Intelligent transport systems (ITS) -- Urban mobility applications via nomadic device for green transport management

This document gives guidelines for providing mobility information according to user preference on demand, utilizing a variety of existing applications on nomadic devices related to different means of transport. This document defines an integrated mobility information platform as a service methodology to be integrated with a variety of mobile apps with respect to different transport modes. This document defines the following urban mobility applications: — guidance documents to facilitate the practical implementation of identified standards in the transportation planning process, including related use cases; — provision of urban mobility information integrated with a variety of mobile apps on nomadic devices by multiple transport modes for collecting trip production and attraction data; — modal choice data based on time effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and eco-effectiveness in the trip distribution from origins to destinations.

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Published
Publication Date
23-Nov-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
28-Oct-2020
Completion Date
28-Oct-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18561-1
First edition
2020-11
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) —
Urban mobility applications via
nomadic device for green transport
management —
Part 1:
General requirements for data
exchange between ITS stations
Reference number
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Document overview and structure .................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Personal ITS station ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.3 Vehicle ITS station .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.4 Central ITS station .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Overview of transport planning process .......................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Overview of use case clusters .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Use cases overview and definitions .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Use cases overview .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1.1 Basic principles for use cases ............................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.2 Use cases clusters ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2 Use case definition ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Use case cluster 1: Trip generation .................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.2 Use case cluster 2: Network assignment ..................................................................................................... 8

6.2.3 Use case cluster 3: Mode assignment ..........................................................................................................11

6.2.4 Use case cluster 4: Guidance and analysis ..............................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO 18561 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The ISO 18561 series is intended to facilitate the development, promotion and standardization of the

use of nomadic and portable devices to support intelligent transport systems (ITS) service provision

and multimedia use, such as passenger information, automotive information, driver advisory and

warning systems and entertainment system interfaces to ITS service providers and motor vehicle

communication networks.

This document provides the application and specification for standardizing transportation management

as a form of ITS in urban transportation networks to improve eco-mobility and sustainability. This

document fosters the introduction of multimedia and telematics nomadic devices in the public

transport and automotive world. These ITS technologies can increase operational efficiencies and

unlock enhanced transportation safety and eco-mobility applications.

Via nomadic devices, the urban mobility applications build on existing transportation planning

processes, including trip generation, trip distribution and modal choices with respect to extended

measures of effectiveness (MOE) in transportation models, such as time effectiveness, cost effectiveness

and green (eco)effectiveness.

In this document, the nomadic device is presented as a personal ITS station in order to communicate

with the other stations, including vehicle, roadway infrastructures and centres for defining the

requirements for interfaces between the stations in urban mobility applications to accommodate the

specific needs of eco-mobility in a smart city.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Urban mobility
applications via nomadic device for green transport
management —
Part 1:
General requirements for data exchange between ITS
stations
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for providing mobility information according to user preference on

demand, utilizing a variety of existing applications on nomadic devices related to different means of

transport. This document defines an integrated mobility information platform as a service methodology

to be integrated with a variety of mobile apps with respect to different transport modes.

This document defines the following urban mobility applications:

— guidance documents to facilitate the practical implementation of identified standards in the

transportation planning process, including related use cases;

— provision of urban mobility information integrated with a variety of mobile apps on nomadic devices

by multiple transport modes for collecting trip production and attraction data;

— modal choice data based on time effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and eco-effectiveness in the trip

distribution from origins to destinations.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
nomadic device

implementation of a personal ITS station (3.1.2) which provides communication connectivity via

equipment such as cellular telephones, mobile wireless broadband (WIMAX, HC-SDMA, etc.) or WiFi,

and includes short range links, such as Bluetooth or Zigbee to connect portable devices to the motor

vehicle communications system network
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
3.1.2
personal ITS station
P-ITS-S
implementation of an ITS station in a personal ITS subsystem
3.1.3
roadside ITS station
R-ITS-S

system installed at the road side that receives and processes vehicular and pedestrian information

within a certain zone and determines the situation in order to provide safety warnings and parking

guidance to vehicles and pedestrians
3.1.4
green ITS
G-ITS

a new-concept transportation system, expected to arise following the paradigm shift towards eco-

friendly, low-carbon green growth in the transportation sector, as global policies

