en un point quelconque

épaisseur de paroi mesurée en un point quelconque de la circonférence d’un composant arrondie au

0,1 mm supérieur le plus proche
3.1.8
épaisseur de paroi minimale en un point quelconque
min

valeur minimale spécifiée de l’épaisseur de paroi en un point quelconque (3.1.7) de la circonférence d’un

composant
3.1.9
rapport des dimensions nominales
SDR

rapport du diamètre extérieur nominal (3.1.1), d , d’un tube sur l’épaisseur de paroi nominale, e

n n
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
3.2 Matières
3.2.1
composition

mélange homogène du polymère de base (PA-U) et d’additifs, à savoir, antioxydants, pigments,

stabilisants U.V., en quantité nécessaire pour la transformation et l’utilisation des composants

conformes aux exigences du présent document
3.2.2
matière rebroyée

matière provenant de la production interne d’un fabricant (de compositions [3.2.1] et de tubes, raccords

ou robinets) qui a été rebroyée ou transformée en granulés pour être réutilisée par le même fabricant

3.3 Caractéristiques de la matière
3.3.1
limite inférieure de confiance de la résistance hydrostatique prévue
LPL

grandeur ayant la dimension d’une contrainte, qui représente la limite inférieure de confiance à 97,5 %

de la résistance hydrostatique prévue à une température θ et un temps t
Note 1 à l'article: La grandeur est exprimée en mégapascals (MPa).

Note 2 à l'article: La température, θ, est exprimée en degrés Celsius et le temps, t, est exprimé en années.

3.3.2
résistance minimale requise
MRS

valeur de σ (3.3.1) à une température de 20 °C et pour une durée de vie de 50 ans, arrondie à la

LPL
valeur inférieure la plus proche de la série R10 ou de la série R20
[5] [6]

Note 1 à l'article: La série R10 est conforme à l’ISO 3 et la série R20 est conforme à l’ISO 497 .

3.3.3
résistance requise par catégorie, à une température θ et un temps t
CRS
θ,t

valeur de σ (3.3.1) à une température θ et un temps t, arrondie à la valeur inférieure la plus proche

LPL
de la série R10 ou de la série R20

Note 1 à l'article: La CRS à 20 °C et pour une durée de 50 ans est égale à la MRS (3.3.2).

θ,t

Note 2 à l'article: La température, θ, est exprimée en degrés Celsius et le temps, t, est exprimé en années.

[5] [6]

Note 3 à l'article: La série R10 est conforme à l’ISO 3 et la série R20 est conforme à l’ISO 497 .

3.3.4
coefficient de calcul

coefficient d’une valeur supérieure à 1, qui tient compte à la fois des conditions de service et des

propriétés des composants d’un système de canalisations autres que celles qui sont prises en compte

dans la limite inférieure de confiance
3.3.5
contrainte de calcul
s,θ,t

contrainte obtenue en divisant la MRS (3.3.2) ou la CRSθ,t (3.3.3) par le coefficient de calcul (3.3.4), C,

c’est-à-dire σ = MRS/C ou σ = CRS /C
s s,θ,t θ,t
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
3.4 Relatives aux conditions de service
3.4.1
combustible gazeux

tout combustible à l’état gazeux à une température de 15 °C, sous une pression d’un bar (0,1 MPa)

3.4.2
pression maximale de service
MOP

pression effective maximale du gaz dans le système de canalisations, exprimée en bar, qui est admise

en utilisation continue

Note 1 à l'article: La MOP tient compte des caractéristiques physiques et mécaniques des composants d’un

système de canalisations et l’influence du gaz sur ces caractéristiques.
4 Symboles et abréviations
4.1 Symboles
a résistance au choc Charpy avec entaille
C coefficient de calcul
d diamètre extérieur en un point quelconque
d diamètre extérieur moyen
d diamètre extérieur moyen maximal
em,max
d diamètre extérieur moyen minimal
em,min
d diamètre extérieur nominal
e épaisseur de paroi en un point quelconque
e épaisseur de paroi minimale en un point quelconque
min
e épaisseur de paroi nominale
L longueur
P pression à l’éclatement
p pression critique
Σ est la contrainte de paroi à induire par la pression à l’éclatement
σ limite inférieure de confiance de la résistance hydrostatique prévue
LPL
σ contrainte de calcul

