Ships and marine technology -- Marine environment protection -- Vocabulary relating to oil spill response

This document contains terms and definitions relating to oil spills and their control. This document provides standardized terminology relating to oil spill response, defined as the broad range of activities related to spill cleanup, including surveillance and assessment, containment, recovery, dispersant use, in situ burning, shoreline cleanup and disposal.

Navires et technologie maritime -- Protection de l'environnement marin -- Vocabulaire relatif à la réponse aux déversements de pétrole

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Published
Publication Date
07-Apr-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Mar-2020
Completion Date
08-Apr-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16165
Third edition
2020-04
Ships and marine technology —
Marine environment protection
— Vocabulary relating to oil spill
response
Navires et technologie maritime — Protection de l'environnement
marin — Vocabulaire relatif à la réponse aux déversements de pétrole
Reference number
ISO 16165:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16165:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Oil/oil slick properties ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Oil classification ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 Assessment techniques.................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.5 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.6 Containment .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.6.1 Floating boom equipment terminology ....................................................................................................... 4

3.6.2 Other containment equipment terminology ............................................................................................ 6

3.6.3 Engineering terminology .......................................................................................................................................... 6

3.6.4 Operational terminology ........................................................................................................................................... 7

3.7 Recovery ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

3.7.1 Equipment terminology ........................................................................................................................................... .. 9

3.7.2 Skimmer performance terminology ................................................................................................................ 9

3.7.3 Operational performance terminology......................................................................................................... 9

3.7.4 Storage terminology...................................................................................................................................................10

3.8 Dispersant use ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

3.9 Removal by in situ burning .......................................................................................................................................................12

3.10 Shoreline cleanup ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

3.10.1 Shoreline terminology..............................................................................................................................................13

3.10.2 Sediment sizes ................................................................................................................................................................13

3.10.3 Shore zones........................................................................................................................................................................14

3.10.4 Cleanup method terminology ............................................................................................................................15

3.11 Disposal ......................................................................................................................................................................................................16

3.12 Spill management ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

3.12.1 Contingency planning ...............................................................................................................................................17

3.12.2 Incident command system (ICS) .....................................................................................................................18

3.12.3 Safety .......................................................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee SC 2, Marine

environment protection.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 16165:2013), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the ASTM references have been updated;
— minor typographical corrections;

— removal of “mud” from term and definition 3.10.2.5 to reflect ISO 14688-1:2017;

— modifications in line with the latest edition of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (2018 ed):

— the title is changed from "terminology" to "vocabulary",
— new Clause 2, Normative references, is inserted, and
— former Clause 2, and all the entries, are consistently renumbered.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
Introduction

Communication is important in the implementation of an effective oil spill response and this

communication will be most effective if there is a common understanding of the terms used. Many of

the terms and definitions listed here have been widely used for many years, while others are the result

of recent experience. The gradual evolution of our understanding of oil spill behaviour and response

measures means that oil spill terminology will continue to develop.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16165:2020(E)
Ships and marine technology — Marine environment
protection — Vocabulary relating to oil spill response
1 Scope

This document contains terms and definitions relating to oil spills and their control. This document

provides standardized terminology relating to oil spill response, defined as the broad range of activities

related to spill cleanup, including surveillance and assessment, containment, recovery, dispersant use,

in situ burning, shoreline cleanup and disposal.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

In developing this document, an attempt was made to use existing definitions wherever possible. For

example, comprehensive terminology is available on containment booms, performance of recovery

skimmers and on bioremediation, as provided by the publications of the American Society for Testing

and Materials (ASTM), Committee F20, on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response. Other areas

had less coverage by standards organizations and gaps were filled through a review of a variety of

sources. In this document, whenever a published source serves as the primary basis for a definition,

this source is indicated by an abbreviated code. The complete citations for these codes are provided in

the Bibliography.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Oil/oil slick properties
3.1.1
crude oil

naturally occurring form of petroleum, mainly occurring in a porous underground formation such as

sandstone
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-1:1998, 1.05.005]
3.1.2
emulsification

process in which microscopic droplets of water are mixed in the oil, or vice versa

