Smart community infrastructures — Urban data integration framework for smart city planning (SCP)

This document establishes a data framework that involves possible multi-source common data through standardized data integration and sharing mechanisms. It includes recommendations for: — precision, dimensions of the data, data collection, updates and storing mechanisms; — a data model for data integration, data standardization and data fusion approaches for heterogeneous smart city infrastructure data; — a data security level and sharable attributes for all involved data, principles on data sharing or exchange. This document focuses on the integration and application of heterogeneous data from urban infrastructure systems, such as water, transport, energy, drainage and waste, so as to support smart city planning (SCP). It contains case studies, in Annex A, of various smart city projects.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre d'intégration des données urbaines pour la planification des villes intelligentes

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Published
Publication Date
27-Feb-2022
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5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Completion Date
14-Jan-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37166
First edition
2022-02
Smart community infrastructures —
Urban data integration framework for
smart city planning (SCP)
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre d'intégration des
données urbaines pour la planification des villes intelligentes
Reference number
ISO 37166:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1.2 Data availability .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.3 Sovereignty over the data .......................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Data security .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.5 Data privacy ........................................................................................................................................... ................................. 3

4.1.6 Co-construction and sharing ................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Principles of heterogeneous data integration ............................................................................................................ 4

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.2 Unambiguity ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Scalability ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2.4 Compatibility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.5 Modularity ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Data quality recommendations ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Data of SCP on community infrastructure ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Usage of community infrastructure data ....................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Construction project life cycle ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Urban simulation ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.3 Smart transportation ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Smart grid ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.5 Smart environmental sanitation .......................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Smart city planning (SCP) data ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Community infrastructure data .......................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.2 Data definition ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.3 Source of heterogeneous planning data .....................................................................................................13

6 SCP data integration framework .....................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Integration subjects ........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Integration objects ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.4 Integration process ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.5 Integration results ........................................................................................................................................................................... 14

7 SCP data integration ........................................................................................................................................... ...........................................15

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

7.2 Data model and description specification ................................................................................................................... 15

7.3 Data extraction and system exchange ............................................................................................................................ 16

7.4 Data quality verification ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

7.5 Data encoding or mapping specification ...................................................................................................................... 16

7.6 Smart community infrastructure data entities ..................................................................................................... 16

7.7 Heterogeneous data integration .......................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8 Date management recommendations ............................................................................................................................. 18

7.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8.2 Data exchange and sharing .................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8.3 Data exchange and sharing security .............................................................................................................. 18

iii
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---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)

8 Management of security and privacy ..........................................................................................................................................18

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

8.2 Data security level and protection principles .......................................................................................................... 19

8.3 Technical advice for data security ..................................................................................................................................... 19

8.4 Life cycle safety of data ................................................................................................................................................................ 19

8.5 System security protection ......................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Case studies ..................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)
Introduction

The city is a product of social evolution, technology, economic and social civilization improvements, as

well as a fundamental unit for the social and economic life of its region. However, with the influence of

global urbanization, increasingly more problems have been observed, such as environmental pollution,

traffic congestion, insufficient resources and urban lifeline system weakness.

Urban planning refers to the conduct of engineering construction, economy, society, environment and

land use of the city and its surroundings. It involves the regional layout of industry, the regional layout

of buildings, the setting of transportation infrastructure and the planning of urban engineering. It is

related to urban development and city infrastructure construction.

The planning, construction, operation, management and evaluation of community infrastructure is

the process of natural environment transformation. This process involves multiple city managers and

various data. Therefore, the integration of heterogeneous data for smart community infrastructure

planning is particularly important. Based on ecological and spatial information, the smart city planning

(SCP) data and infrastructure data that need to be integrated should be analysed. The establishment of

a data integration framework and further realization of heterogeneous data integration is intended to

support the operation of community infrastructure construction projects throughout their life cycles

and ultimately achieve inclusive, sustainable and high-quality development of the city.

