Fire-resistance tests -- Elements of building construction

This document specifies a test and assessment method for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of circular and rectangular solid steel bar. ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11 cover other section shapes such as angles, channels and flats. This document is not intended to be used for twisted wire or for cold or hot rolled steel bar which is primarily used for the reinforcement of concrete. This document is applicable for the protection of solid bar up to a maximum diameter of 130 mm and in the case of rectangular bar the maximum side length shall be limited to 130 mm with a maximum aspect ratio of 2:1 against the shorter length side. Beyond these limits, the solid steel bars are covered in ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11. This document is intended to be used with any applied fire protection system, including multi-layered systems, that have demonstrated their integrity/stickability when tested on floor beams and hollow sections under load, and assessed in accordance with ISO 834-11. This document does not incorporate results from a loaded test on a tension member. Guidance for conducting a fire test on a steel bar under a tensile load is provided in Annex C. This document contains the fire test methodology to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the fire protection system when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in ISO 834-1. It also contains an assessment method for the analysis of the test data. The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested. The assessment procedure is used to establish: — on the basis of temperature data derived from testing steel bars, any practical constraints on the use of the fire protection system under fire test conditions, (the physical performance); — on the basis of the temperature data derived from testing steel bars, the thermal properties of the fire protection system, (the thermal performance). The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes of steel bar over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested. This document describes testing in both the vertical and horizontal orientations at the discretion of the sponsor.

Essais de résistance au feu -- Éléments de construction

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Status
Published
Publication Date
20-May-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Apr-2019
Completion Date
21-May-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 834-14
First edition
2019-05
Fire-resistance tests — Elements of
building construction —
Part 14:
Requirements for the testing and
assessment of applied fire protection
to solid steel bar
Essais de résistance au feu — Éléments de construction —
Partie 14: Exigences pour les essais et l'évaluation de la protection
contre l'incendie appliquée aux barres pleines en acier
Reference number
ISO 834-14:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 834-14:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 834-14:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Test equipment....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Furnace .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Loading equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Support conditions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.3 Number of test specimens ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.4 Size of test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5 Construction of steel test specimens ................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5.1 Protected steel bars ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5.2 Application of the fire protection material ............................................................................................... 5

6.6 Composition of test specimen component materials ............................................................................................ 5

6.6.1 Steel specification ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6.2 Fire protection materials .......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.7 Selection of test specimens .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7.1 Principle of selection .................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Installation of the test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Test specimen installation patterns ...................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Installation of the test specimens ........................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Furnace load .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8 Conditioning of the test specimens ................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Application of instrumentation ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Instrumentation for measurement and control of furnace temperature ............................................. 9

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2.2 Furnace temperature in the region of test specimens ..................................................................... 9

9.2.3 Instrumentation for the measurement of steel temperatures ..............................................10

9.3 Instrumentation for the measurement of pressure .............................................................................................11

10 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.2 Furnace temperature and pressure ...................................................................................................................................11

10.3 Steelwork temperature .................................................................................................................................................................11

10.4 Observations ..........................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.5 Termination of test ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

11 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................12

11.1 Acceptability of test results .......................................................................................................................................................12

11.2 Presentation of test results .......................................................................................................................................................12

12 Assessment ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

12.2 Assessment procedure for thermal performance ..................................................................................................13

13 Assesment report ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)

14 Limits of the applicability of the results of the assessment..................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Support to specimens suspended from the furnace roof................................................15

Annex B (normative) Linear interpolation and extension analysis ..................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Loaded test procedures ......................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 834 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)
Introduction

In building construction, high strength solid steel bar is often used as hangars and ties for supporting

other structural elements that are required to be fire resistant. As a result, these members are also

required to provide the same level of fire performance which usually involves applying either passive

or reactive fire protection materials to maintain their structural stability for a specified period of fire

resistance.

Small scale tensile tests on loaded steel specimens and subjected to transient heating conditions

representing typical heating rates in fire, have demonstrated that when tensile strains of around 1 %

to 3 % are attained, the specimens enter the onset of 'runaway' whereby the strain rate accelerates

resulting in failure within a further small rise in temperature. Similar strains are also experienced

in the lower flange of protected steel floor beams at the limit of deflection (span/30) when tested in

accordance with ISO 834-6 and in loaded column tests when specimens undergo thermal expansion

with extensions approaching 1 % strain before the onset of structural instability.

A purpose of loaded fire resistance tests is to demonstrate the integrity (stickability) of the fire

protection materials to the steel member. Since similar strains are experienced in tension members as

experienced on beams and columns, the integrity performance of the fire protection on loaded beams

and columns is considered to be representative of the ability of the fire protection materials to remain

adheared to steel bars provided the methods of application/fixing are the same.