3.1.3
emulsion

mixture of oil and water in which droplets are interspersed in varying concentrations throughout the

oil, or vice versa, formed when these fluids are mixed by mechanical or hydraulic action

Note 1 to entry: Emulsions are more precisely referred to as water-in-oil emulsions. Water-in-oil emulsions are

sometimes referred to as a "mousse."
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.1.4
environmental fate
form and location of a material resulting from transport and transformation
[SOURCE: ASTM E943-08(2014), 2.1]
3.1.5
heavy shoreline oiling
pooled deposits or a layer of surface oil
3.1.6
moderate/light shoreline oiling
sheen (3.1.10) or film of surface oil
3.1.7
petroleum oil

material consisting of, or derived from, a mixture of liquid or semi-solid organic compounds, principally

hydrocarbons
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-1:1998, 1.05.000]
3.1.8
pour point

lowest temperature at which a sample of petroleum product will continue to flow when it is cooled

under specified standard conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-2:1998, 2.10.080]
3.1.9
relative viscosity

measured viscosity of an emulsion (3.1.3) (in any convenient unit) at a given shear rate divided by the

measured viscosity of the oil at the same shear rate

Note 1 to entry: It is important to report the shear rate used in the viscosity measurements of the emulsion and

the water-free oil.
3.1.10
sheen

very thin oil slick (3.7.3.1) with a silvery or rainbow-coloured appearance and a thickness of less than

0,001 mm
3.1.11
specific gravity

ratio of the mass of a given volume of liquid at 15 °C to the mass of an equal volume of fresh water at the

same temperature
[SOURCE: ASTM D4410-16, 3.1]
3.1.12
viscosity
measure of the resistance to flow or deformation of a liquid
[SOURCE: ISO 1998-2:1998, 2.10.030]
3.1.13
windrows

narrow bands of oil, generally aligned with the wind direction (3.3.7), typical of an oil slick (3.7.3.1) after

several hours of exposure (or days for very large spills)
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.2 Oil classification
3.2.1
group I oil
non-persistent oil

petroleum-based oil that consists of hydrocarbon fractions, at least 50% of which distil at a temperature

of 340 °C and at least 95% of which distil at a temperature of 370 °C
3.2.2
group II oil
persistent oil (3.2.6) with a specific gravity (3.1.11) of less than 0,85
3.2.3
group III oil

persistent oil (3.2.6) with a specific gravity (3.1.11) equal to or greater than 0,85 and less than 0,95

3.2.4
group IV oil

persistent oil (3.2.6) with a specific gravity (3.1.11) equal to or greater than 0,95 and less than 1,00

3.2.5
group V oil
persistent oil (3.2.6) with a specific gravity (3.1.11) greater than 1,00
3.2.6
persistent oil

petroleum-based oil that does not meet the distillation criteria for a group I oil (3.2.1)

3.3 Environmental conditions
3.3.1
air temperature

average or point temperature of the air measured at or near the ground or water surface (°C)

[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.2]
3.3.2
current

average water speed and direction (i.e. velocity) relative to a fixed reference point (m/s)

[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.3]
3.3.3
debris

solid or semisolid substance that could interfere with the operation of a spill control system

[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.4]
3.3.4
significant wave height

average height, measured crest to trough, of one-third highest waves, considering only short-period waves

Note 1 to entry: Short period waves are for a period less than ten seconds (s).
[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.7]
3.3.5
significant wave period

average period of the one-third highest waves, measured in seconds as the elapsed time between crests

of succeeding waves past a fixed point(s)
[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.8]
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.3.6
water temperature

average or point temperature (°C) of a water body as measured within the top 300 mm

[SOURCE: ASTM F625-94(2017), 2.1.6]
3.3.7
wind direction
direction from which the wind is blowing
3.4 Assessment techniques
3.4.1
ladder search

aerial surveillance (3.4.4) to find and delineate oil slicks (3.7.3.1), carried out in a direction perpendicular

to the wind in order to increase the probability of locating slicks and windrows (3.1.13)