3.1.5
eco-mobility

ecological transport systems and services based on eco-vehicles and their related facilities

3.1.6
central ITS station
ITS station assuming a central role
3.2 Abbreviated terms
MOE measure of effectiveness
WiFi wireless fidelity
WIMAX worldwide interoperability for microwave access
HC-SDMA high capacity spatial division multiple access
OD origin - destination
4 Document overview and structure

The ISO 18561 series provides details of all documents and references required to support the

application of conventional transportation planning processes in transportation management with

respect to eco-effective measures to improve urban mobility by utilizing the data collected by NDs. The

ISO 18561 series is comprised of the following documents.

— Part 1 (this document): General requirements for data exchange between ITS stations

This part specifies the general requirements of data exchanges between ITS stations collected by

NDs in urban mobility applications based on the structure along with the use cases definition and

common set of resources (definitions, references) in green transportation management.

— Part 2 : Trip and modal choice applications and specification

This part specifies all technical requirements related to the trip and modal choice applications for

the transportation planning process in green transportation management utilizing NDs to be used

on the personal ITS station and to be interfaced with a central ITS station, vehicle ITS station and

roadside ITS station.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/CD 18561-2:2020.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
— Part 3 : Mobility integration service applications using hybrid V2X

This part specifies not only the mobility-as-a-service applications functioning in connection

with multiple transportation modes, but also the safety enhancement services using hybrid V2X

including dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and cellular V2X.
5 Overview
5.1 Purpose
5.1.1 General
This document addresses two major areas:

— identifying the method for describing the general information for all subjects and use cases related

to green transport management services according to the transportation planning process in urban

mobility utilizing NDs; and

— identifying the general requirements of data exchanges utilizing NDs as the personal ITS station

interfaced with the central ITS station, vehicle ITS station, and roadside ITS station.

5.1.2 Personal ITS station

Smart mobility services on demand by the user preference to be an integrated app on mobile devices

utilizing personalized data with respect to trip distance, trip schedule, personal eco mileages, weather,

etc. by means of different transport modes.
5.1.3 Vehicle ITS station

Vehicle information to be utilized by users as a mobility service, which includes electric passenger

vehicles, public transport with bus and/or metro, shared mobility with car sharing, ride sharing, bike

sharing, etc.
5.1.4 Central ITS station

Transportation management services to be provided to users as a variety of service apps on mobile

devices by national authorities, local municipalities and/or private companies for eco-mobility

management and information such as carbon free zones, electric vehicles, etc.
5.2 Overview of transport planning process

Conceptual aspects of the general process for four step transportation planning and modelling are

illustrated in Figure 1.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/PWI 18561-3:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Figure 1 — General form of four step transportation planning and modelling

Trip generation as the first stage of the classical transportation demand planning and modelling is the

analysis and model building phase in the conventional transportation planning process. It is a general

term used in the transportation planning process to cover the number of trip ends in given areas. Trip

generation is classified in production and attraction. Production from an origin means number of trip

ends which have originated in a given zone, i.e. zone-i. Attraction to a destination means number of trip

ends attracted to another zone, such as zone-j.

The decision to travel for a given purpose is called trip generation. The decision to choose a destination

from an origin is called directional distribution of trips. This forms the second stage of travel demand

modelling in the transportation planning process. Trip distribution is determined by the number of trip

ends originated in zone-i to the number of trip ends attracted to zone-j, which can be understood by the

matrix between zones, i.e. the origin - destination (OD) matrix.