NOTE 1 Les symboles d et e correspondent aux symboles d et e qui sont indiqués dans d’autres Normes

e ey y
[7]
internationales, par exemple l’ISO 11922-1 .
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
4.2 Abréviations
CRS résistance requise par catégorie, à une température θ et un temps t
θ,t
MOP pression maximale de service
MRS résistance minimale requise
PA-U polyamide non plastifié
R série de nombres normaux, conforme à la série de Renard
RT température ambiante
SDR rapport des dimensions nominales
5 Matière
5.1 Matière des composants

La matière à partir de laquelle les composants, c’est-à-dire tubes, raccords et robinets, sont fabriqués

doit être du polyamide non plastifié (PA-U) conformément à l’ISO 16396-1.
5.2 Composition
5.2.1 Additifs

La composition doit être du polymère de base PA-U auquel sont uniquement ajoutés les additifs

nécessaires pour faciliter la fabrication de tubes et raccords conformes aux parties correspondantes de

l’ISO 16486.
5.2.2 Couleur
La couleur de la composition doit être jaune ou noire.

Le noir de carbone utilisé dans la fabrication de la composition de couleur noire doit avoir une

granulométrie (primaire) moyenne comprise entre 10 nm et 25 nm.
5.2.3 Composition pour l’identification

Le cas échéant, la composition utilisée pour les bandes d’identification doit être en un polymère PA-U

fabriqué à partir du même type de polymère de base que celui de la composition utilisée pour la

fabrication des tubes.

Le cas échéant, la composition utilisée pour une couche d’identification doit être du même polymère de

base et avoir la même MRS que la composition utilisée pour la fabrication des tubes.

5.2.4 Matière rebroyée
Aucune matière rebroyée ne doit être utilisée.
5.2.5 Caractéristiques

Les compositions utilisées pour fabriquer les composants doivent être conformes aux Tableaux 1 et 2.

Sauf spécification contraire dans la méthode d’essai applicable, les éprouvettes doivent être

conditionnées pendant au moins 16 h à 23 °C et à 50 % d’humidité relative conformément à l’ISO 291

avant les essais conformément au Tableau 2.
6 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)

Les éprouvettes ne doivent pas être soumises à essai moins de 48 h après leur fabrication.

Des données sur la résistance hydrostatique à long terme doivent être produites sur des éprouvettes

de tubes en polyamide saturé représentant le cas le plus défavorable pour éviter une augmentation de

la teneur en humidité du tube pendant la durée des essais et les effets qui en résultent sur l’analyse des

résultats d’essai de la durée écoulée jusqu’à la rupture. Le processus de saturation dans l’eau peut être

accéléré conformément à l’ISO 1110. Les données doivent montrer l’absorption d’eau jusqu’à saturation

dans le temps conformément à l’ISO 15512.

NOTE L’ISO 16486-2:2020, Annexe B, fournit des informations sur la performance de saturation des tubes

dans l’eau.
Tableau 1 — Caractéristiques de la composition sous forme de granulés
Paramètres d’essai
Caractéristique Exigence Méthode d’essai
Paramètre Valeur
Masse volumique Composition de PA-U 11: Tempéra- 23 °C ISO 1183-1
(1 020 à 1 050) kg/m ture d’essai ISO 1183-2
Composition de PA-U 12:
(1 000 à 1 040) kg/m
Indice de viscosité ≥ 180 ml/g Solvant m-crésol ISO 307
Teneur en eau ≤ 0,10 % ISO 15512, Méthode B ou E
Teneur en noir de carbone (1,0 à 2,5) % (en masse) ISO 6964
Dispersion des pigments A.3 Conformément à l’Annexe A
ou du noir de carbone
Uniquement pour une composition de couleur noire.
Tableau 2 — Caractéristiques de la composition sous forme de tube/barreau
Paramètres d’essai
Méthode
Caractéristique Exigence
d’essai
Paramètre Valeur
Résistance Variation de la contrainte de Conformément à l’Annexe B Conformément
chimique paroi moyenne à la rupture à l’Annexe B
entre les éprouvettes soumises
à essai dans le réactif et dans
le fluide témoin correspon-
dant ≤ 20 %
Variation de la résistance à
la traction au seuil d’écoule-
ment des barreaux moulés par
injection soumis à essai dans le
réactif et dans le fluide témoin
correspondant ≤ 20 %