This document is therefore primarily concerned with the collection of thermal test data on unloaded

protected solid steel bar from which an assessment is carried out to determine the thickness of the fire

protection material to meet specific periods of fire resistance, or limiting temperature criteria for steel

bar of different diameters or thicknesses. Research has shown that data on circular hollow sections

cannot be used for determining the protection thickness for solid bar and therefore a separate test

standard for unloaded solid sections is required.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 834-14:2019(E)
Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building
construction —
Part 14:
Requirements for the testing and assessment of applied
fire protection to solid steel bar
1 Scope

This document specifies a test and assessment method for determining the contribution of fire

protection systems to the fire resistance of circular and rectangular solid steel bar. ISO 834-10

and ISO 834-11 cover other section shapes such as angles, channels and flats. This document is not

intended to be used for twisted wire or for cold or hot rolled steel bar which is primarily used for the

reinforcement of concrete.

This document is applicable for the protection of solid bar up to a maximum diameter of 130 mm and

in the case of rectangular bar the maximum side length shall be limited to 130 mm with a maximum

aspect ratio of 2:1 against the shorter length side. Beyond these limits, the solid steel bars are covered

in ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11.

This document is intended to be used with any applied fire protection system, including multi-layered

systems, that have demonstrated their integrity/stickability when tested on floor beams and hollow

sections under load, and assessed in accordance with ISO 834-11.

This document does not incorporate results from a loaded test on a tension member. Guidance for

conducting a fire test on a steel bar under a tensile load is provided in Annex C.

This document contains the fire test methodology to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the

fire protection system when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in ISO 834-1. It

also contains an assessment method for the analysis of the test data.

The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together

with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes over the range of

thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested.
The assessment procedure is used to establish:

— on the basis of temperature data derived from testing steel bars, any practical constraints on the

use of the fire protection system under fire test conditions, (the physical performance);

— on the basis of the temperature data derived from testing steel bars, the thermal properties of the

fire protection system, (the thermal performance).

The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together

with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes of steel bar over the

range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested.

This document describes testing in both the vertical and horizontal orientations at the discretion of the

sponsor.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 834-1, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 834-10, Fire resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 10: Specific requirements to

determine the contribution of applied fire protection materials to structural steel elements

ISO 834-11, Fire resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 11: Specific requirements for

the assessment of fire protection to structural steel elements
ISO 8421-2, Fire protection — Vocabulary — Part 2: Structural fire protection
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 834-1, ISO 8421-2 and

ISO 13943, and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
fire protection

protection afforded to the steel member by the fire protection system such that the temperature of the

steel member is limited throughout the period of exposure to fire
3.2
fire protection system

fire protection material together with any supporting system including mesh reinforcement as tested

3.3
fire protection thickness
dry thickness of the fire protection system

Note 1 to entry: For reactive fire protection systems, the thickness is the mean dry film thickness of the coating

excluding primer and top coat if applicable.
3.4
maximum steel temperature
highest average temperature recorded at any measurement station
3.5
passive fire protection material

sprayed coatings or renderings formulated with ingredients enabling the retention of their physical

form upon heating while providing insulation to the substrate
3.6
reactive fire protection material

reactive materials which are specifically formulated to provide a chemical reaction upon heating such

that their physical form changes and in so doing provide fire protection by thermal insulative and

cooling effects
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)
3.7
section factor of the rectangular steel bar

ratio of the fire exposed outer perimeter of the steel bar itself, per unit length, A to its cross sectional

area per unit length
3.8
steel bar

solid bar composed entirely of steel with a consistent cross-section without any re-entrant angle and

excluding flat steel products
3.9
stickability

ability of a fire protection material to remain in position for a defined range of deformations, furnace

and steel temperatures, such that its ability of the material to provide fire protection is not significantly

impaired
3.10
test specimen
steel bar plus the fire protection system under test
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
Symbol Unit Description
A m exposed perimeter area of the structural steel member, per unit length
D mm required diameter
D mm intermediate diameter
int
D mm minimum diameter
min
D mm maximum diameter
max
d mm thickness
d mm intermediate protection thickness
int
d mm maximum protection thickness
max
d mm minimum protection thickness
min
d mm interploated thickness of fire protection material for time t
d mm interploated thickness of fire protection material for diameter D
s mm required dimension
s mm intermediate dimension
int
s mm maximum dimension
max
s mm minimum dimension
min
t min time from the commencement of the test
time to reach the specified temperature for the bar with the minimum protec-
t min
min
tion thickness
time to reach the specified temperature for the bar with the intermediate pro-
t min
int
tection thickness
time to reach the specified temperature for the bar with the maximum protec-
t min
max
tion thickness
V m /m volume of the steel section per unit length
5 Test equipment
5.1 General
The furnace and test equipment shall conform to that specified in ISO 834-1.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)
5.2 Furnace

The furnace shall be designed to accommodate the dimensions of the test specimens to be exposed

to heating as specified in 9.2 and the installation of test specimens within the furnace as specified in

Clause 7.
5.3 Loading equipment
The test specimens are unloaded.
6 Test conditions
6.1 General

A number of short and long steel bars, protected by the fire protection system, are heated in a furnace

according to the protocol given in ISO 834-1.