The third stage in travel demand modelling is modal split, which is determined by the number of trips

by individuals processed by the different modes of travel. Modal split of travel demand modelling is

used to distribute the total travel demand into two or more mode categories, including public transport

riders and personal and/or private vehicle riders. The demand can be split into different modes with

respect to the socio-economic demand variables used to explain mode choice behaviour, including

income, vehicle ownership, household size, residence location, etc. The supply variables are in vehicle

time, waiting time, travel time, travel cost, transfer time, etc.

Trip assignment is the fourth and final phase of the four-step transportation planning process.

Travellers choose the route which will take the minimum travel time and minimum travel distance

dependent on the traffic volume on the road.
5.3 Overview of use case clusters

Urban mobility applications provide individual users with mobility information services according to

user preference on demand, recognized by NDs via personal OD trip data, which come up with network

OD matrix databases. The use cases for urban mobility applications are categorized as trip generation,

network assignment, mode assignment, and information and analysis, based on a similar pattern of

conventional four step transportation planning and modelling process, including trip generation, trip

distribution, modal choices and trip assignment; see Figure 2.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Figure 2 — Use case clusters

This document defines urban mobility use cases and data interfaces with specifications so that central

and/or local mobility service providers are able to plan and operate mobility integration managements

based on their conventional transportation planning process. Examples include the delivery and

management of ITS services using big data collected by personal NDs in transportation networks, as

well as the use of smartphone apps for public transit modes and routes planning by traffic management

centres. See Figure 3 for the service framework architecture.
— The meaning of use cases presented in Figure 1 is explained in Table 1.
Figure 3 — Service framework architecture
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
6 Use cases overview and definitions
6.1 Use cases overview
6.1.1 Basic principles for use cases

The main purpose for adopting this document is modelling the urban mobility service platform with

the defined use cases, utilizing limited resources of transport means or modes more effectively within

a city transport network. The transport modes defined directly in this document include bus, shuttle

of 1 to 4 seater size or of 6 to 12 seater size, and service vehicles under ride hailing, car sharing, ride

sharing, etc. Other non-defined modes are considered indirectly in this document.

The urban mobility application services include the following groups of use cases.

— Trip generation: collection of trip demand or parcel delivery requests generated by NDs, and saving

of the trip and parcel delivery demand information in the centre.

— Network assignment: monitoring of the OD of user or parcel, and assignment of the network by

designating the core of trip OD according to zones to be clustered.

— Mode assignment: monitoring of mode (e.g. bus, shuttle) availability and assignment of route to the

available modes, then assignment of the transport modes for the users or parcels.

— Information and analysis: to guide user or parcel trip information and analyse and evaluate the

effectiveness of services.
6.1.2 Use cases clusters

Table 1 provides an overview of the different use case categories. The use cases are grouped into use

case clusters.
Table 1 — Use case clusters and associated use case overview
Title of use case cluster Brief description

1. Trip generation This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of trip generation for urban mobility

services. It includes 2 different use cases:
— UC 1.1 – Trip demand information input of user
— UC 1.2 – Delivery demand information input of parcel

2. Network assignment This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of network assignment for urban

mobility services. It includes 3 different use cases:
— UC 2.1 – OD monitoring
— UC 2.2 – Clustering core zones
— UC 2.3 – Network assignment

3. Mode assignment This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of mode assignment for urban mobili-

ty services. It includes 2 different use cases:
— UC 3.1 – Monitoring modal availability
— UC 3.2 – Mode assignment

4. Guidance and analysis This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of guidance and analysis for urban

mobility services. It includes 3 different use cases:
— UC 4.1 – User trip guidance
— UC 4.2 – Parcel delivery guidance
— UC 4.3 – Effectiveness analysis and evaluation
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
6.2 Use case definition
6.2.1 Use case cluster 1: Trip generation
6.2.1.1 UC 1.1: Trip demand information input of user