Résistance aux Les éprouvettes exposées aux Préconditionnement ≥ 7,0 GJ/m ISO 16871

intempéries intempéries doivent avoir les (exposition aux intem-
caractéristiques suivantes: péries): rayonnement
solaire cumulatif
a) Allongement à Allongement à la rup- Vitesse d’essai 25 mm/min a)
la rupture après ture: ≥ 160 % ISO 6259-1,
exposition aux ISO 6259-3
intempéries ou
ISO 527-1,
ISO 527-2
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ISO 16486-1:2020(F)
Tableau 2 (suite)
Paramètres d’essai
Méthode
Caractéristique Exigence
d’essai
Paramètre Valeur
b) Résistance Pas de rupture d’éprouvette Embouts Type A b)
hydrostatique pendant la durée de l’essai
Orientation Libre
ISO 1167-1,
après exposition
ISO 1167-2
Durée de condition- 16 h
aux intempéries
nement
Type d’essai Eau-dans-eau
Contrainte (de paroi)
circonférentielle:
PA-U 11 160 et 10,0 MPa
PA-U 12 160
PA-U 11 180 et 11,5 MPa
PA-U 12 180
Durée d’essai 165 h
Température d
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 16486-1
ISO/TC 138/SC 4
Plastics piping systems for the supply
Secretariat: NEN
of gaseous fuels — Unplasticized
Voting begins on:
2020-05-18 polyamide (PA-U) piping systems
with fusion jointing and mechanical
Voting terminates on:
2020-07-13
jointing —
Part 1:
General
Systèmes de canalisations en matières plastiques pour la distribution
de combustibles gazeux — Systèmes de canalisations en polyamide
non plastifié (PA-U) avec assemblages par soudage et assemblages
mécaniques —
Partie 1: Généralités
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Geometrical characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Material characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Related to service conditions ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Material .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Material of the components ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Compound ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 Additives ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.2 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.3 Identification compound .......................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Rework material ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.5 Characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.6 Change of compound formulation .................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Fusion compatibility .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Classification and designation ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Maximum operating pressure (MOP) ...............................................................................................................................10

5.6 Effects of transport of liquid hydrocarbons and hydrogen ............................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Assessment of degree of pigment or carbon black dispersion

in unplasticized polyamide compounds ...................................................................................................................................11

Annex B (normative) Chemical resistance ..................................................................................................................................................15

Annex C (normative) Hoop stress at burst ..................................................................................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Continuous liquid hydrocarbon exposure from transported fluid or

soil contamination ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex E (informative) Permeation resistance against different gases ..........................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 138, Plastics pipes, fittings and valves

for the transport of fluids, Subcommittee SC 4, Plastics pipes and fittings for the supply of gaseous fuels,

in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

TC 155, Plastics piping systems and ducting systems, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16486-1:2012), which has been

technically revised. It also replaces ISO 16486-1:2012/Amd 1:2014.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— In subclause 5.2.5 characteristics include the need to saturate pipes for LTHS testing;

— In Table 1 the Carbon black content is changed to (1,0 to 2,5) % (by mass);

— In Table 2 former 6 hours has been changed to 16 hours for conditioning before hydrostatic strength

testing in line with the phrasing in the table header;
— In subclause 5.2.6 change of compound refers to PPI TR-3 as guidance;

— A new informative Annex D – Continuous liquid hydrocarbon exposure from transported fluid or

soil contamination – has been added;

— A new informative Annex E – Permeation resistance against different gases – has been added.

A list of all parts in the ISO 16486 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Introduction

This document specifies the general requirements for a piping system and its components made from

unplasticized polyamide (PA-U), which are intended to be used for the supply of gaseous fuels.

Requirements and test methods for components of the piping system are specified in ISO 16486-2,

ISO 16486-3, and ISO 16486-4.

Characteristics for fitness for purpose of the system and generic fusion parameters are covered in

ISO 16486-5.

Recommended practice for installation is given in ISO 16486-6, which will not be implemented as a

European Standard under the Vienna Agreement.

Assessment of conformity of the system is to form the subject of the future ISO/TS 16486-7 .

NOTE 1 Recommended practice for installation is also given in CEN/TS 12007-6, Gas infrastructure —

Pipelines for maximum operating pressure up to and including 16 bar — Part 6: Design, handling, installation and

operation of unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) piping systems with fusion joining and mechanical jointing — Functional

recommendation, which has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 234, Gas infrastructure.

NOTE 2 A list of ASTM standards related to polyamide pipes and fittings for the supply of gas is given in the

[1][2][3][4]
Bibliography .

