Space systems -- Detailed space debris mitigation requirements for launch vehicle orbital stages

This document defines detailed space debris mitigation requirements and recommendations for the design and operation of launch vehicle orbital stages in Earth orbit. The requirements defined in this document are applicable for: — avoiding the release of space debris; — disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to avoid a break-up in orbit; — disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to minimize interference with the protected regions; — safely re-entering a launch vehicle orbital stage.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Exigences détaillées pour la limitation des débris spatiaux relatifs aux étages orbitaux des lanceurs

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Feb-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
09-Jan-2021
Completion Date
08-Jan-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20893
First edition
2021-02
Space systems — Detailed space
debris mitigation requirements for
launch vehicle orbital stages
Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences détaillées pour la limitation des
débris spatiaux relatifs aux étages orbitaux des lanceurs
Reference number
ISO 20893:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20893:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20893:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy ...................................................................... 2

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1.2 Residual propellants in propulsion systems ............................................................................................ 2

5.1.3 Pressurized gasses in pressure vessels ........................................................................................................ 2

5.1.4 Batteries .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.5 Range safety systems ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.6 Probability of accidental break-up due to internal causes .......................................................... 3

5.2 Accidental break-up caused by a collision ...................................................................................................................... 3

6 Disposal of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of mission so as to minimize

interference with the protected regions ...................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Launch service provider — spacecraft mission designer coordination ................................................ 3

6.2 Selection of disposal option ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 Disposal to minimize interference with the geostationary Earth orbit

(GEO) protected region .............................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2.2 Disposal to minimize interference with the low Earth orbit (LEO)

protected region ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Probability of successful disposal........................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Contingency planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Re-entry ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Planning and documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Break-up prevention plan .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.3 End of mission disposal plan ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Re-entry plan ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.5 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 20893:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20893:2021(E)
Introduction

This document was developed to support the implementation of the high-level space debris mitigation

requirements in ISO 24113.

This document contains a detailed and practical set of requirements and recommendations to assist

the space industry in conforming to the requirements in ISO 24113 which relate to launch vehicle

orbital stages.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20893:2021(E)
Space systems — Detailed space debris mitigation
requirements for launch vehicle orbital stages
1 Scope

This document defines detailed space debris mitigation requirements and recommendations for the

design and operation of launch vehicle orbital stages in Earth orbit.
The requirements defined in this document are applicable for:
— avoiding the release of space debris;

— disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to avoid a break-up in orbit;

— disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to minimize interference

with the protected regions;
— safely re-entering a launch vehicle orbital stage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24113, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24113 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
decay orbit
orbit that will result in the re-entry of a launch vehicle orbital stage
3.2
disposal orbit

orbit in which launch vehicle orbital stage resides following the completion of its disposal maneuvers

4 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations

4.1 ISO 24113 specifies a limit for the total number of launch vehicle orbital stages and space debris

objects that a launch vehicle may leave in Earth orbit during normal operations.

NOTE The space debris objects related to the launch include, but are not limited to, protective shrouds, inter-

stage elements, clamp bands, jettisonable tanks, jettisonable attitude control or propellant settling systems.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20893:2021(E)

4.2 If a launch vehicle, by design, leaves two launch vehicle orbital stages in Earth orbit during the

launch of a single spacecraft, then at least one of the two stages shall be removed. It is preferred for both

stages to be removed from orbit at the end of the launch vehicle’s operations.
5 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit
5.1 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy
5.1.1 General

The following elements of a launch vehicle orbital stage are most likely to cause an accidental break-up:

a) residual propellants in propulsion systems;

b) pressure gasses in vessels including propellant tanks, high-pressure gas bottles, and pressure lines;

c) batteries;

d) range safety system when not decoupled from command chain, i.e. computer order and

necessary energy.
5.1.2 Residual propellants in propulsion systems

5.1.2.1 Residual propellants shall be vented from a launch vehicle orbital stage as part of its passivation,

the timing of such an operation being selected in order not to generate any adverse consequence to the

stage or its payloads.

NOTE1 In case residual propellants are vented by combustion from the thrust chamber, the change of mixture

ratio inside the chamber is a major factor of break-up risk of the thrust chamber.

NOTE2 In case residual propellants are vented in a sequential mode, without combustion, the pressure

gradients of venting of liquid residual propellants are key control variables to avoid either boiling up or the

generation of ice particle(debris) which can clog the passivation orifices and valves.

5.1.2.2 The venting of residual propellants shall be implemented in accordance with the requirements

of launch vehicle orbital stage disposal.