Table 2 shows use case 1.1, Trip demand information input of user, in order to collect the user’s real-

time trip demand information by NDs.
Table 2 — Definition of UC 1.1: Trip demand information input of user
Use case name Trip demand information input of user
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, user, service provider
Goal Collecting user’s trip demand information
Use case input Input user’s trip information by ND
Use case output Collecting user’s trip information to centre

Brief description In order to identify trip demand, trip demand information of users is input through NDs and

stored in a centre.
This information shall include:
— Trip demand generation identification
— Departure location and time
— Desired arrival time
Data required 1) User identification
2) User departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
3) User desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 3 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 1.1.
Table 3 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 1.1
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 User identification UTF8String M User ID
2 Departure latitude REAL M User’s departure latitude
3 Departure longitude REAL M User’s departure longitude

4 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

5 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
6 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival latitude
7 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.1.2 UC 1.2: Delivery demand information input of parcel

Table 4 shows use case 1.2, Delivery demand information input of parcel, in order to collect the parcel’s

real-time delivery demand information by NDs.
Table 4 — Definition of UC 1.2: Delivery demand information input of parcel
Use case name Delivery demand information input of parcel
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, sender, receiver, service provider
Goal Collecting parcel delivery demand information
Use case input Input parcel delivery information by ND
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Table 4 (continued)
Use case output Collecting parcel delivery information to centre

Brief description In order to identify delivery demand, delivery demand information of parcels is input through

NDs and stored in a centre.
This information shall include:
— Delivery demand generation identification
— Origin and destination location
— Delivery time to receive parcel
Data required 1) Parcel identification
2) Parcel departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
3) Parcel delivery desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 5 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 1.2.
Table 5 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 1.2
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 Parcel identification UTF8String M Parcel(Sender) ID
2 Departure latitude REAL M Parcel(sender)’s departure latitude
3 Departure longitude REAL M Parcel(sender)’s departure longitude

4 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

5 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
6 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival (receiver) latitude
7 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival (receiver) longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.2 Use case cluster 2: Network assignment
6.2.2.1 UC 2.1: OD monitoring

Table 6 shows use case 2.1, OD monitoring, in order to monitor the user’s real-time trip demand

information collected by NDs.
Table 6 — Definition of UC 2.1: OD monitoring
Use case name OD monitoring
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, user, sender, receiver, service provider
Goal Monitoring user’s origin and destination information
Use case input Request origin and destination information from users
Use case output Origin and destination information from users

Brief description The centre server monitors the urban mobility demand information based on the OD infor-

mation of trip and parcel delivery provided by the users.
This information shall include:
— Trip generation identification
— Origin and destination location
8 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Table 6 (continued)
Data required 1) Authorized key
2) User or parcel identification
3) User or parcel departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
4) User or parcel desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 7 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 2.1.
Table 7 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 2.1
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 Authorized key UTF8String M Access ID to OD database
2 User identification UTF8String M User identification, if applicable

3 Parcel identification UTF8String M Parcel(sender) identification, if applicable

4 Departure latitude REAL M Departure latitude of user or parcel
5 Departure longitude REAL M Departure longitude of user or parcel

6 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

7 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
8 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival latitude
9 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.2.2 UC 2.2: Clustering core zones

Table 8 shows use case 2.2, Clustering core zones, in order to group core zones by users’ mobility

demand, depending on destinations requested.
Table 8 — Definition of UC 2.2: Clustering core zones
Use case name Clustering core zones
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server
Goal Clustering core zones by grouping destinations requested by users
Use case input OD information provided by the users
Use case output Core zones clustered in the network