In terms of smart community infrastructure, ISO/TS 37151 describes the principles and requirements

of performance metrics. ISO/TR 37152 gives possible issues and solutions in developing and operating

smart community infrastructure, outline and benefits of a common framework for development and

operation. In addition, BS/PAS 183 provides data interoperability, types of data, data protection reform,

data value chain, purposes for data use, assessing data states, access rights for data and data structure.

ISO/TS 37151, ISO/TR 37152 and BS/PAS 183 provide the basis and guidance for ISO 37156, which

describes the types and model, opportunities, privacy and security of data exchange and sharing,

and provides guidance for data exchange and sharing of smart community infrastructure. ISO 37156

provides guidance for the integration of infrastructure data in this document, and this document is

considered to be an application scenery of ISO 37156 in data integration.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37166:2022(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Urban data
integration framework for smart city planning (SCP)
1 Scope

This document establishes a data framework that involves possible multi-source common data through

standardized data integration and sharing mechanisms. It includes recommendations for:

— precision, dimensions of the data, data collection, updates and storing mechanisms;

— a data model for data integration, data standardization and data fusion approaches for heterogeneous

smart city infrastructure data;

— a data security level and sharable attributes for all involved data, principles on data sharing or

exchange.

This document focuses on the integration and application of heterogeneous data from urban

infrastructure systems, such as water, transport, energy, drainage and waste, so as to support smart

city planning (SCP). It contains case studies, in Annex A, of various smart city projects.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
data

reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication,

interpretation or processing
Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by humans or by automatic means.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121272]
3.2
data availability
property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.7, modified — term revised.]
3.3
data exchange
accessing, transferring, and archiving of data (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 13399-5:2014, 3.7, modified — definition revised.]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37166:2022(E)
3.4
data sharing

reference for providing shared, exchangeable and extensible data (3.1) to enable urban infrastructure

service
[SOURCE: ISO 37156:2020, 3.3.6, modified — definition revised.]
3.5
data type

defined set of data (3.1) objects of a specified data structure and a set of permissible operations, such

that these data (3.1) objects act as operands in the execution of any one of these operations

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20546:2019, 3.1.12, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.6
heterogeneous data integration

optimization method to enable effective and transformative use of data and technology from multi-

source to support sustainable development of cities and to improve the management and control of

space and resources
3.7
information
data (3.1) in context with a particular meaning
[SOURCE: ISO5127: 2017, 3.1.1.16, modified — definition revised.]
3.8
information resource
asset
record

document or item in physical or digital form that contributes to human knowledge

EXAMPLE Abstracting and indexing database.

Note 1 to entry: Information resource sometimes has a broader meaning, including information content, and also

technology resources, human resources and financial resources that enable information content management.

[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.1.44; modified — definition revised and Note 2 to entry added.]

3.9
life cycle

evolution from conception through

to destruction or recycling
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.23, modified — definition revised.]
3.10
security

condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a

state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences
[SOURCE: IEC Guide 120:2018, 3.13]
3.11
smart community infrastructure

community infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated and

maintained to contributed to sustainable development and resilience of the community

[SOURCE: ISO 37156:2020, 3.1.4]
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37166:2022(E)
3.12
smart city planning
SCP

technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built

environment, which are enhanced by the effective and sustainable integration of informational,

physical and social systems and the transformative use of heterogeneous data and technology

3.13
system

set of interrelated or interacting functions constituted to achieve a specified objective

4 Principles
4.1 General
4.1.1 General

The data gathered and to be integrated for SCP should meet some general principles so as to ensure the

validity of the following data integration process.
4.1.2 Data availability

The data to be integrated for SCP comes from various sources, some of which are private and classified

prior to any data-sharing agreements. Thus, the description of shared data in terms of, for example,

attributes, dimensions and volumes should be available to associated integration subjects (described

in 6.2), so as to determine whether the shared data are truly available for the intended data integration

purpose.
4.1.3 Sovereignty over the data

The ownership of the source data needs to be respected during the whole data integration process

among associated stakeholders.
4.1.4 Data security

The data to be integrated for SCP should be secured during the data integration process, from data

retrieval, data clean, data storage and data output.