NOTE Proper orientation of venting outlets can lower the final orbit and thus reduce the orbit lifetime of a

launch vehicle orbital stage.
5.1.3 Pressurized gasses in pressure vessels

Pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with standardised procedures, and made safe by one

or more of the following means (in order of preference):
a) relieving the pressurized gasses totally, or

b) relieving the pressurized gasses until the internal pressures are lower than their validated critical

values, or

c) designing with safety margins that do not allow rupture when considering thermal effec

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 20893
ISO/TC 20/SC 14
Space systems — Detailed space
Secretariat: ANSI
debris mitigation requirements for
Voting begins on:
2020­11­13 launch vehicle orbital stages
Voting terminates on:
2021­01­08
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit ...................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy ...................................................................... 2

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1.2 Residual propellants in propulsion systems ............................................................................................ 2

5.1.3 Pressurized gasses in pressure vessels ........................................................................................................ 2

5.1.4 Batteries .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.5 Range safety systems ................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.6 Probability of accidental break-up due to internal causes .......................................................... 3

5.2 Accidental break-up caused by a collision ...................................................................................................................... 3

6 Disposal of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of mission so as to minimize

interference with the protected regions ...................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Launch service provider — spacecraft mission designer coordination ................................................ 3

6.2 Selection of disposal option ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 Disposal to minimize interference with the geostationary Earth orbit

(GEO) protected region .............................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2.2 Disposal to minimize interference with the low Earth orbit (LEO)

protected region ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Probability of successful disposal........................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Contingency planning ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Re-entry ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Planning and documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Break­up prevention plan .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

8.3 End of mission disposal plan ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.4 Re-entry plan ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.5 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
Introduction

This document was developed to support the implementation of the high­level space debris mitigation

requirements in ISO 24113.

This document contains a detailed and practical set of requirements and recommendations to assist

the space industry in conforming to the requirements in ISO 24113 which relate to launch vehicle

orbital stages.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)
Space systems — Detailed space debris mitigation
requirements for launch vehicle orbital stages
1 Scope

This document defines detailed space debris mitigation requirements and recommendations for the

design and operation of launch vehicle orbital stages in Earth orbit.
The requirements defined in this document are applicable for:
— avoiding the release of space debris;

— disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to avoid a break­up in orbit;

— disposing of a launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of its mission so as to minimize interference

with the protected regions;
— safely re-entering a launch vehicle orbital stage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24113, Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24113 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
decay orbit
orbit that will result in the re-entry of a launch vehicle orbital stage
3.2
disposal orbit

orbit in which launch vehicle orbital stage resides following the completion of its disposal maneuvers

4 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations

4.1 ISO 24113 specifies a limit for the total number of launch vehicle orbital stages and space debris

objects that a launch vehicle may leave in Earth orbit during normal operations.

NOTE The space debris objects related to the launch include, but are not limited to, protective shrouds, inter-

stage elements, clamp bands, jettisonable tanks, jettisonable attitude control or propellant settling systems.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 20893:2020(E)

4.2 If a launch vehicle, by design, leaves two launch vehicle orbital stages in Earth orbit during the

launch of a single spacecraft, then at least one of the two stages shall be removed. It is preferred for both

stages to be removed from orbit at the end of the launch vehicle’s operations.
5 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit
5.1 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy
5.1.1 General

The following elements of a launch vehicle orbital stage are most likely to cause an accidental break-up:

a) residual propellants in propulsion systems;

b) pressure gasses in vessels including propellant tanks, high­pressure gas bottles, and pressure lines;

c) batteries;

d) range safety system when not decoupled from command chain, i.e. computer order and

necessary energy.
5.1.2 Residual propellants in propulsion systems

5.1.2.1 Residual propellants shall be vented from a launch vehicle orbital stage as part of its passivation,

the timing of such an operation being selected in order not to generate any adverse consequence to the

stage or its payloads.

NOTE1 In case residual propellants are vented by combustion from the thrust chamber, the change of mixture

ratio inside the chamber is a major factor of break-up risk of the thrust chamber.

NOTE2 In case residual propellants are vented in a sequential mode, without combustion, the pressure

gradients of venting of liquid residual propellants are key control variables to avoid either boiling up or the

generation of ice particle(debris) which can clog the passivation orifices and valves.

5.1.2.2 The venting of residual propellants shall be implemented in accordance with the requirements

of launch vehicle orbital stage disposal.

NOTE Proper orientation of venting outlets can lower the final orbit and thus reduce the orbit lifetime of a

launch vehicle orbital stage.
5.1.3 Pressurized gasses in pressure vessels

Pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with standardised procedures, and made safe by one

or more of the following means (in order of preference):
a) relieving the
...

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