Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Fired heaters for general refinery service

ISO 13705:2012 specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing, preparation for shipment, and erection of fired heaters, air heaters, fans and burners for general refinery service. ISO 13705:2012 is not intended to apply to the design of steam reformers or pyrolysis furnaces.

Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel — Réchauffeurs à brûleurs pour usage général dans les raffineries

L'ISO 13705:2012 spécifie les exigences et donne des recommandations pour la conception, les matériaux, la fabrication, l'inspection, les essais, la préparation pour l'expédition et le montage des réchauffeurs, des préchauffeurs d'air (APH), des ventilateurs et des brûleurs à usage général dans les raffineries. L'ISO 13705:2012 n'est pas destinée à s'appliquer à la conception des reformeurs à vapeur ou des fours à pyrolyse.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Dec-2012
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
09-Jul-2018
Completion Date
09-Jul-2018
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13705
Third edition
2012-12-15
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas
industries — Fired heaters for general
refinery service
Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel —
Réchauffeurs à brûleurs pour usage général dans les raffineries
Reference number
ISO 13705:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols .........................................................................4

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................4

3.2 Abbreviated terms and symbols........................................................................................................11

4 General .................................................................................................................................................12

4.1 Pressure design code .........................................................................................................................12

4.2 Regulations ..........................................................................................................................................12

4.3 Heater nomenclature...........................................................................................................................12

5 Proposals .............................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Purchaser's responsibilities...............................................................................................................16

5.2 Vendor's responsibilities....................................................................................................................16

5.3 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................16

5.4 Final reports.........................................................................................................................................18

6 Design considerations........................................................................................................................18

6.1 Process design ....................................................................................................................................18

6.2 Combustion design .............................................................................................................................19

6.3 Mechanical design...............................................................................................................................19

7 Tubes ....................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 Extended surface.................................................................................................................................21

7.3 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................22

8 Headers.................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 General .................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 Plug headers ........................................................................................................................................23

8.3 Return bends .......................................................................................................................................24

8.4 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................24

9 Piping, terminals and manifolds ........................................................................................................25

9.1 General .................................................................................................................................................25

9.2 Allowable movement and loads.........................................................................................................26

9.3 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................28

10 Tube suppports ...................................................................................................................................28

10.1 General .................................................................................................................................................28

10.2 Loads and allowable stress................................................................................................................29

10.3 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................30

11 Refractories and insulation ................................................................................................................31

11.1 General .................................................................................................................................................31

11.2 Brick and tile construction .................................................................................................................32

11.3 Castable construction.........................................................................................................................33

11.4 Ceramic-fibre construction.................................................................................................................33

11.5 Multi-component lining construction ................................................................................................35

11.6 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................35

12 Structures and appurtenances ..........................................................................................................36

12.1 General .................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13705:2012(E)

12.2 Structures .............................................................................................................................................36

12.3 Header boxes, doors and ports..........................................................................................................37

12.4 Ladders, platforms and stairways......................................................................................................37

12.5 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................38

13 Stacks, ducts and breeching..............................................................................................................39

13.1 General..................................................................................................................................................39

13.2 Design considerations ........................................................................................................................39

13.3 Design methods...................................................................................................................................41

13.4 Static design.........................................................................................................................................41

13.5 Wind-induced vibration design ..........................................................................................................42

13.6 Materials ...............................................................................................................................................43

14 Burners and auxiliary equipment.......................................................................................................43

14.1 Burners .................................................................................................................................................43

14.2 Sootblowers .........................................................................................................................................48

14.3 Fans and drivers ..................................................................................................................................48

14.4 Dampers and damper controls for stacks and ducts.......................................................................48

15 Instrument and auxiliary connections...............................................................................................49

15.1 Flue gas and air....................................................................................................................................49

15.2 Process fluid temperature ..................................................................................................................50

15.3 Auxiliary connections .........................................................................................................................50

15.4 Tube-skin thermocouples ...................................................................................................................51