Regional and national security requirements such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation shall

be considered. Based on ISO/IEC 27000, considering domestic regulations and technological conditions,

an information security management systems (ISMS) or alternative necessary data security procedure

and tools should be introduced to deter possible hacker attacks and other misapplication.

The data exchange should therefore be kept to a minimum and a low level of detail. Security-relevant

data for planning, constructing, operating and managing of infrastructures should basically remain

with the data-collecting organization, ordinarily the utilities.
4.1.5 Data privacy

The data from community infrastructure to be integrated for SCP usually contains private information,

from individual socio-economic characteristics to spatial-temporal behavioural data. Integrating

and further analysing these individual-based data help to evaluate and optimize urban system

performances. But individual privacy should be respected.

The use of source data during the whole integration process should be kept on an anonymous basis. The

integration of individual data, for example consumer consumption data, should be pre-desensitized,

without personal information being exposed to either data integration engineers or terminal users.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37166:2022(E)
4.1.6 Co-construction and sharing

It is possible that an intended data integration requires data from different agencies or stakeholders.

It is recommended that the necessary data are co-constructed and shared among them on a voluntary

basis. In addition, the integration results should be shared with contributors.
4.2 Principles of heterogeneous data integration
4.2.1 General

In practice, the multi-source data used for data integration varies in format, dimensions, accuracy and

durability. Although data integration approaches are evolving with more recognition or explanation

power, it is not usually encouraged to spend huge amounts on retrieving missing data. Depending on

the availability and intended use of data, it is recommended that the data integration framework applies

the following principles of heterogeneous data integration.
4.2.2 Unambiguity

The definitions and categorizations of entities should be clear where reasonably possible and available.

Categorization should be representative and mutually exclusive.
4.2.3 Scalability

Urban data integration requirements and process are continuously updating. The integrated data need

not be thoroughly completed and comprehensive in the beginning, but it is recommended that the

integration results are flexible and scalable.
4.2.4 Compatibility

Data standards applied in the data integration framework shall be compatible with existing major

urban data standards.
4.2.5 Modularity

It is recommended that data integration input, output and approaches or algorithms are defined as

modular components, so as to be used individually or in combination for different integration purposes.

In addition to unambiguity, scalability, compatibility and modularity, the urban data integration

framework should also have extensibility and interpretability. Maintaining a high level of

interpretability is vital during the integration process as the goal is to support the urban design and

operational decisions by municipal officials, policymakers and engineer technical staff. A useful urban

data integration framework should be capable of integrating heterogeneous data in an extensible (to

multiple urban systems), scalable (to the growing amounts of quickly changing urban data streams)

and interpretable manner (such that it can inform decision-making).
4.3 Data quality recommendations

On the basis of ISO 19157, the following recommendations are dependent on the intended use of

data. For example, zonal plans can be acceptable with a tolerance of several metres but plans for

individual buildings might require an absolute positional accuracy of a few centimetres. The quality

recommendation of a variety of planning data database results should ensure locational accuracy,

attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, geographic quality and data relationality as far as

the data are available and it is even possible to determine such data.

a) Locational accuracy. It is recommended that the location given in the data satisfies data requirement

in terms of geographic accuracy.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 37166:2022(E)

b) Attribute accuracy. It is recommended that attribute values given in the data match the actual

values in the real world to the extent required by the expected use. For example, no building should

be classified as a pavement, but it can sometimes matter less if a building is classified as residential

when it is in fact partly commercial.

c) Completeness. It is recommended that the number of missing or excess data items in the data set,

in comparison to the real world, are suitable for the intended use. For example, all planning data

should contain exactly the same number of plans as actually exist, but it might not be too important

if a zonal plan contains slightly more or fewer building features.

d) Logical consistency. It is recommended that the data are logically consistent with the requirements,

in terms of concept consistency, value domain consistency and topology consistency. For example,

no plan should be described as agreed if it is only proposed; it is unlikely that a road would not have

a postal address.

e) Geographic quality. It is recommended that the geometry of the data conveys the actual data

correctly. For example, buildings are defined as polygons instead of a point when the intended

use is to correlate retail shops with a metro station spatially; the boundaries of adjacent polygon

entities coincide.

f) Data relationality. It is recommended that entities being referenced by different data sources

are mapped and related to other entities through the data model defined in the data integration

framework.