Parts 1 (this document), 2, 3, 5 and 6 (and future Part 7) have been prepared by ISO/TC 138/SC 4. Part 4

has been prepared by ISO/TC 138/SC 7.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/NP TS 16486-7:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels —
Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) piping systems with fusion
jointing and mechanical jointing —
Part 1:
General
1 Scope

This document specifies the general properties of unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) compounds for the

manufacture of pipes, fittings and valves made from these compounds, intended to be buried and used

for the supply of gaseous fuels. It also specifies the test parameters for the test methods to which it refers.

The ISO 16486 series is applicable to PA-U piping systems, the components of which are connected by

fusion jointing and/or mechanical jointing.

This document establishes a calculation and design scheme on which to base the maximum operating

pressure (MOP) of a PA-U piping system.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 179-1, Plastics — Determination of Charpy impact properties — Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 307, Plastics — Polyamides — Determination of viscosity number
ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary

ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles

ISO 527-2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics

ISO 1043-1, Plastics — Symbols and abbreviated terms — Part 1: Basic polymers and their special

characteristics
ISO 1110, Plastic — Polyamides — Accelerated conditioning of test specimens

ISO 1167-1, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of

the resistance to internal pressure — Part 1: General method

ISO 1167-2, Thermoplastics pipes, fittings and assemblies for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of

the resistance to internal pressure — Part 2: Preparation of pipe test pieces

ISO 1183-1, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 1: Immersion

method, liquid pycnometer method and titration method

ISO 1183-2, Plastics — Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics — Part 2: Density

gradient column method
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)

ISO 2505, Thermoplastics pipes — Longitudinal reversion — Test method and parameters

ISO 6259-1, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General test method

ISO 6259-3, Thermoplastics pipes — Determination of tensile properties — Part 3: Polyolefin pipes

ISO 6964, Polyolefin pipes and fittings — Determination of carbon black content by calcination and

pyrolysis — Test method

ISO 9080, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Determination of the long-term hydrostatic strength of

thermoplastics materials in pipe form by extrapolation

ISO 12162, Thermoplastics materials for pipes and fittings for pressure applications — Classification,

designation and design coefficient

ISO 13477, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Small-scale steady-state test (S4 test)

ISO 13478, Thermoplastics pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to rapid crack

propagation (RCP) — Full-scale test (FST)

ISO 13479, Polyolefin pipes for the conveyance of fluids — Determination of resistance to crack

propagation — Test method for slow crack growth on notched pipes

ISO 13954, Plastics pipes and fittings — Peel decohesion test for polyethylene (PE) electrofusion assemblies

of nominal outside diameter greater than or equal to 90 mm
ISO 15512, Plastics — Determination of water content

ISO 16396-1, Plastics — Polyamide (PA) moulding and extrusion materials — Part 1: Designation system,

marking of products and basis for specifications

ISO 16396-2, Plastics — Polyamide (PA) moulding and extrusion materials — Part 2: Preparation of test

specimens and determination of properties

ISO 16486-5, Plastics piping systems for the supply of gaseous fuels — Unplasticized polyamide (PA-U)

piping systems with fusion jointing and mechanical jointing — Part 5: Fitness for purpose of the system

ISO 16871, Plastics piping and ducting systems — Plastics pipes and fittings — Method for exposure to

direct (natural) weathering
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472, ISO 1043-1 and

ISO 16396-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Geometrical characteristics
3.1.1
nominal outside diameter

specified outside diameter of a component, which is identical to the minimum mean outside diameter

(3.1.4), d
em,min
Note 1 to entry: Expressed in millimetres.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
3.1.2
outside diameter at any point

outside diameter measured through the cross-section at any point on a pipe, or the spigot end of a

fitting, rounded up to the nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.3
mean outside diameter

measured length of the outer circumference of a pipe, or the spigot end of a fitting, divided by π (≈3,142),

rounded up to the nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.4
minimum mean outside diameter
em,min

minimum value for the mean outside diameter (3.1.3) as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.5
maximum mean outside diameter
em,max

maximum value for the mean outside diameter (3.1.3) as specified for a given nominal size