15.5 Access to connections........................................................................................................................51

16 Shop fabrication and field erection....................................................................................................51

16.1 General..................................................................................................................................................51

16.2 Structural-steel fabrication.................................................................................................................52

16.3 Coil fabrication.....................................................................................................................................53

16.4 Painting and galvanizing.....................................................................................................................54

16.5 Refractories and insulation ................................................................................................................54

16.6 Preparation for shipment ....................................................................................................................55

16.7 Field erection........................................................................................................................................56

17 Inspection, examination and testing..................................................................................................56

17.1 General..................................................................................................................................................56

17.2 Weld examination ................................................................................................................................57

17.3 Castings examination..........................................................................................................................57

17.4 Examination of other components.....................................................................................................58

17.5 Testing ..................................................................................................................................................59

Annex A (informative) Equipment data sheets...............................................................................................61

Annex B (informative) Purchaser's checklist .................................................................................................90

Annex C (informative) Proposed shop-assembly conditions.......................................................................94

Annex D (normative) Stress curves for use in the design of tube-support elements ...............................96

Annex E (normative) Centrifugal fans for fired-heater systems.................................................................111

Annex F (normative) Air preheat systems for fired process heaters ........................................................128

Annex G (informative) Measurement of efficiency of fired process heaters.............................................186

Annex H (informative) Stack design..............................................................................................................254

Annex I (informative) Measurement of noise from fired-process heaters.................................................264

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................300

iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13705 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 6, Processing equipment and

systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 13705:2006), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
Introduction

Users of this International Standard should be aware that further or differing requirements may be needed for

individual applications. This International Standard is not intended to inhibit a vendor from offering, or the

purchaser from accepting, alternative equipment or engineering solutions for the individual application. This

may be particularly applicable where there is innovative or developing technology. Where an alternative is

offered, the vendor should identify any variations from this International Standard and provide details.

In International Standards, the SI system of units is used. Where practical in this International Standard, US

Customary (USC) units are included in brackets for information.

A bullet (●) at the beginning of a clause or subclause indicates that either a decision is required or further

information is to be provided by the purchaser. This information should be indicated on data sheets (see

examples in Annex A) or stated in the enquiry or purchase order. Decisions should be indicated on a checklist

(see example in Annex B).
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13705:2012(E)
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Fired
heaters for general refinery service
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, materials,

fabrication, inspection, testing, preparation for shipment, and erection of fired heaters, air heaters (APHs),

fans and burners for general refinery service.

This International Standard is not intended to apply to the design of steam reformers or pyrolysis furnaces.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1461, Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles — Specifications and test methods

ISO 1940-1:2003, Mechanical vibration — Balance quality requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state —

Part 1: Specification and verification of balance tolerances

ISO 8501-1, Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products — Visual

assessment of surface cleanliness — Part 1: Rust grades and preparation grades of uncoated steel

substrates and of steel substrates after overall removal of previous coatings
ISO 10684, Fasteners — Hot dip galvanized coatings

ISO 13704, Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Calculation of heater-tube thickness in

petroleum refineries
ISO 15649, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Piping
IEC 60079 (all parts), Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres

EN 10025-2:2004 , Hot rolled products of structural steels — Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-

alloy structural steels
ABMA Standard 9 , Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings
AMCA 210 , Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating

AMCA 801:2001, Industrial Process/Power Generation Fans — Specifications and Guidelines

1 European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.

2 American Bearing Manufacturers Association, 2025 M. Street, NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

3 Air Movement and Control Association, 30 West University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60004, USA.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
ASME B 17.1 , Keys and Keyseats
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels
ASTM A 36 , Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

ASTM A 53, Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless

ASTM A 105, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications

ASTM A 106, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A 123, Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products

ASTM A 143, Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural

Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement

ASTM A 153, Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware

ASTM A 181, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping

ASTM A 182, Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged

Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A 192, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service

ASTM A 193, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High-Temperature or High-

Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

ASTM A 194, Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure or High-

Temperature Service, or Both

ASTM A 209, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes

ASTM A 210, Standard Specification for Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes

ASTM A 213, Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and

Heat-Exchanger Tubes

ASTM A 216, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-

Temperature Service

ASTM A 217, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-

Containing Parts, Suitable for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A 234, Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate

and High Temperature Service

ASTM A 240, Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and

Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
ASTM A 242, Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel

ASTM A 283, Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates

ASTM A 297, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Iron-Chromium and Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Heat

Resistant, for General Application

ASTM A 307, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength

4 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA.