It is also noteworthy that low-quality data can still be relevant and used to identify or understand the

urban environment and phenomena that are poorly documented, but high-quality data allows for more

accurate decision-making.
5 Data of SCP on community infrastructure
5.1 General

Community infrastructure is the fundamental safeguard for residents’ lives and city development.

It incorporates various equipment and systems which are utilized for economic and social activities.

Urban infrastructure is still promoting living and economic development, but its impact on ecosystems

cannot be ignored. Technology conditions
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 37166
ISO/TC 268/SC 1
Smart community infrastructures —
Secretariat: JISC
Urban data integration framework for
Voting begins on:
2021-11-18 smart city planning (SCP)
Voting terminates on:
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre d'intégration des
2022-01-13
données urbaines pour la planification des villes intelligentes
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1.2 Data availability .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.3 Sovereignty over the data .......................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Data security .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.5 Data privacy ........................................................................................................................................... ................................. 3

4.1.6 Co-construction and sharing ................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Principles of heterogeneous data integration ............................................................................................................ 4

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.2 Unambiguity ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Scalability ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2.4 Compatibility ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.5 Modularity ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Data quality recommendations ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Data of SCP on community infrastructure ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Usage of community infrastructure data ....................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Construction project life cycle ............................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Urban simulation ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.3 Smart transportation ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Smart grid ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.5 Smart environmental sanitation .......................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Smart city planning (SCP) data ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Community infrastructure data .......................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.2 Data definition ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.4.3 Source of heterogeneous planning data ..................................................................................................... 13

6 SCP data integration framework .....................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Integration subjects ........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3 Integration objects ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.4 Integration process ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.5 Integration results ........................................................................................................................................................................... 14

7 SCP data integration ........................................................................................................................................... ...........................................15

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

7.2 Data model and description specification ................................................................................................................... 15

7.3 Data extraction and system exchange ............................................................................................................................ 16

7.4 Data quality verification ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

7.5 Data encoding or mapping specification ...................................................................................................................... 16

7.6 Smart community infrastructure data entities ..................................................................................................... 16

7.7 Heterogeneous data integration .......................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8 Date management recommendations ............................................................................................................................. 18

7.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8.2 Data exchange and sharing .................................................................................................................................... 18

7.8.3 Data exchange and sharing security .............................................................................................................. 18

iii
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)

8 Management of security and privacy ..........................................................................................................................................18

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

8.2 Data security level and protection principles .......................................................................................................... 19

8.3 Technical advice for data security ..................................................................................................................................... 19

8.4 Life cycle safety of data ................................................................................................................................................................ 19

8.5 System security protection ......................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Case studies ..................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
Introduction

The city is a product of social evolution, technology, economic and social civilization improvements, as

well as a fundamental unit for the social and economic life of its region. However, with the influence of

global urbanization, increasingly more problems have been observed, such as environmental pollution,

traffic congestion, insufficient resources and urban lifeline system weakness.

Urban planning refers to the conduct of engineering construction, economy, society, environment and

land use of the city and its surroundings. It involves the regional layout of industry, the regional layout

of buildings, the setting of transportation infrastructure and the planning of urban engineering. It is

related to urban development and city infrastructure construction.

The planning, construction, operation, management and evaluation of community infrastructure is

the process of natural environment transformation. This process involves multiple city managers and

various data. Therefore, the integration of heterogeneous data for smart community infrastructure

planning is particularly important. Based on ecological and spatial information, the smart city planning

(SCP) data and infrastructure data that need to be integrated should be analysed. The establishment of

a data integration framework and further realization of heterogeneous data integration is intended to

support the operation of community infrastructure construction projects throughout their life cycles

and ultimately achieve inclusive, sustainable and high-quality development of the city.

In terms of smart community infrastructure, ISO/TS 37151 describes the principles and requirements

of performance metrics. ISO/TR 37152 gives possible issues and solutions in developing and operating

smart community infrastructure, outline and benefits of a common framework for development and

operation. In addition, BS/PAS 183 provides data interoperability, types of data, data protection reform,

data value chain, purposes for data use, assessing data states, access rights for data and data structure.