Brief description A group of core zones is clustered based on destinations chosen by users’ mobility demand,

where a zone is designated as smaller than a village area in cases with a higher amount of

demand than as usual.
This information shall include:
— OD database requested by the users
— Destination information
— Core zones clustered
Data required 1) Authorized Key
2) Arrival information (latitude/longitude)
3) Core zone information (latitude/longitude)
Table 9 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 2.2.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Table 9 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 2.2
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 Authorized key UTF8String M Access ID to OD database
2 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival latitude
3 Desired arri
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18561-1
First edition
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) —
Urban mobility applications via
nomadic device for green transport
management —
Part 1:
General requirements for data
exchange between ITS stations
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Document overview and structure .................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Personal ITS station ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.3 Vehicle ITS station .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.4 Central ITS station .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Overview of transport planning process .......................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Overview of use case clusters .................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Use cases overview and definitions .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Use cases overview .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1.1 Basic principles for use cases ............................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.2 Use cases clusters ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2 Use case definition ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Use case cluster 1: Trip generation .................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.2 Use case cluster 2: Network assignment ..................................................................................................... 8

6.2.3 Use case cluster 3: Mode assignment ..........................................................................................................11

6.2.4 Use case cluster 4: Guidance and analysis ..............................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO 18561 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The ISO 18561 series is intended to facilitate the development, promotion and standardization of the

use of nomadic and portable devices to support intelligent transport systems (ITS) service provision

and multimedia use, such as passenger information, automotive information, driver advisory and

warning systems and entertainment system interfaces to ITS service providers and motor vehicle

communication networks.

This document provides the application and specification for standardizing transportation management

as a form of ITS in urban transportation networks to improve eco-mobility and sustainability. This

document fosters the introduction of multimedia and telematics nomadic devices in the public

transport and automotive world. These ITS technologies can increase operational efficiencies and

unlock enhanced transportation safety and eco-mobility applications.

Via nomadic devices, the urban mobility applications build on existing transportation planning

processes, including trip generation, trip distribution and modal choices with respect to extended

measures of effectiveness (MOE) in transportation models, such as time effectiveness, cost effectiveness

and green(eco) effectiveness.

In this document, the nomadic device is presented as a personal ITS station in order to communicate

with the other stations, including vehicle, roadway infrastructures and centres for defining the

requirements for interfaces between the stations in urban mobility applications to accommodate the

specific needs of eco-mobility in a smart city.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Urban mobility
applications via nomadic device for green transport
management —
Part 1:
General requirements for data exchange between ITS
stations
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for providing mobility information according to user preference on

demand, utilizing a variety of existing applications on nomadic devices related to different means of

transport. This document defines an integrated mobility information platform as a service methodology

to be integrated with a variety of mobile apps with respect to different transport modes.

This document defines the following urban mobility applications:

— guidance documents to facilitate the practical implementation of identified standards in the

transportation planning process, including related use cases;

— provision of urban mobility information integrated with a variety of mobile apps on nomadic devices

by multiple transport modes for collecting trip production and attraction data;

— modal choice data based on time effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and eco-effectiveness in the trip

distribution from origins to destinations.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
nomadic device

implementation of a personal ITS station (3.1.2) which provides communication connectivity via

equipment such as cellular telephones, mobile wireless broadband (WIMAX, HC-SDMA, etc.) or WiFi,

and includes short range links, such as Bluetooth or Zigbee to connect portable devices to the motor

vehicle communications system network
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
3.1.2
personal ITS station
P-ITS-S
implementation of an ITS station in a personal ITS subsystem
3.1.3
roadside ITS station
R-ITS-S

system installed at the road side that receives and processes vehicular and pedestrian information

within a certain zone and determines the situation in order to provide safety warnings and parking

guidance to vehicles and pedestrians
3.1.4
green ITS
G-ITS

a new-concept transportation system, expected to arise following the paradigm shift towards eco-

friendly, low-carbon green growth in the transportation sector, as global policies

3.1.5
eco-mobility

ecological transport systems and services based on eco-vehicles and their related facilities

3.1.6
central ITS station
ITS station assuming a central role
3.2 Abbreviated terms
MOE measure of effectiveness
WiFi wireless fidelity
WIMAX worldwide interoperability for microwave access
HC-SDMA high capacity spatial division multiple access
OD origin - destination
4 Document overview and structure

The ISO 18561 series provides details of all documents and references required to support the

application of conventional transportation planning processes in transportation management with

respect to eco-effective measures to improve urban mobility by utilizing the data collected by NDs. The

ISO 18561 series is comprised of the following documents.