5 American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA.

2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)

ASTM A 312, Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless

Steel Pipes

ASTM A 320, Standard Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-

Temperature Service

ASTM A 325, Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile

Strength

ASTM A 335, Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A 351, Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts

ASTM A 376, Standard Specification for Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station

Service

ASTM A 384, Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

of Steel Assemblies
ASTM A 385, Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip)

ASTM A 387, Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum

ASTM A 403, Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings

ASTM A 447, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Chromium-Nickel-Iron Alloy (25-12 Class), for High-

Temperature Service
ASTM A 560, Standard Specification for Castings, Chromium-Nickel Alloy

ASTM A 572, Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel

ASTM A 608, Standard Specification for Centrifugally Cast Iron-Chromium-Nickel High-Alloy Tubing for

Pressure Application at High Temperatures

ASTM B 366, Standard Specification for Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel Alloy Fittings

ASTM B 407, Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube

ASTM B 564, Standard Specification for Nickel Alloy Forgings

ASTM B 633, Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc on Iron and Steel

ASTM C 27, Standard Classification of Fireclay and High-Alumina Refractory Brick
ASTM C 155, Standard Classification of Insulating Firebrick

ASTM C 332, Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Insulating Concrete

ASTM C 401, Standard Classification of Alumina and Alumina-Silicate Castable Refractories

ASTM C 612, Standard Specification for Mineral Fiber Block and Board Thermal Insulation

AWS D 1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel
AWS D 14.6, Specification for Welding of Rotating Elements of Equipment
NFPA 70 , National Electrical Code
SSPC SP 6/NACE No 3 , Commercial Blast Cleaning
6 American Welding Society, 550 NW Le Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33126, USA.

7 National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA.

8 The Society for Protective Coatings, 40, 24th Street, Pittsburg, PA 15222-4643, USA.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
NOTE Terms and definitions related to centrifugal fans are given in Annex E.
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
air heater
air preheater
APH

heat transfer apparatus through which combustion air is passed and heated by a medium of higher

temperature, such as combustion products, steam or other fluid
3.1.2
anchor
tieback
metallic or refractory device that holds the refractory or insulation in place
3.1.3
arch
flat or sloped portion of the heater radiant section opposite the floor
3.1.4
atomizer

device used to reduce a liquid fuel oil to a fine mist, using steam, air or mechanical means

3.1.5
backup layer
refractory layer behind the hot-face layer
3.1.6
balanced-draught heater

heater that uses forced-draught fans to supply combustion air and induced-draught fans to remove flue gases

3.1.7
breeching

heater section where flue gases are collected after the last convection coil for transmission to the stack or the

outlet ductwork
3.1.8
bridgewall
gravity wall
wall that separates two adjacent heater zones
3.1.9
bridgewall temperature
temperature of flue gas leaving the radiant section
3.1.10
burner

device that introduces fuel and air into a heater at the desired velocities, turbulence and concentration to

establish and maintain proper ignition and combustion

NOTE Burners are classified by the type of fuel fired, such as oil, gas, or a combination of gas and oil, which may be

designated as “dual fuel” or “combination”.
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(E)
3.1.11
butterfly damper
single-blade damper, which pivots about its centre
3.1.12
casing
metal plate used to enclose the fired heater
3.1.13
castable

insulating concrete poured or gunned in place to form a rigid refractory shape or structure

3.1.14
ceramic fibre

fibrous refractory insulation which can be in the form of refractory ceramic fibre (RCF) or man-made vitreous

fibre (MMVF)