3.1.6
nominal wall thickness
wall thickness, in millimetres, corresponding to the minimum wall thickness, e
min
3.1.7
wall thickness at any point

measured wall thickness at any point around the circumference of a component, rounded up to the

nearest 0,1 mm
3.1.8
minimum wall thickness at any point
min

minimum value for the wall thickness at any point (3.1.8) around the circumference of a component, as

specified
3.1.9
standard dimension ratio
SDR

ratio of the nominal outside diameter (3.1.1), d , of a pipe to its nominal wall thickness, e

n n
3.2 Materials
3.2.1
compound

homogenous mixture of base polymer (PA-U) and additives, i.e. antioxidants, pigments, UV stabilisers,

at a dosage level necessary for the processing and use of components conforming to the requirements

of this document
3.2.2
rework material

material from a manufacturer's own production (of compounds [3.2.1] and of pipes, fittings or valves)

that has been reground or pelletized for reuse by that same manufacturer
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
3.3 Material characteristics
3.3.1
lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL

quantity, with the dimensions of stress, which represents the 97,5 % lower confidence limit of the

predicted hydrostatic strength at a temperature θ and time t
Note 1 to entry: The quantity is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: Temperature, θ, is expressed in degrees Celsius and time, t, is expressed in years.

3.3.2
minimum required strength
MRS

value of σ (3.3.1) at 20 °C and 50 years, rounded down to the next smaller value of the R10 series or

LPL
the R20 series
[5] [6]

Note 1 to entry: The R10 series conforms to ISO 3 and the R20 series conforms to ISO 497 .

3.3.3
categorized required strength at temperature θ and time t
CRS
θ,t

value of σ (3.3.1) at temperature θ and time t, rounded down to the next smaller value of the

LPL
R10 series or the R20 series
Note 1 to entry: CRS at 20 °C and 50 years equals MRS (3.3.2).
θ,t

Note 2 to entry: Temperature, θ, is expressed in degrees Celsius and time, t, is expressed in years.

[5] [6]

Note 3 to entry: The R10 series conforms to ISO 3 and the R20 series conforms to ISO 497 .

3.3.4
design coefficient

coefficient with a value greater than 1, which takes into consideration service conditions as well

as properties of the components of a piping system other than those represented in the lower

confidence limit
3.3.5
design stress
s,θ,t

stress derived by dividing the MRS (3.3.2) or CRSθ,t (3.3.3) by the design coefficient (3.3.4), C, i.e.

σ = MRS/C, or σ = CRS /C
s s,θ,t θ,t
3.4 Related to service conditions
3.4.1
gaseous fuel

any fuel which is in a gaseous state at a temperature of 15 °C, at a pressure of one bar (0,1 MPa)

3.4.2
maximum operating pressure
MOP

maximum effective pressure of the gas in the piping system, expressed in bar, which is allowed in

continuous use

Note 1 to entry: The MOP takes into account the physical and the mechanical characteristics of the components

of a piping system and the influence of the gas on these characteristics.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
a charpy notched impact strength
C design coefficient
d outside diameter at any point
d mean outside diameter
d maximum mean outside diameter
em,max
d minimum mean outside diameter
em,min
d nominal outside diameter
E wall thickness at any point
e minimum wall thickness at any point
min
e nominal wall thickness
L Length
P pressure at burst
p critical pressure
Σ is the hoop stress to be induced by the pressure at burst
σ lower confidence limit of the predicted hydrostatic strength
LPL
σ design stress

NOTE 1 The symbols d and e correspond to d and e given in other International Standards, e.g.

e ey y
[7]
ISO 11922-1 .
4.2 Abbreviated terms
CRS categorized required strength at temperature, θ, and time, t
θ,t
MOP maximum operating pressure
MRS minimum required strength
PA-U unplasticized polyamide
R series of preferred numbers, conforming to the Renard series
RT room temperature
SDR standard dimension ratio
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
5 Material
5.1 Material of the components

The material from which the components, i.e. the pipes, fittings and valves, are made shall be

unplasticized polyamide (PA-U) in accordance with ISO 16396-1.
5.2 Compound
5.2.1 Additives

The compound shall be made of the PA-U base polymer to which are added only those additives that

are needed to facilitate the manufacture of pipes and fittings conforming to the applicable parts of

ISO 16486.
5.2.2 Colour
The colour of the compound shall be yellow or black.

The carbon black used in the production of black compound shall have an average (primary) particle

size of 10 nm to 25 nm.
5.2.3 Identification compound

When applicable, the compound used for identification stripes shall be manufactured from a PA-U

polymer manufactured from the same type of base polymer as used in the compound for pipe

production.

When applicable, the compound used for an identification layer shall be of the same base polymer and

of the same MRS as the compound used for pipe production.
5.2.4 Rework material
Any rework material shall be used.
5.2.5 Characteristics

The compounds from which the components are manufactured shall be in accordance with Tables 1 and 2.