— Part 1 (this document): General requirements for data exchange between ITS stations

This part specifies the general requirements of data exchanges between ITS stations collected by

NDs in urban mobility applications based on the structure along with the use cases definition and

common set of resources (definitions, references) in green transportation management.

— Part 2 : Trip and modal choice applications and specification

This part specifies all technical requirements related to the trip and modal choice applications for

the transportation planning process in green transportation management utilizing NDs to be used

on the personal ITS station and to be interfaced with a central ITS station, vehicle ITS station and

roadside ITS station.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/CD 18561-2:2020.
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
— Part 3 : Mobility integration service applications using hybrid V2X

This part specifies not only the mobility-as-a-service applications functioning in connection

with multiple transportation modes, but also the safety enhancement services using hybrid V2X

including dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and cellular V2X.
5 Overview
5.1 Purpose
5.1.1 General
This document addresses two major areas:

— identifying the method for describing the general information for all subjects and use cases related

to green transport management services according to the transportation planning process in urban

mobility utilizing NDs; and

— identifying the general requirements of data exchanges utilizing NDs as the personal ITS station

interfaced with the central ITS station, vehicle ITS station, and roadside ITS station.

5.1.2 Personal ITS station

Smart mobility services on demand by the user preference to be an integrated app on mobile devices

utilizing personalized data with respect to trip distance, trip schedule, personal eco mileages, weather,

etc. by means of different transport modes.
5.1.3 Vehicle ITS station

Vehicle information to be utilized by users as a mobility service, which includes electric passenger

vehicles, public transport with bus and/or metro, shared mobility with car sharing, ride sharing, bike

sharing, etc.
5.1.4 Central ITS station

Transportation management services to be provided to users as a variety of service apps on mobile

devices by national authorities, local municipalities and/or private companies for eco-mobility

management and information such as carbon free zones, electric vehicles, etc.
5.2 Overview of transport planning process

Conceptual aspects of the general process for four step transportation planning and modelling are

illustrated in Figure 1.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/PWI 18561-3:2020.
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Figure 1 — General form of four step transportation planning and modelling

Trip generation as the first stage of the classical transportation demand planning and modelling is the

analysis and model building phase in the conventional transportation planning process. It is a general

term used in the transportation planning process to cover the number of trip ends in given areas. Trip

generation is classified in production and attraction. Production from an origin means number of trip

ends which have originated in a given zone, i.e. zone-i. Attraction to a destination means number of trip

ends attracted to another zone, such as zone-j.

The decision to travel for a given purpose is called trip generation. The decision to choose a destination

from an origin is called directional distribution of trips. This forms the second stage of travel demand

modelling in the transportation planning process. Trip distribution is determined by the number of trip

ends originated in zone-i to the number of trip ends attracted to zone-j, which can be understood by the

matrix between zones, i.e. the origin - destination (OD) matrix.

The third stage in travel demand modelling is modal split, which is determined by the number of trips

by individuals processed by the different modes of travel. Modal split of travel demand modelling is

used to distribute the total travel demand into two or more mode categories, including public transport

riders and personal and/or private vehicle riders. The demand can be split into different modes with

respect to the socio-economic demand variables used to explain mode choice behaviour, including

income, vehicle ownership, household size, residence location, etc. The supply variables are in vehicle

time, waiting time, travel time, travel cost, transfer time, etc.

Trip assignment is the fourth and final phase of the four-step transportation planning process.