NOTE Applicable forms include bulk, blanket, board, modules, paper, coatings, pumpables and vacuum-formed

shapes.
3.1.15
convection section

portion of the heater in which the heat is transferred to the tubes primarily by convection

3.1.16
corbel

projection from the refractory surface generally used to prevent flue gas from bypassing the tubes of the

convection section if they are on a staggered pitch
3.1.17
corrosion allowance

material thickness added to allow for material loss during the design life of the component

3.1.18
corrosion rate

rate of reduction in the material thickness due to chemical attack from the process fluid or flue gas or both

3.1.19
crossover
interconnecting piping between any two heater-coil sections
3.1.20
damper

device for introducing a variable resistance in order to regulate the flow of flue gas or air

3.1.21
direct-APH

heat exchanger that transfers heat directly between the flue gas and the combustion air

NOTE A regenerative APH uses heated rotating elements and a recuperative design uses stationary tubes, plates or

cast-iron elements to separate the two heating media.
3.1.22
draught
negative pressure (vacuum) of the air a
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 13705
Troisième édition
2012-12-15
Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et
du gaz naturel — Réchauffeurs à brûleurs
pour usage général dans les raffineries
Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries — Fire heaters for
general refinery service
Numéro de référence
ISO 13705:2012(F)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2012

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous

quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur l’internet ou sur un

Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité

membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Version française parue en 2013
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ......................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d'application ..........................................................................................................................1

2 Références normatives.........................................................................................................................1

3 Termes, définitions, abréviations et symboles ..................................................................................4

3.1 Termes et définitions ............................................................................................................................4

3.2 Abréviations et symboles...................................................................................................................12

4 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................13

4.1 Code de conception des appareils à pression.................................................................................13

4.2 Réglementations..................................................................................................................................13

4.3 Nomenclature des réchauffeurs ........................................................................................................13

5 Propositions.........................................................................................................................................17

5.1 Responsabilités de l'acheteur............................................................................................................17

5.2 Responsabilités du vendeur ..............................................................................................................17

5.3 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................18

5.4 Rapports finaux ...................................................................................................................................20

6 Bases conceptuelles...........................................................................................................................20

6.1 Conception du process.......................................................................................................................20

6.2 Conception du système de combustion ...........................................................................................21

6.3 Conception mécanique.......................................................................................................................21

7 Tubes ....................................................................................................................................................22

7.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................22

7.2 Surface étendue...................................................................................................................................23

7.3 Matériaux..............................................................................................................................................24

8 Collecteurs ...........................................................................................................................................24

8.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................24

8.2 Collecteurs à tampons........................................................................................................................25

8.3 Coudes en U.........................................................................................................................................26

8.4 Matériaux..............................................................................................................................................26

9 Tuyauteries, raccords terminaux et distributeurs ...........................................................................27

9.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................27

9.2 Mouvements et charges admissibles................................................................................................28

9.3 Matériaux..............................................................................................................................................30

10 Supports de tubes...............................................................................................................................30

10.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................30

10.2 Charges et contraintes admissibles..................................................................................................31

10.3 Matériaux..............................................................................................................................................32

11 Réfractaires et isolants.......................................................................................................................33

11.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................33

11.2 Constructions en briques et en carreaux .........................................................................................34

11.3 Constructions en béton réfractaire ...................................................................................................35

11.4 Construction en fibres céramiques...................................................................................................36

11.5 Construction à garnissage multicomposant ....................................................................................37

11.6 Matériaux..............................................................................................................................................38

12 Structures et accessoires...................................................................................................................38

12.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................38

© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(F)

12.2 Structures .............................................................................................................................................39

12.3 Boîtes de retour, trappes et orifices ..................................................................................................40

12.4 Échelles, plates-formes et escaliers..................................................................................................41

12.5 Matériaux ..............................................................................................................................................42

13 Cheminées, conduits et carneaux......................................................................................................43

13.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................43

13.2 Bases conceptuelles ...........................................................................................................................43