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable test method, the test pieces shall be conditioned for at least

16 h at 23 °C and 50 % relative humidity in accordance with ISO 291 before testing in accordance with

Table 2.

The test pieces shall not be tested within the period of 48 h after their manufacture.

Long-term hydrostatic strength data shall be generated on saturated polyamide pipe specimens

representing the most severe case to prevent rising humidity content of the pipe over test duration

and resulting effects on the analysis of time to failure test results. The saturation process in water can

be accelerated according to ISO 1110. Data shall show the uptake of water until saturation over time

according to ISO 15512.

NOTE In ISO 16486-2:2020, Annex B, information is given about the saturation performance of pipes in water.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Table 1 — Characteristics of the compound in the form of granules
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
Density PA-U 11 compound: Test 23 °C ISO 1183-1
(1 020 to 1 050) kg/m temperature ISO 1183-2
PA-U 12 compound:
(1 000 to 1 040) kg/m
Viscosity number ≥180 ml/g Solvent m-Cresol ISO 307
Water content ≤0,10 % ISO 15512, Method B
or E
Carbon black content (1,0 to 2,5) % (by mass) ISO 6964
Pigment or carbon black A.3 In accordance with
dispersion Annex A
Only for black compound.
Table 2 — Characteristics of compound in form of pipe/bar
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
Chemical Change in mean hoop In accordance with Annex B In accordance
resistance stress at burst between with Annex B
specimens tested in rea-
gent and in the correspond-
ing control fluid ≤20 %
Change in tensile strength
at yield of injection moulded
bar specimens tested in rea-
gent and in the correspond-
ing control fluid ≤20 %
Resistance to The weathered test pieces Preconditioning ≥7,0 GJ/m ISO 16871
weathering shall have the following (weathering):
characteristics: cumulative solar
radiation

a) Elongation at Elongation at break: ≥160 % Testing speed 25 mm/min a) ISO 6259-1,

break after ISO 6259-3
weathering
ISO 527-1,
ISO 527-2
5 2
NOTE bar = 0,1 MPa = 10 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
For test pieces taken from samples in the form of pipe/bar.

For test pieces in the form of injection moulded bar prepared according to ISO 16396-2.

For material classification and designation, see 5.4.

The critical pressure, p shall be determined for each new PA-U compound and for every pipe dimension with

d > 90 mm.

The temperature of cooling for the crack initiation groove shall be appropriate to produce a high-speed crack or cracks

emanating from the initiation. For some PA-U compounds a crack initiation groove temperature between 0 °C and −60 °C

has been found to be suitable.

The critical pressure, p , shall be determined on a pipe produced from the same batch of PA-U compound and the

c,S4
same lot of pipes, as the pipe submitted to the full-scale test.

The value of p determined in this test is the reference value, p , to be referred to in the requirement of the S4

c,S4 c,S4,REF
test specified in ISO 16486-2.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/FDIS 16486-1:2020(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Test parameters
Characteristic Requirement Test method
Parameter Value
b) Hydrostatic No failure during the test End caps Type A b) ISO 1167-1,
strength period of any test piece ISO 1167-2
Orientation Free
after
Conditioning time 16 h
weathering
Type of test Water-in-water
Circumferential
(hoop) stress:
PA-U 11 160 and 10,0 MPa
PA-U 12 160
PA-U 11 180 and 11,5 MPa
PA-U 12 180
Test period 165 h
Test temperature 80 °C
c) Cohesive Length of initiation rupture Test temperature 23 °C c) ISO 13954
resistance for ≤L /3 in brittle failure
Joint:
electrofusion
Condition 1,
joint after
ISO 16486-5,
weathering of
Table B.3
pipe
Resistance to p ≥ 1,5 MOP Test temperature 0 °C In accordance
rapid crack with ISO 13478
propagation
(Critical
pressure, p )
(e ≥ 5 mm)
(Full-scale test)
Resistance to Test temperature 0 °C ISO 13477
rapid crack
propagation
(critical
pressure, p )
c,S4
(S4 test)
Longitudinal ≤3 % Heating fluid Air ISO 2505
reversion Test temperature 150 °C
pipe shall retain its original
Length of test piece 200 mm
appearance
Duration of expo- According to
sure time ISO 2505
5 2
NOTE bar = 0,1 MPa = 10 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
For test pieces taken from samples in the form of pipe/bar.

For test pieces in the form of injection moulded bar prepared according to ISO 16396-2.

For material classification and designation, see 5.4.
...

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