Travellers choose the route which will take the minimum travel time and minimum travel distance

dependent on the traffic volume on the road.
5.3 Overview of use case clusters

Urban mobility applications provide individual users with mobility information services according to

user preference on demand, recognized by NDs via personal OD trip data, which come up with network

OD matrix databases. The use cases for urban mobility applications are categorized as trip generation,

network assignment, mode assignment, and information and analysis, based on a similar pattern of

conventional four step transportation planning and modelling process, including trip generation, trip

distribution, modal choices and trip assignment; see Figure 2.
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
Figure 2 — Use case clusters

This document defines urban mobility use cases and data interfaces with specifications so that central

and/or local mobility service providers are able to plan and operate mobility integration managements

based on their conventional transportation planning process. Examples include the delivery and

management of ITS services using big data collected by personal NDs in transportation networks, as

well as the use of smartphone apps for public transit modes and routes planning by traffic management

centres. See Figure 3 for the service framework architecture.
— The meaning of use cases presented in Figure 1 is explained in Table 1.
Figure 3 — Service framework architecture
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
6 Use cases overview and definitions
6.1 Use cases overview
6.1.1 Basic principles for use cases

The main purpose for adopting this document is modelling the urban mobility service platform with

the defined use cases, utilizing limited resources of transport means or modes more effectively within

a city transport network. The transport modes defined directly in this document include bus, shuttle

of 1 to 4 seater size or of 6 to 12 seater size, and service vehicles under ride hailing, car sharing, ride

sharing, etc. Other non-defined modes are considered indirectly in this document.

The urban mobility application services include the following groups of use cases.

— Trip generation: collection of trip demand or parcel delivery requests generated by NDs, and saving

of the trip and parcel delivery demand information in the centre.

— Network assignment: monitoring of the OD of user or parcel, and assignment of the network by

designating the core of trip OD according to zones to be clustered.

— Mode assignment: monitoring of mode (e.g. bus, shuttle) availability and assignment of route to the

available modes, then assignment of the transport modes for the users or parcels.

— Information and analysis: to guide user or parcel trip information and analyse and evaluate the

effectiveness of services.
6.1.2 Use cases clusters

Table 1 provides an overview of the different use case categories. The use cases are grouped into use

case clusters.
Table 1 — Use case clusters and associated use case overview
Title of use case cluster Brief description

1. Trip generation This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of trip generation for urban mobility

services. It includes 2 different use cases:
— UC 1.1 – Trip demand information input of user
— UC 1.2 – Delivery demand information input of parcel

2. Network assignment This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of network assignment for urban

mobility services. It includes 3 different use cases:
— UC 2.1 – OD monitoring
— UC 2.2 – Clustering core zones
— UC 2.3 – Network assignment

3. Mode assignment This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of mode assignment for urban mobili-

ty services. It includes 2 different use cases:
— UC 3.1 – Monitoring modal availability
— UC 3.2 – Mode assignment

4. Guidance and analysis This cluster specifies the detailed use cases of guidance and analysis for urban

mobility services. It includes 3 different use cases:
— UC 4.1 – User trip guidance
— UC 4.2 – Parcel delivery guidance
— UC 4.3 – Effectiveness analysis and evaluation
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ISO 18561-1:2020(E)
6.2 Use case definition
6.2.1 Use case cluster 1: Trip generation
6.2.1.1 UC 1.1: Trip demand information input of user

Table 2 shows use case 1.1, Trip demand information input of user, in order to collect the user’s real-

time trip demand information by NDs.
Table 2 — Definition of UC 1.1: Trip demand information input of user
Use case name Trip demand information input of user
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, user, service provider
Goal Collecting user’s trip demand information
Use case input Input user’s trip information by ND
Use case output Collecting user’s trip information to centre

Brief description In order to identify trip demand, trip demand information of users is input through NDs and

stored in a centre.
This information shall include:
— Trip demand generation identification
— Departure location and time
— Desired arrival time
Data required 1) User identification
2) User departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
3) User desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 3 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 1.1.
Table 3 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 1.1
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 User identification UTF8String M User ID
2 Departure latitude REAL M User’s departure latitude
3 Departure longitude REAL M User’s departure longitude