13.3 Méthodes de conception.....................................................................................................................44

13.4 Conception statique ............................................................................................................................44

13.5 Étude des vibrations induites par le vent .........................................................................................46

13.6 Matériaux ..............................................................................................................................................46

14 Brûleurs et équipements auxiliaires..................................................................................................47

14.1 Brûleurs ................................................................................................................................................47

14.2 Souffleurs de suie................................................................................................................................52

14.3 Ventilateurs et systèmes d’entraînement..........................................................................................52

14.4 Registres et commandes associées pour les cheminées et les conduits.....................................52

15 Raccordements des instruments et des équipements auxiliaires .................................................53

15.1 Gaz de combustion et air ....................................................................................................................53

15.2 Température du fluide process ..........................................................................................................54

15.3 Raccordements auxiliaires .................................................................................................................55

15.4 Thermocouples des enveloppes de tubes ........................................................................................55

15.5 Accès aux raccordements ..................................................................................................................56

16 Fabrication en atelier et montage sur site ........................................................................................56

16.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................56

16.2 Fabrication des aciers de construction.............................................................................................56

16.3 Fabrication des serpentins .................................................................................................................58

16.4 Mise en peinture et galvanisation ......................................................................................................59

16.5 Réfractaires et isolants .......................................................................................................................59

16.6 Préparation pour l’expédition.............................................................................................................60

16.7 Montage sur site ..................................................................................................................................61

17 Inspection, contrôle et essais ............................................................................................................62

17.1 Généralités ...........................................................................................................................................62

17.2 Contrôle des soudures........................................................................................................................62

17.3 Contrôle des pièces moulées .............................................................................................................63

17.4 Contrôle des autres composants.......................................................................................................64

17.5 Essais....................................................................................................................................................65

Annexe A (informative) Equipment data sheets.............................................................................................67

Annexe B (informative) Purchaser's checklist ...............................................................................................96

Annexe C (informative) Proposed shop-assembly conditions.....................................................................99

Annexe D (normative) Courbes de contraintes à utiliser pour la conception des éléments de

support de tubes................................................................................................................................101

Annexe E (normative) Ventilateurs centrifuges pour systèmes de réchauffeur à combustion..............117

Annexe F (normative) Systèmes de préchauffage d’air pour réchauffeurs à combustion .....................137

Annexe G (informative) Measurement of efficiency of fired process heaters...........................................202

Annexe H (informative) Stack design............................................................................................................263

Annexe I (informative) Measurement of noise from fired-process heaters...............................................275

Bibliographie ...................................................................................................................................................310

iv © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13705:2012(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO 13705 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 67, Matériel, équipement et structures en mer

pour les industries pétrolière, pétrochimique et du gaz naturel, sous-comité SC 6, Systèmes et équipements

de traitement.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 13705:2006), qui a fait l'objet d'une

révision technique.
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ISO 13705:2012(F)
Introduction

Il convient que les utilisateurs de la présente Norme internationale soient informés que des exigences

supplémentaires ou différentes peuvent se révéler indispensables pour des applications individuelles. La

présente Norme internationale n’a pas pour objet d’empêcher un vendeur de proposer, ou un acheteur

d’accepter, des équipements alternatifs ou des solutions techniques alternatives pour une application

particulière. De telles solutions alternatives peuvent notamment être applicables lorsqu’il s’agit de

technologies innovatrices ou en cours de développement. Lorsqu’une alternative est proposée, il convient que

le vendeur identifie tout écart par rapport à la présente Norme internationale et en fournisse les détails.

Dans les Normes Internationales, le système d’unités SI est utilisé. Dans la présente Norme internationale, les

unités américaines usuelles (USC) sont, dans la mesure du possible, indiquées entre parenthèses à titre

d’information.