ISO/TS 37151, ISO/TR 37152 and BS/PAS 183 provide the basis and guidance for ISO 37156, which

describes the types and model, opportunities, privacy and security of data exchange and sharing,

and provides guidance for data exchange and sharing of smart community infrastructure. ISO 37156

provides guidance for the integration of infrastructure data in this document, and this document is

considered to be an application scenery of ISO 37156 in data integration.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Urban data
integration framework for smart city planning (SCP)
1 Scope

This document establishes a data framework that involves possible multi-source common data through

standardized data integration and sharing mechanisms. It includes recommendations for:

— precision, dimensions of the data, data collection, updates and storing mechanisms;

— a data model for data integration, data standardization and data fusion approaches for heterogeneous

smart city infrastructure data;

— a data security level and sharable attributes for all involved data, principles on data sharing or

exchange.

This document focuses on the integration and application of heterogeneous data from urban

infrastructure systems, such as water, transport, energy, drainage and waste, so as to support smart

city planning (SCP). It contains case studies, in Annex A, of various smart city projects.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
data

reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication,

interpretation or processing
Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by humans or by automatic means.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121272]
3.2
data availability
property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.7, modified — term revised.]
3.3
data exchange
accessing, transferring, and archiving of data (3.1)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 13399-5:2014, 3.7, modified — definition revised.]
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ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
3.4
data sharing

reference for providing shared, exchangeable and extensible data (3.1) to enable urban infrastructure

service
[SOURCE: ISO 37156:2020, 3.3.6, modified — definition revised.]
3.5
data type

defined set of data (3.1) objects of a specified data structure and a set of permissible operations, such

that these data (3.1) objects act as operands in the execution of any one of these operations

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20546:2019, 3.1.12, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.6
heterogeneous data integration

optimization method to enable effective and transformative use of data and technology from multi-

source to support sustainable development of cities and to improve the management and control of

space and resources
3.7
information
data (3.1) in context with a particular meaning
[SOURCE: ISO5127: 2017, 3.1.1.16, modified — definition revised.]
3.8
information resource
asset
record

document or item in physical or digital form that contributes to human knowledge

EXAMPLE Abstracting and indexing database.

Note 1 to entry: Information resource sometimes has a broader meaning, including information content, and also

technology resources, human resources and financial resources that enable information content management.

[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.1.44; modified — definition revised and Note 2 to entry added.]

3.9
life cycle

evolution from conception through

to destruction or recycling
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.23, modified — definition revised.]
3.10
security

condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a

state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences
[SOURCE: IEC Guide 120:2018, 3.13]
3.11
smart community infrastructure

community infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated and

maintained to contributed to sustainable development and resilience of the community

[SOURCE: ISO 37156:2020, 3.1.4]
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ISO/FDIS 37166:2021(E)
3.12
smart city planning
SCP

technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built

environment, which are enhanced by the effective and sustainable integration of informational,

physical and social systems and the transformative use of heterogeneous data and technology

3.13
system

set of interrelated or interacting functions constituted to achieve a specified objective

4 Principles
4.1 General
4.1.1 General

The data gathered and to be integrated for SCP should meet some general principles so as to ensure the

validity of the following data integration process.
4.1.2 Data availability

The data to be integrated for SCP comes from various sources, some of which are private and classified

prior to any data-sharing agreements. Thus, the description of shared data in terms of, for example,

attributes, dimensions and volumes should be available to associated integration subjects (described

in 6.2), so as to determine whether the shared data are truly available for the intended data integration

purpose.
4.1.3 Sovereignty over the data

The ownership of the source data needs to be respected during the whole data integration process

among associated stakeholders.
4.1.4 Data security

The data to be integrated for SCP should be secured during the data integration process, from data

retrieval, data clean, data storage and data output.

Regional and national security requirements such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation shall

be considered. Based on ISO/IEC 27000, considering domestic regulations and technological conditions,

an information security management systems (ISMS) or alternative necessary data security procedure

and tools should be introduced to deter possible hacker attacks and other misapplication.