4 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

5 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
6 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival latitude
7 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.1.2 UC 1.2: Delivery demand information input of parcel

Table 4 shows use case 1.2, Delivery demand information input of parcel, in order to collect the parcel’s

real-time delivery demand information by NDs.
Table 4 — Definition of UC 1.2: Delivery demand information input of parcel
Use case name Delivery demand information input of parcel
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, sender, receiver, service provider
Goal Collecting parcel delivery demand information
Use case input Input parcel delivery information by ND
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Table 4 (continued)
Use case output Collecting parcel delivery information to centre

Brief description In order to identify delivery demand, delivery demand information of parcels is input through

NDs and stored in a centre.
This information shall include:
— Delivery demand generation identification
— Origin and destination location
— Delivery time to receive parcel
Data required 1) Parcel identification
2) Parcel departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
3) Parcel delivery desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 5 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 1.2.
Table 5 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 1.2
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 Parcel identification UTF8String M Parcel(Sender) ID
2 Departure latitude REAL M Parcel(sender)’s departure latitude
3 Departure longitude REAL M Parcel(sender)’s departure longitude

4 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

5 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
6 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival (receiver) latitude
7 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival (receiver) longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.2 Use case cluster 2: Network assignment
6.2.2.1 UC 2.1: OD monitoring

Table 6 shows use case 2.1, OD monitoring, in order to monitor the user’s real-time trip demand

information collected by NDs.
Table 6 — Definition of UC 2.1: OD monitoring
Use case name OD monitoring
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server, user, sender, receiver, service provider
Goal Monitoring user’s origin and destination information
Use case input Request origin and destination information from users
Use case output Origin and destination information from users

Brief description The centre server monitors the urban mobility demand information based on the OD infor-

mation of trip and parcel delivery provided by the users.
This information shall include:
— Trip generation identification
— Origin and destination location
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Table 6 (continued)
Data required 1) Authorized key
2) User or parcel identification
3) User or parcel departure information (latitude/longitude, time)
4) User or parcel desired arrival information (latitude/longitude, time)
Table 7 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 2.1.
Table 7 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 2.1
No. Name Data type (Unit) M/O Description
1 Authorized key UTF8String M Access ID to OD database
2 User identification UTF8String M User identification, if applicable

3 Parcel identification UTF8String M Parcel(sender) identification, if applicable

4 Departure latitude REAL M Departure latitude of user or parcel
5 Departure longitude REAL M Departure longitude of user or parcel

6 Desired departure time GeneralizedTime M Desired departure time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS

7 Desired arrival time GeneralizedTime M Desired arrival time, YYYYMMDDHH24MISS
8 Desired arrival latitude REAL M Desired arrival latitude
9 Desired arrival longitude REAL M Desired arrival longitude
M = Mandatory, O = Optional.
6.2.2.2 UC 2.2: Clustering core zones

Table 8 shows use case 2.2, Clustering core zones, in order to group core zones by users’ mobility

demand, depending on destinations requested.
Table 8 — Definition of UC 2.2: Clustering core zones
Use case name Clustering core zones
Actor Centre, ND, cloud server
Goal Clustering core zones by grouping destinations requested by users
Use case input OD information provided by the users
Use case output Core zones clustered in the network

Brief description A group of core zones is clustered based on destinations chosen by users’ mobility demand,

where a zone is designated as smaller than a village area in cases with a higher amount of

demand than as usual.
This information shall include:
— OD database requested by the users
— Destination information
— Core zones clustered
Data required 1) Authorized Key
2) Arrival information (latitude/longitude)
3) Core zone information (latitude/longitude)
Table 9 shows the size and description of the dataset required for use case 2.2.
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Table 9 — Size and description of dataset required for use case 2
...

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