Le symbole (●) en début de paragraphe ou d’alinéa indique qu’une décision est nécessaire ou que des

informations complémentaires sont à fournir par l’acheteur. Il convient que ces informations soient indiquées

sur les feuilles de données (voir les exemples à l’Annexe A) ou précisées dans l’appel d’offres ou la

commande d’achat. Il convient de consigner les décisions sur une liste de contrôle (voir l’exemple à

l’Annexe B).
vi © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 13705:2012(F)
Industries du pétrole, de la pétrochimie et du gaz naturel —
Réchauffeurs à brûleurs pour usage général dans les raffineries
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale spécifie les exigences et donne des recommandations pour la conception,

les matériaux, la fabrication, l’inspection, les essais, la préparation pour l’expédition et le montage des

réchauffeurs, des préchauffeurs d’air (APH), des ventilateurs et des brûleurs à usage général dans les

raffineries.

La présente Norme internationale n’est pas destinée à s’appliquer à la conception des reformeurs à vapeur ou

des fours à pyrolyse.
2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l’application du présent document. Pour les

références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du

document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 1461, Revêtements par galvanisation à chaud sur produits finis en fonte et en acier — Spécifications et

méthodes d'essai.

ISO 1940-1:2003, Vibrations mécaniques — Exigences en matière de qualité dans l'équilibrage pour les

rotors en état rigide (constant) — Partie 1: Spécifications et vérification des tolérances d'équilibrage.

ISO 8501-1, Préparation des subjectiles d'acier avant application de peintures et de produits assimilés —

Évaluation visuelle de la propreté d'un subjectile — Partie 1: Degrés de rouille et degrés de préparation des

subjectiles d'acier non recouverts et des subjectiles d'acier après décapage sur toute la surface des

revêtements précédents.
ISO 10684, Éléments de fixation — Revêtements de galvanisation à chaud.

ISO 13704, Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Calcul de l'épaisseur des tubes de fours de raffineries

du pétrole.
ISO 15649, Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Tuyauterie.

CEI 60079 (toutes les parties), Matériel électrique pour atmosphères explosives gazeuses.

ISO 10025-2:2004 , Produits laminés à chaud en aciers de construction — Partie 2: Conditions techniques

de livraison pour les aciers de construction non alliés.
ABMA Standard 9 , Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings.

AMCA 210 , Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating.

Comité européen de normalisation (CEN), Rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgique.

American Bearing Manufacturers Association, 2025 M. Street, NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

Air Movement and Control Association, 30 West University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60004, USA.

© ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13705:2012(F)

AMCA 801:2001, Industrial Process/Power Generation Fans — Specifications and Guidelines.

ASME B 17.1 , Keys and Keyseats.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels.
ASTM A 36 , Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel.

ASTM A 53, Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and

Seamless.

ASTM A 105, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications.

ASTM A 106, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.

ASTM A 123, Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products.

ASTM A 143, Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural

Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement.

ASTM A 153, Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware.

ASTM A 181, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping.

ASTM A 182, Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged

Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service.

ASTM A 192, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service.

ASTM A 193, Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High-Temperature or High-

Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications.

ASTM A 194, Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure or High-

Temperature Service, or Both.

ASTM A 209, Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Boiler and Superheater

Tubes.

ASTM A 210, Standard Specification for Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes.

ASTM A 213, Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and

Heat-Exchanger Tubes.

ASTM A 216, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-

Temperature Service.

ASTM A 217, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-

Containing Parts, Suitable for High-Temperature Service.

ASTM A 234, Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate

and High Temperature Service.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA.

2 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13705:2012(F)

ASTM A 240, Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and

Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications.
ASTM A 242, Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel.

ASTM A 283, Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates

ASTM A 297, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Iron-Chromium and Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Heat

Resistant, for General Application.

ASTM A 307, Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength.

ASTM A 312, Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless

Steel Pipes.

ASTM A 320, Standard Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-

Temperature Service.

ASTM A 325, Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile

Strength.

ASTM A 335, Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.

ASTM A 351, Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts.

ASTM A 376, Standard Specification for Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station

Service.

ASTM A 384, Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

of Steel Assemblies.

ASTM A 385, Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip).

