Graphic technology -- Post-press -- Requirements for bound products

ISO 16763:2016 specifies quality requirements and tolerances of bound products and intermediate components. It is applicable to products requiring industrial binding, for example, books, magazines, catalogues and brochures.

Technologie graphique -- Exigences pour la finition -- Produits reliés

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Published
Publication Date
08-Mar-2016
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
07-Jun-2021
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ISO 16763:2016 - Graphic technology -- Post-press -- Requirements for bound products
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16763
First edition
2016-03-01
Graphic technology — Post-press —
Requirements for bound products
Technologie graphique — Exigences pour la finition — Produits reliés
Reference number
ISO 16763:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Conversion processes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Binding methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Product and structure ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Component and binding material ........................................................................................................................................... 4

3.5 Binding quality evaluation ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4 Process requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Cutting for folding ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2.1 Preparation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.2 Cutting accuracy ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Folding ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.3.1 Fold types ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3.2 Folding control ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.3.3 Folding quality ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Assembling into blocks .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.1 Gathering ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.4.2 Pasting on endpapers .................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4.3 Inserting .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.5 Binding ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.5.1 Adhesive binding ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.5.2 Thread sewing.................................................................................................................................................................10

4.5.3 Thread sealing .................................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.4 Lock-stitching ..................................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.5 Saddle-stitching .............................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.6 Single-sheet binding (spiral, wire-o, comb) ..........................................................................................12

4.6 Trimming ..................................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.7 Case-bound book production ..................................................................................................................................................14

4.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

4.7.2 Rounding and backing .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...14

4.7.3 Inserting a bookmark ...............................................................................................................................................14

4.7.4 Back-lining ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................14

4.7.5 Attaching headbands .................................................................................................................................................14

4.7.6 Case construction .........................................................................................................................................................14

4.7.7 Casing-in ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

4.7.8 Joint forming .....................................................................................................................................................................17

4.7.9 Adding a jacket ...............................................................................................................................................................17

4.8 Paper-bound book production ...............................................................................................................................................17

4.8.1 Size of the cover .............................................................................................................................................................17

4.8.2 Weight of the cover .....................................................................................................................................................18

4.8.3 Cover application ..........................................................................................................................................................18

5 Binding quality control ...............................................................................................................................................................................18

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.2 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.3 Inspection of the final products ............................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (normative) Method to measure degree of warping of finished products ........................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
Introduction

Bound products, such as booklets, brochures, case-bound or paper-bound books, etc., are commonly

used in daily life across countries. Post-press is the last but not the least process in the production

flow of bound products, which includes pre-press, printing and post-press. This International Standard

introduces the use of the standardization approach to accomplish the conversion of printed sheets into

end products and to achieve the desired result.

Post-press production has a significant effect on the appearance, usability and durability of bound

products. The aim of this International Standard is to address the major quality elements in post-press

production of such products.

Post-press production of bound products involves four major processes: cutting, folding, assembling

and binding. As the process steps are interrelated and sequential, any deviations from current practice

can lead to deficiencies in the end product. Accordingly, this International Standard specifies technical

requirements and tolerances for the outcomes of processing operations in order to avoid quality

deficiencies. Although material specification is not covered in this International Standard because this

is not normally the responsibility of the finisher, it is recommended that, if a long life is required for the

bound product, ISO 9706 gives guidance.

This International Standard is expected to benefit both manufacturers and customers in the printing

and publishing industries in terms of the production and assessment of bound products.

The use of this International Standard is intended to
— enhance overall process control of the production of bound products,
— enhance production efficiency and accuracy in post-press processes,
— reduce occurrence of remakes resulting from inadequate working methods, and

— promote transparency of the quality requirements of post-press operations in a universally

understood manner.

This International Standard does not cover special effect or surface decorations.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16763:2016(E)
Graphic technology — Post-press — Requirements for
bound products
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies quality requirements and tolerances of bound products and

intermediate components. It is applicable to products requiring industrial binding, for example, books,

magazines, catalogues and brochures.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 534, Paper and board — Determination of thickness, density and specific volume

ISO 536, Paper and board — Determination of grammage
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Conversion processes
3.1.1
backing

shaping a ridge or shoulder on each side of the spine of a book block after rounding, ideally complemented

by gluing a material stripe on the spine with the same width as the spine
3.1.2
binding

holding signatures or sheets together along one edge by means of staples, adhesives, thread, wire

or other means

Note 1 to entry: Most of the time, the binding process also includes attaching a cover to the bound block.

3.1.3
casing in

gluing endpapers to the inside of the case to anchor the bound and trimmed book block into the case

3.1.4
cutting

using a mechanical device (e.g. blade) to reduce sheets to a size that is suitable for further processing

3.1.5
creasing

indenting lines into substrates, such as cardboard or paper, to guide subsequent folding operations and

to prevent cracking
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
3.1.6
folding

bending a printed or blank substrate upon itself in order to achieve specified dimensions and

folding layouts

Note 1 to entry: It is important that the correct imposition is used at the printing stage in order to obtain the

sequence of pages in a bound product, as well as to compensate the creep.
3.1.7
gathering

assembling either by collating of signatures to form a multi-layer block or by inserting one signature

inside another signature to form a single-layer block
3.1.8
gluing-off
applying glue on the spine of a thread sewn or thread sealed book block
3.1.9
inserting

assembling signatures one inside another or putting loose inserts into print products

3.1.10
back-lining

covering the glued spine by a material stripe with an extension on front and back side of the book block

3.1.11
rounding

forming, by mechanical or manual manipulation, the spine of a book block into a convex shape prior to

backing
3.1.12
trimming

cutting off the edges of a blank or printed substrate or book block to achieve the required format

3.2 Binding methods
3.2.1
adhesive binding

converting process used to join, by gluing individual pages or signatures and covers into a final product

Note 1 to entry: There are different types of adhesive binding that result from the different processes of spine

preparation prior to the application of adhesive; commonly used types are notch binding and perfect binding.