3.4.2
oil spill modelling

mathematical prediction of the environmental fate (3.1.4) and/or behaviour of an oil spill

3.4.3
remote sensing

use of sensors to find or delineate oil slicks (3.7.3.1), potentially utilising mounted sources, such as on

ships, aircraft and satellites
3.4.4
surveillance

response activities with the purpose of detecting a spill, determining the extent and behaviour of a

spill, optimising countermeasures and/or predicting spill movements and effects
3.5 Sampling
3.5.1
chain-of-custody documentation

chronological evidence defining the history of an item, such as a sample, and identifying an individual

responsible for custody of the item at each point in time
3.5.2
custody
physical possession or control

Note 1 to entry: A sample is under custody if it is in possession or under control so as to prevent tampering or

alteration of its characteristics.
[SOURCE: ASTM D4840-99(2018)e1, 3.2.1]
3.6 Containment
3.6.1 Floating boom equipment terminology

Figure 1 shows equipment and terminology associated with a floating boom (3.6.1.3).

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
Key
1 boom end connector 5 freeboard
2 boom segment 6 draught
3 boom section 7 buoyancy chamber
4 water line h overall height
Figure 1 — Containment boom equipment
3.6.1.1
anchor point

structural point on the end connector (3.6.1.8) or along the length of a boom (3.6.1.3) section designed

for the attachment of anchor or mooring lines
3.6.1.2
barrier

means of controlling the movement of oil or other substances on the water or in the water column

3.6.1.3
boom
floating barrier (3.6.1.2) used to control the movement of substances that float
3.6.1.4
boom section
length of boom (3.6.1.3) between two end connectors (3.6.1.8)
3.6.1.5
boom segment
repetitive and similar portion of the boom section (3.6.1.4)
3.6.1.6
bridle

device attached to a boom (3.6.1.3) to distribute the load exerted by towing or anchoring the boom

3.6.1.7
curtain boom

boom (3.6.1.3) consisting of a flexible skirt supported by vertical centreline floatation

3.6.1.8
end connector

device attached to the boom (3.6.1.3) used for joining boom sections (3.6.1.4) to one another or to

accessory devices
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.6.1.9
fence boom

boom (3.6.1.3) consisting of a self-supporting or stiffened membrane supported by floating devices

3.6.1.10
fire resistant boom
boom (3.6.1.3) intended for containment of burning oil slicks (3.7.3.1)
3.6.1.11
inflatable boom

boom (3.6.1.3) that uses inflatable chambers, self- or manually-inflatable, as the floatation devices

3.6.1.12
shore sealing boom
boom (3.6.1.3) that, when grounded, seals against the shoreline
3.6.1.13
sorbent boom

boom (3.6.1.3) containing material or arranged in a form that has absorptive or adsorptive capabilities

Note 1 to entry: See 3.7.1.3 for definitions of sorbent, absorbent and adsorbent.

3.6.1.14
special purpose boom

boom (3.6.1.3) which differs in design and/or purpose from a curtain boom (3.6.1.7), fence boom (3.6.1.9),

fire resistant boom (3.6.1.10), inflatable boom (3.6.1.11), shore sealing boom (3.6.1.12) or sorbent boom

(3.6.1.13)
3.6.2 Other containment equipment terminology
3.6.2.1
bubble barrier

in-water barrier (3.6.1.2) created by the use of compressed air delivered through a perforated air hose

and/or pipe laid sub-surface to produce a controlled stream of air bubbles that rise and expand to form

a subsurface air curtain

Note 1 to entry: This produces a disturbed surface which combined with the air curtain contains and/or deflects

the oil both on the surface and/or in the water column.
3.6.3 Engineering terminology
3.6.3.1
buoyancy chamber

enclosed compartment of air or other buoyant material providing floatation for the boom (3.6.1.3)

3.6.3.2
gross buoyancy

weight of fresh water displaced by an entire boom section (3.6.1.4) when totally submerged