ASTM A 387, Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum.

ASTM A 403, Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings.

ASTM A 447, Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Chromium-Nickel-Iron Alloy (25-12 Class), for High-

Temperature Service.
ASTM A 560, Standard Specification for Castings, Chromium-Nickel Alloy.

ASTM A 572, Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel.

ASTM A 608, Standard Specification for Centrifugally Cast Iron-Chromium-Nickel High-Alloy Tubing for

Pressure Application at High Temperatures.

ASTM B 366, Standard Specification for Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel Alloy Fittings.

ASTM B 407, Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube.

ASTM B 564, Standard Specification for Nickel Alloy Forgings.

ASTM B 633, Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc on Iron and Steel.

ASTM C 27, Standard Classification of Fireclay and High-Alumina Refractory Brick.

ASTM C 155, Standard Classification of Insulating Firebrick.
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ISO 13705:2012(F)

ASTM C 332, Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Insulating Concrete.

ASTM C 401, Standard Classification of Alumina and Alumina-Silicate Castable Refractories.

ASTM C 612, Standard Specification for Mineral Fiber Block and Board Thermal Insulation.

AWS D 1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel.
AWS D 14.6, Specification for Welding of Rotating Elements of Equipment.
NFPA 70 , National Electrical Code.
SSPC SP 6/NACE No.3 , Commercial Blast Cleaning.
3 Termes, définitions, abréviations et symboles

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

NOTE Les termes et définitions se rapportant aux ventilateurs centrifuges sont donnés dans l’Annexe E.

3.1 Termes et définitions
3.1.1
réchauffeur d’air
préchauffeur d'air
APH

appareil de transfert thermique à travers lequel circule de l'air de combustion par un milieu à température

supérieure, tel que des produits de combustion, de la vapeur ou un autre fluide
3.1.2
ancrage
tirant d’ancrage

dispositif métallique ou réfractaire maintenant le réfractaire ou l’isolant en place

3.1.3
voûte

partie plate ou incline de la zone de rayonnement du réchauffeur, opposée à la sole

3.1.4
atomiseur

dispositif servant à réduire un mazout liquide en brouillard fin, en utilisant de la vapeur, de l’air ou des moyens

mécaniques
3.1.5
couche de renfort
couche réfractaire située derrière la couche de face chaude
3.1.6
réchauffeur à tirage équilibré

réchauffeur comprenant des ventilateurs à tirage forcé pour l’alimentation en air de combustion et des

ventilateurs à tirage induit pour l’extraction des gaz de combustion
American Welding Society, 550 NW Le Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33126, USA.

National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA.

The Society for Protective Coatings, 40, 24th Street, Pittsburg, PA 15222-4643, USA.

4 © ISO 2012 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 13705:2012(F)
3.1.7
carneau

zone du réchauffeur où les gaz de combustion sont recueillis après le dernier serpentin de convection avant

d’être transférés dans la cheminée ou le réseau de conduits d’évacuation
3.1.8
mur d’autel
barrage fixe
paroi séparant deux zones adjacentes du réchauffeur
3.1.9
température du mur d'autel
température des gaz de combustion à la sortie de la zone de rayonnement
3.1.10
brûleur

dispositif assurant l’introduction du combustible et de l’air dans un réchauffeur aux vitesses, turbulence et

concentration désirées pour établir et maintenir une inflammation et une combustion correctes

NOTE Les brûleurs sont classés par type de combustible brûlé (mazout, gaz ou combinaison de gaz et de mazout,

auquel cas il s’agit de brûleurs « biocombustibles » ou « mixtes »).
3.1.11
registre à papillon
registre comportant une seule lame qui pivote autour de son axe
3.1.12
blindage
tôle métallique de confinement du réchauffeur
3.1.13
béton réfractaire

béton isolant coulé ou projeté sur place pour obtenir une forme ou structure réfractaire rigide

3.1.14
fibre céramique
isolant réfractaire fibreux pouvant se présenter sous la forme d'une
...

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