Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Bar code verifier conformance specification

ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005 defines test methods and minimum accuracy criteria applicable to verifiers using the methodologies of ISO/IEC 15415 for multi-row bar code symbols and two-dimensional matrix symbologies, and specifies reference calibration standards against which these should be tested. It provides for testing of representative samples of the equipment. ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005 is intended to be similar in technical content (mutatis mutandis) to the linear bar code verifier conformance standard, ISO/IEC 15426-1, on which it has been based. It is to be read in conjunction with the symbology specification applicable to the bar code symbol being tested, which provides symbology-specific detail necessary for its application.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture des données -- Spécifications de conformité des vérificateurs de codes à barres

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
20-Mar-2005
Withdrawal Date
20-Mar-2005
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
18-Feb-2005
Completion Date
21-Mar-2005
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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005 - Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Bar code verifier conformance specification
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15426-2
First edition
2005-03-15
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — Bar code verifier
conformance specification —
Part 2:
Two-dimensional symbols
Technologies de l'information — Techniques d'identification
automatique et de capture de données — Spécifications de conformité
des vérificateurs de codes à barres —
Partie 2: Symboles bidimensionnels
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
ISO/IEC 2005
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
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ii © ISO/IEC 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Functional requirements ...................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 General requirements ........................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Reflectance calibration......................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Mandatory functions............................................................................................................................. 3

6.3.1 Verifiers for multi-row bar code symbols........................................................................................... 3

6.3.2 Verifiers for two-dimensional matrix symbols................................................................................... 3

6.4 Optional functions ................................................................................................................................ 4

7 General constructional and operational requirements ..................................................................... 4

7.1 Installation, operation and maintenance ............................................................................................ 4

7.2 Power supply......................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Temperature .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3.1 Operating temperature range............................................................................................................... 4

7.3.2 Storage temperature range .................................................................................................................. 4

7.4 Humidity................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.5 Ambient light immunity ........................................................................................................................ 5

8 Test requirements ................................................................................................................................. 5

8.1 Test methods......................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1.1 Selection of equipment for testing...................................................................................................... 5

8.1.2 Scanning parameters............................................................................................................................ 5

8.1.3 Test measurements .............................................................................................................................. 5

8.2 Test environment .................................................................................................................................. 5

8.3 Primary reference test symbols .......................................................................................................... 5

8.4 Test report.............................................................................................................................................. 6

9 Certification and labelling .................................................................................................................... 7

10 Equipment specification....................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (normative) Primary reference test symbols ................................................................................... 8

Annex B (normative) Verification requirements for primary reference test symbols ............................... 13

© ISO/IEC 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 15426-2 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

ISO/IEC 15426 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Automatic

identification and data capture techniques — Bar code verifier conformance specification:

— Part 1: Linear symbols
— Part 2: Two-dimensional symbols
iv © ISO/IEC 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
Introduction

The technology of bar coding is based on the recognition of patterns encoded, in bars and spaces or in a

matrix of modules of defined dimensions, according to rules defining the translation of characters into such

patterns, known as the symbology specification. Symbology specifications may be categorised into linear

symbols, on the one hand, and two-dimensional symbols on the other; the latter may in turn be sub-divided

into «multi-row bar codes» sometimes referred to as «stacked bar codes», and «two-dimensional matrix

codes».

Multi-row bar codes are constructed graphically as a series of rows of symbol characters, representing data

and overhead components, placed in a defined vertical arrangement to form a (normally) rectangular symbol,

which contains a single data message. Each row of the symbol has the characteristics of a linear bar code

symbol and may be read by linear symbol scanning techniques.

Two-dimensional matrix symbols are usually rectangular arrangements of modules placed at the intersections

of a grid of two (sometimes more) axes; the coordinates of each module need to be known in order to

determine its significance, and the symbol must therefore be analysed two-dimensionally before it can be

decoded.

Unless the context requires otherwise, the term «symbol» in this part of ISO/IEC 15426 may refer to either

type of symbology.

The symbol, as a machine-readable data carrier, must be produced in such a way as to be reliably decoded at

the point of use, if it is to fulfil its basic objective. Standard methodologies have been developed for measuring

and assessing the quality of symbols for process control and quality assurance purposes during symbol

production as well as afterwards.

Manufacturers of bar code equipment, the producers of bar code symbols and the users of bar code

technology require publicly available standard conformance specifications for measuring equipment applying

these methodologies, to ensure the accuracy and consistency of performance of this equipment.

This part of ISO/IEC 15426 is intended to be similar in technical content (mutatis mutandis) to the linear bar

code verifier conformance standard, ISO/IEC 15426-1, on which it has been based. It should be read in

conjunction with the symbology specification applicable to the bar code symbol being tested, which provides

symbology-specific detail necessary for its application.
© ISO/IEC 2005 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and data
capture techniques — Bar code verifier conformance
specification —
Part 2:
Two-dimensional symbols
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 15426 defines test methods and minimum accuracy criteria applicable to verifiers using

the methodologies of ISO/IEC 15415 for multi-row bar code symbols and two-dimensional matrix symbologies,

and specifies reference calibration standards against which these should be tested. This part of

ISO/IEC 15426 provides for testing of representative samples of the equipment.
NOTE ISO/IEC 15426-1 applies to verifiers for linear bar code symbols.
2 Conformance