3.6.3.3
gross buoyancy to weight ratio
gross buoyancy (3.6.3.2) divided by boom (3.6.1.3) weight
3.6.3.4
operational draught

minimum vertical depth of the boom (3.6.1.3) below the water-line in the working condition

3.6.3.5
operational freeboard

minimum vertical height of the boom (3.6.1.3) above the water-line in the working condition

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.6.3.6
operational height
sum of operational draught (3.6.3.4) and operational freeboard
3.6.3.7
overall height
maximum vertical dimension of a boom (3.6.1.3)
3.6.3.8
reserve buoyancy
gross buoyancy (3.6.3.2) minus boom (3.6.1.3) weight
3.6.4 Operational terminology
3.6.4.1
boom planing
heeling over a boom (3.6.1.3) with a resultant loss of draught
3.6.4.2
boom submergence
containment failure due to loss of freeboard
3.6.4.3
bridging failure

portions of a boom (3.6.1.3) emerging from the water due to poor wave conformance, with resulting

containment failure
3.6.4.4
cascading booms

booming configuration formed by positioning two or more booms (3.6.1.3) in a deflection mode such

that successive booms progressively move oil into the desired area
3.6.4.5
catenary configuration

booming configuration formed by towing or anchoring each end of a length of boom (3.6.1.3) resulting

in a characteristic "J" or "U" shape
3.6.4.6
catenary drag force

longitudinal load imposed on a boom (3.6.1.3), deployed in a catenary configuration (3.6.4.5), resulting

from towing, current (3.3.2) and/or wind forces
3.6.4.7
diversion mode
placement of a boom (3.6.1.3) to redirect the movement of an oil slick (3.7.3.1)
3.6.4.8
drainage loss

oil lost due to the accumulation of oil against a boom (3.6.1.3) pushing down and escaping under the skirt

3.6.4.9
entrainment loss
oil pulled under a boom (3.6.1.3) by the flow of water
EXAMPLE An example of the flow of water are high current (3.3.2) conditions.
3.6.4.10
exclusion booming

placement of a boom (3.6.1.3) to protect an area from the entry of an oil slick (3.7.3.1)

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.6.4.11
first-loss tow current velocity

lowest velocity of water flow measured perpendicular to the boom (3.6.1.3) at which oil starts to escape

under the boom

Note 1 to entry: This velocity may be produced by either the natural water flow or by towing a boom, or a

combination of both.
3.6.4.12
gap ratio
sweep width (3.6.4.17) divided by boom (3.6.1.3) length
3.6.4.13
loss rate
rate at which oil is lost under a boom (3.6.1.3), in m /h
3.6.4.14
splash-over
oil passing over the top of the boom (3.6.1.3)
3.6.4.15
straight line drag force
longitudinal drag force that results from towing a boom (3.6.1.3) from one end
3.6.4.16
structural failure

breakage of a boom (3.6.1.3) that occurs when an external force acting on the boom exceeds the

strength of the boom
3.6.4.17
sweep width

width intercepted by a boom (3.6.1.3) in collection mode, the projected distance perpendicular

to the direction of travel or current (3.3.2) between the ends of a boom deployed in a "J", "U" or "V"

configuration
3.6.4.18
tear resistance

ability to withstand the force required to tear the boom (3.6.1.3) material and a measure of the boom

fabric strength

Note 1 to entry: Tear resistance has an important relevance for attachments to the fabric.