It is recommended that the tests be continued until the steel temperature reaches the maximum value

commensurate with application of the data.

Where several test specimens are tested simultaneously, care shall be taken that each is adequately and

similarly exposed to the specified test conditions.

The procedures given in ISO 834-1 shall be followed in the performance of this test unless specific

contrary instructions are given in this document.

The testing of loaded and unloaded beams and/or columns in accordance with ISO 834-10 and

ISO 834-11 provides the basis for the stickability correction at minimum and maximum protection

thickness to be applied to the thermal data generated from the short steel bars.
The test sections shall be chosen to suit the scope of the assessment.
6.2 Support conditions

Unloaded steel bars shall be supported horizontally or vertically within the furnace such that they are

allowed to expand unrestrained.

When the test specimens are supported vertically, the results are only applicable to members used

in the vertical orientation. When specimens are tested in the horizontal plane, the results apply to

members in any orientation.
6.3 Number of test specimens

There will be 9 bars with dimensions to suit the scope of the assessment. The principle of selecting the

specimens shall be based on the details presented in 6.7.
6.4 Size of test specimens
The steel bars shall have a minimum exposed length of 1 000 mm.
6.5 Construction of steel test specimens
6.5.1 Protected steel bars

Where specimens are tested in the horizontal position they shall be supported on plinths on the floor,

or suspended horizontally from the furnace roof.

NOTE Figures A.1 and A.2 illustrate how the specimens are suspended from the furnace roof.

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)

Where specimens are supported horizontally, they shall be perpendicular to the roof within ±10 % of

the horizontal plane.

To minimize heat transfer to the ends of the steel bar, the support attachments shall be insulated, which

at elevated temperatures, is capable of providing equivalent or greater insulation performance than

that of the protection material provided over the length of the bar.

Where specimens are tested in the vertical plane, they shall be supported on plinths on the furnace floor.

6.5.2 Application of the fire protection material

The surface of the steel shall be prepared and the fire protection system shall be applied to the bars

in a manner representative of practice and shall be substantially similar to that used in preparing test

specimens in accordance with ISO 834-10.
6.6 Composition of test specimen component materials
6.6.1 Steel specification

The grade of steel used shall be any plain carbon hot finished or heat treated structural grade used

in building construction with a minimum elongation of 20 % at ambient temperature. It shall not be

cold worked.
The actual size of the steel bars shall be measured.
6.6.2 Fire protection materials
6.6.2.1 General

The composition, expected nominal density and moisture content of the fire protection system shall

be specified by the sponsor. The heat capacity of the fire protection system shall be specified by the

sponsor when required for the assessment.

For reactive coatings, the dry film thickness of the coating shall be measured at the time of the test. The

appropriate procedures and verification process are given in ISO 834-10:2014, Annex B.

For passive fire protection materials, the actual thickness, density and moisture content of the material

shall be measured at the time of test for each specimen. The procedures appropriate to different types

of fire protection material are given in ISO 834-10:2014, Annex A.

The dimension for preformed casings, boards and slabs shall be determined in accordance with national

standards and be within the tolerances defined in these standards.

Similarly the thickness for spray applied materials shall be determined in accordance with national

standards and be within the tolerances defined in these standards.
6.6.2.2 Thickness of applied fire protection material

The maximum thickness of the material shall not be greater than the thickness of the material as

previously tested in accordance with ISO 834-10 either as a floor beam or a column on a steel member

of either an open section or hollow section.
6.6.2.2.1 Preformed casings, slabs and boards

The thickness of the fire protection materials should not deviate by more than 15 % of the mean value

over the whole of its surface. The mean value shall be used in the assessment of the results and in the

limits of applicability of the assessment. If the thickness varies by more than 15 %, then the maximum

thickness recorded shall be used in the assessment.
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ISO 834-14:2019(E)

The mean shall be the mean of all measurements in accordance with ISO 834-10:2014, Annex A.

6.6.2.2.2 Spray passive coatings

The thickness of sprayed passive protection materials shall be measured at the locations specified in

ISO 834-10:2014, Annex A.

The measurement shall be taken between 50 mm and 100 mm away from each thermocouple position.

The thickness of spray applied fire protection coatings should not deviate by more than 20 % of

the mean value. The mean value shall be used in the assessment of the results and in the limits of

applicability of the assessment. If it deviates by more than 20 % then the maximum thickness shall be

used in the assessment.
6.6.2.2.3 Reactive coatings

For reactive fire protection materials, the average primer thickness shall be measured first and

subtracted from the total average primer and reactive coating thickness. The resulting permitted

thickness tolerances excluding primer and topcoat (assuming normal distribution of measured

thickness) shall be as follows:
a) at the temperature measurement stations:
— A minimum of 68 % of readings shall be within ±20 % of the mean.
— A minimum of 95 % of readings shall be within ±30
...

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