The data exchange should therefore be kept to a minimum and a low level of detail. Security-relevant

data for planning, constructing, operating and managing of infrastructures should basically remain

with the data-collecting organization, ordinarily the utilities.
4.1.5 Data privacy

The data from community infrastructure to be integrated for SCP usually contains private information,

from individual socio-economic characteristics to spatial-temporal behavioural data. Integrating

and further analysing these individual-based data help to evaluate and optimize urban system

performances. But individual privacy should be respected.

The use of source data during the whole integration process should be kept on an anonymous basis. The

integration of individual data, for example consumer consumption data, should be pre-desensitized,

without personal information being exposed to either data integration engineers or terminal users.

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4.1.6 Co-construction and sharing

It is possible that an intended data integration requires data from different agencies or stakeholders.

It is recommended that the necessary data are co-constructed and shared among them on a voluntary

basis. In addition, the integration results should be shared with contributors.
4.2 Principles of heterogeneous data integration
4.2.1 General

In practice, the multi-source data used for data integration varies in format, dimensions, accuracy and

durability. Although data integration approaches are evolving with more recognition or explanation

power, it is not usually encouraged to spend huge amounts on retrieving missing data. Depending on

the availability and intended use of data, it is recommended that the data integration framework applies

the following principles of heterogeneous data integration.
4.2.2 Unambiguity

The definitions and categorizations of entities should be clear where reasonably possible and available.

Categorization should be representative and mutually exclusive.
4.2.3 Scalability

Urban data integration requirements and process are continuously updating. The integrated data need

not be thoroughly completed and comprehensive in the beginning, but it is recommended that the

integration results are flexible and scalable.
4.2.4 Compatibility

Data standards applied in the data integration framework shall be compatible with existing major

urban data standards.
4.2.5 Modularity

It is recommended that data integration input, output and approaches or algorithms are defined as

modular components, so as to be used individually or in combination for different integration purposes.

In addition to unambiguity, scalability, compatibility and modularity, the urban data integration

framework should also have extensibility and interpretability. Maintaining a high level of

interpretability is vital during the integration process as the goal is to support the urban design and

operational decisions by municipal officials, policymakers and engineer technical staff. A useful urban

data integration framework should be capable of integrating heterogeneous data in an extensible (to

multiple urban systems), scalable (to the growing amounts of quickly changing urban data streams)

and interpretable manner (such that it can inform decision-making).
4.3 Data quality recommendations

On the basis of ISO 19157, the following recommendations are dependent on the intended use of

data. For example, zonal plans can be acceptable with a tolerance of several metres but plans for

individual buildings might require an absolute positional accuracy of a few centimetres. The quality

recommendation of a variety of planning data database results should ensure locational accuracy,

attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, geographic quality and data relationality as far as

the data are available and it is even possible to determine such data.

a) Locational accuracy. It is recommended that the location given in the data satisfies data requirement

in terms of geographic accuracy.
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b) Attribute accuracy. It is recommended that attribute values given in the data match the actual

values in the real world to the extent required by the expected use. For example, no building should

be classified as a pavement, but it can sometimes matter less if a building is classified as residential

when it is in fact partly commercial.

c) Completeness. It is recommended that the number of missing or excess data items in the data set,

in comparison to the real world, are suitable for the intended use. For example, all planning data

should contain exactly the same number of plans as actually exist, but it might not be too important

if a zonal plan contains slightly more or fewer building features.

d) Logical consistency. It is recommended that the data are logically consistent with the requirements,

in terms of concept consistency, value domain consistency and topology consistency. For example,

no plan should be described as agreed if it is only proposed; it is unlikely that a road would not have

a postal address.

e) Geographic quality. It is recommended that the geometry of the data conveys the actual data

correctly. For example, buildings are defined as polygons instead of a point when the intended

use is to correlate retail shops with a metro station spatially; the boundaries of adjacent polygon

entities coincide.

f) Data relationality. It is recommended that entities being referenced by different data sources

are mapped and related to other entities through the data model defined in the data integration

...

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