3.6.4.19
tensile strength

force required to stretch boom (3.6.1.3) components to the point where a failure occurs

3.6.4.20
vortex loss
oil escaping past a boom (3.6.1.3) due to vortices produced at the boom
3.6.4.21
"J" configuration
boom (3.6.1.3) positioned in a "J" shape
3.6.4.22
"U" configuration
boom (3.6.1.3) positioned in a "U" shape
3.6.4.23
"V" configuration
boom (3.6.1.3) positioned in a "V" shape
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.7 Recovery
3.7.1 Equipment terminology
3.7.1.1
dedicated response equipment

spill response equipment dedicated to an area, port, facility or any other designated place or

organisation
3.7.1.2
skimmer
mechanical device used to remove oil from the water surface
3.7.1.3
sorbent

insoluble material or mixture of materials used to recover fluids through the mechanisms of absorption

or adsorption or both
3.7.1.3.1
absorbent

material that picks up and retains a liquid distributed throughout its molecular structure causing the

solid to swell (50 % or more) and that must be at least 70% insoluble in excess fluid

3.7.1.3.2
adsorbent

insoluble material that is coated by a liquid on its surface including pores and capillaries without the

solid swelling more than 50 % in excess liquid
3.7.1.4
vessel-of-opportunity

water craft which normally have duties other than spill response, but are put into service for response

or surveillance (3.4.4) activities when required and as available
3.7.2 Skimmer performance terminology
3.7.2.1
derating factor

reduction factor, applied to nameplate recovery rates (3.7.2.3), to account for less than optimum

performance due to less than ideal oil slick (3.7.3.1) and environmental conditions

3.7.2.2
fluid recovery rate
volume of all fluids recovered by a skimmer (3.7.1.2) per unit time, in m /h
3.7.2.3
nameplate recovery rate

maximum volume of fluid that can be recovered by a skimmer (3.7.1.2) per unit time, in m /h, as stated

by the manufacturer
3.7.2.4
oil recovery rate
ORR

volume of test fluid (oil or emulsion (3.1.3) recovered by a skimmer (3.7.1.2) per unit time, in m /h

3.7.3 Operational performance terminology
3.7.3.1
oil slick
oily fluid floating on the surface of the water
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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.7.3.2
oil slick encounter rate

volume of oil slick (3.7.3.1) per unit time actively encountered by the oil spill response system, and

therefore available for containment and recovery, in m /h
3.7.3.3
oil slick recovery efficiency

ratio of originating fluid (oil or emulsion (3.1.3) compared to the total volume of oil recovered

Note 1 to entry: oil slick (3.7.3.1) recovery is expressed as a percentage.
3.7.3.4
oil slick recovery rate
volume of oil removed from the slick per unit time, in m /h
3.7.3.5
oil spill recovery system
combination of devices that operate together to recover spilled oil

Note 1 to entry: The system would include, but is not limited to, some or all of the following components: floating

boom (3.6.1.3); skimmer (3.7.1.2); support vessels to deploy and operate the boom and skimmer; discharge/

transfer pumps; oil/water separator; temporary storage devices (3.7.4.6); and shore based storage/disposal.

3.7.3.6
recovery efficiency
volume of oil recovered compared to the total volume of fluids recovered
EXAMPLE An example of fluids are oil, emulsion (3.1.3), and sea water.
Note 1 to entry: Recovery efficiency is expressed as a percentage.
[SOURCE: ASTM F631-15, 3.1.6]
3.7.3.7
response time

time interval between the time of notification of a spill incident (3.12.2.7) and the start of cleanup

operations
3.7.3.8
throughput efficiency
volume of oil recovered compared to the volume of oil encountered
Note 1 to entry: Throughput efficiency is expressed as a percentage.
3.7.4 Storage terminology
3.7.4.1
frame tank

oil resistant reinforced open top containment bag held in position and upright by means of a metal

structure or space-framed sections slotted together
3.7.4.2
open pool
pool in the ground, lined or unlined, used to store recovered fluids
3.7.4.3
open-topped tank
open-top container used to recover fluids

EXAMPLE An example of an open-top container is an international bulk container tank.

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ISO 16165:2020(E)
3.7.4.4
pillow tank

closed, rectangular, cylindrical or round coated fabric receptacle, which can be used either on the

ground or afloat
3.7.4.5
self erecting open top flexible tank

open top, non-framed receptacle, which is self-erecting due to an "in-built" buoyancy collar which raises

the tank walls as the tank is filled with fluids
Note 1 to entry: It may also be referred to as a self-erecting "onion" tank
...

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