The instrument shall be considered to conform with this part of ISO/IEC 15426 if it performs the functions

defined in 6.3 and if the results of measurements of primary reference test symbols carried out in accordance

with Clause 8 demonstrate that the arithmetic means of the ten measurements (for multi-row bar code

symbols) or five measurements (for two-dimensional matrix symbols) of individual reported parameters are

within the tolerances shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1 — Tolerances for measured parameter values
Parameter Symbology type Tolerance
R and/or R Both
± 5 % reflectance
max s
R and/or R
Both ± 3 % reflectance
min b
UEC Both
± 0,0
Decodability Multi-row
± 0,08
Defects Multi-row ± 0,08
Codeword Yield Multi-row ± 0,08
Grid Nonuniformity Matrix
± 0,06
Modulation Matrix ± 0,08 of the value
measured for the
reduced dark widow on a
calibrated test symbol
card
Fixed Pattern Damage Matrix Within calibrated grade
boundaries

NOTE The tolerances in Table 1 are additional to any tolerances stated by the supplier of the primary reference test

symbols.
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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2859-1:1999, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by

acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
ISO 9001:2000, Quality management systems — Requirements

ISO/IEC 15415, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

print quality test specification — Two-dimensional symbols

ISO/IEC 15416, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

print quality test specification — Linear symbols

ISO/IEC 15438, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

symbology specifications — PDF417

ISO/IEC 16022, Information technology — International symbology specification — Data Matrix

ISO/IEC 19762 (all parts), Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC)

techniques — Harmonized vocabulary

ISO/IEC 18004, Information technology —Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

symbology — QR Code
4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 15415, ISO/IEC 19762 (all

parts) and the following apply.
4.1
primary reference test symbol

bar code symbol intended for the testing of the accuracy of bar code verifiers and manufactured to close

tolerances, of at least ten times the precision listed in Table 1, by methods traceable to national standards

5 Symbols
R Bar Reflectance, as defined in ISO/IEC 15416
R Maximum reflectance, as defined in ISO/IEC 15416
max
R Minimum reflectance, as defined in ISO/IEC 15416
min
R Space Reflectance, as defined in ISO/IEC 15416
6 Functional requirements
6.1 General requirements

The general requirement of a two-dimensional symbol verifier is that it shall provide assessments of the

quality of a bar code symbol which are accurate and consistent, both in relation to measurements of a specific

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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)

symbol made with the same instrument over a period of time and in relation to measurements of a specific

symbol made by different instruments. Such consistency is essential to enable valid comparisons to be made

of assessments of a symbol verified at two different times or on two different instruments.

6.2 Reflectance calibration

Verifiers shall have means of calibration and adjustment where necessary of reflectance values against

reference reflectance calibration samples. Two calibration points should be used, one as near the high

reflectance end of the range and the other as near the low reflectance end of the range as possible.

ISO/IEC 15415 defines the reference reflectance material against which these samples shall be calibrated.

6.3 Mandatory functions
6.3.1 Verifiers for multi-row bar code symbols

A verifier for multi-row bar code symbols applying the methodology defined in ISO/IEC 15415 shall be capable

of:

 collecting reflectance measurements from points along multiple scan paths across a bar code symbol;

 establishing scan reflectance profiles from these measurements;
 analysing the scan reflectance profiles;

 reporting individual scan reflectance profile parameter grades and profile grades;

 reporting the Codeword Yield value and grade;
 reporting the Unused Error Correction value and grade;
 determining and reporting an overall symbol grade;
 reporting the decoded data.
6.3.2 Verifiers for two-dimensional matrix symbols

A verifier for two-dimensional matrix symbols applying the methodology defined in ISO/IEC 15415 shall be

capable of:

 collecting reflectance measurements from a sample area framing the test symbol and its quiet zones,

extending for certain symbol sizes 20X beyond the quiet zones (see Clause 10);

 establishing a reference grey-scale image and a binarised image as described in ISO/IEC 15415;

 decoding these images in accordance with the applicable reference decode algorithm;

 reporting individual values and grades for each of the parameters listed in ISO/IEC 15415;

 determining and reporting an overall symbol grade;

 appending an asterisk to the reported overall symbol grade, for certain symbol sizes, under the additional

reflectance check provisions of ISO/IEC 15415;
 reporting the decoded data.

The method of reporting is not specified but may be by means of, for example, a display screen in the

instrument, a printed report, or electronic communication with another device such as a computer.

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ISO/IEC 15426-2:2005(E)
6.4 Optional functions

Users of verifiers have differing requirements for the amount of detail reported by the instrument, and a verifier

may therefore perform additional functions, for example:

 reporting of number of scan reflectance profiles or images on which the overall symbol grade is based;

 reporting of print growth in one or both axes;
 reporting of symbology verified;
 reporting all decoded symbol characters or codewords;

 print-out or display of all or, at the user’s option, selected scan reflectance profiles or images.

7 General constructional and operational requirements
7.1 Installation, operation and maintenance

The manufacturer shall specify in documentation provided for or available to the installer, user and maintainer

of the equipment the conditions for installation, operation and maintenance of the equipment. These

documents shall indicate the recommended extent and frequency of maintenance, if any. When equipment

which is the subject of this part of ISO/IEC 15426
...

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