3.2.2
lock-stitching

sewing method where two threads, an upper and a lower, are used to link together in stitching

Note 1 to entry: This method is used mainly for identity cards and passports.
3.2.3
notch binding

type of adhesive binding where slots are cut into the spine edges of the gathered signatures to facilitate

the penetration of adhesive
3.2.4
perfect binding

type of adhesive binding in which gathered signatures or sheets are connected to a book block by

applying glue on the binding edge after executing spine preparation techniques

Note 1 to entry: In the broad sense, perfect binding is also used as an alternate term for adhesive binding.

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
3.2.5
saddle-stitching

binding method where a set of folded and inserted signatures is bound with stitches or staples driven

down through the centre fold of the spine
Note 1 to entry: This method is used mainly for menus, brochures and magazines.
3.2.6
single-sheet binding

type of non-adhesive binding in which the single sheets are held together by a plastic or metal binding

tool (spiral, wire-o and comb), showing a particular good lay-flat behaviour.

Note 1 to entry: This method is used mainly for products that need to lay flat when opened, such as board books,

cookbooks, notebooks, calendars and manuals.
3.2.7
thread sealing

sealing method used as an economical alternative to thread sewing, where the signatures are bound

with single thread staples containing a thermoplastic coating during the folding process

3.2.8
thread sewing

binding method where the gathered signatures are sewn together with thread before being inserted

into a cover or book case

Note 1 to entry: There are two thread sewing methods: sewing with stitches on a straight line and sewing with

stitches on a staggered line.
3.3 Product and structure
3.3.1
binding edge

edge of a book block along which signatures or pages are bound by means of staples, adhesives, thread,

wire or other means
3.3.2
binding margin

white space that is left blank between the binding edge and the printed area of a page

3.3.3
case-bound book

set of blank, written or printed pages bound in a case made of solid boards glued onto the end paper

of a book block
3.3.4
bound product

book or book block, made up of one or more folded sheets or single sheets, held together by a particular

binding method, with or without a cover
3.3.5
brochure

set of blank, written or printed pages bound together in a cover made of cardboard (soft-cover)

3.3.6
fore edge

front edge of a book or book block that is opposite, and parallel, to its binding edge

3.3.7
head
top edge of a book or a book block
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
3.3.8
joint

one of two grooves that run head to tail on the outside of the case, front and back, in the gap between

spine inlay and case boards
3.3.9
Omega staples
variant of wire staples with shaped eyelets to be used as file holes
Note 1 to entry: Loop stitch is same as Omega staple.
3.3.10
shoulder

outer edge on each side of the rounded spine of a book block that is formed by the backing process

3.3.11
spine

back of a book block or outer portion of a book where the pages are held together, opposite to the fore edge

3.3.12
squares

edges of the book case extending beyond the book block at the head, tail and fore edges

3.3.13
tail
bottom edge of a book or a book block
3.4 Component and binding material
3.4.1
book block

part of a case-bound book or brochure, consisting of a trimmed or untrimmed bound block of sheets,

prior to the application of the book case or cover
3.4.2
bookmark

fabric ribbon, one end of which is normally glued onto the top of the spine, inserted between the pages

of a book to mark the reader’s place
3.4.3
case

hardcover of a book composed of front and rear boards, spine inlay and covering material

3.4.4
cover

flexible or rigid cardboard connected to the book block to protect and strengthen it

3.4.5
covering material

flexible material, which can be paper or fabric, attached to the case boards and the spine inlay of a case

3.4.6
end paper

folded sheet used at the front and back of a book block to connect it with the case using glue

3.4.7
headband

decorative fabric band glued onto the upper and lower edges of the spine of a book block

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ISO 16763:2016(E)
3.4.8
multi-layer block
book block assembled by collation of signatures in page order
3.4.9
overhang

part of the covering material that extends beyond the edges of the case boards and spine inlay

before turning-in
3.4.10
signature
printed sheet, single or multiple folded to be used as part of a book block
3.4.11
single-layer block

book block consisting of a single signature or assembled by inserting signatures into one another, which

can be bound to form a thin magazine, a booklet or document with a limited number of pages

3.4.12
spine inlay

stripe of cardboard or solid board attached with gaps between the front and rear boards of a case

3.4.13
turn-in

overhang that is turned over the edges of the case boards and spine inlay onto their inside surface of

the case
3.5 Binding quality evaluation
3.5.1
glue penetration

uncontrolled and inhomogeneous penetration of glue between the sheets of a book block

3.5.2
grain direction

direction in which the majority of the fibres in a piece of paper, cardboard or solid board are aligned

and the direction in which the warp threads run in cloth

Note 1 to entry: The grain direction in a sheet of machine-made paper is also referred to as the machine direction.

Note 2 to entry: The sheet is called long grain if the larger dimension is parallel to the machine direction (MD).

The sheet is called short grain if the larger dimension is parallel to the cross direction (CD).

Note 3 to entry: In book binding, the right grain direction is preferentially parallel to the binding edge.

4 Process requirements
4.1 General

Post-press production of bound products is carried out in a series of process operations. A typical

workflow is shown in Figure 1 and, for each operation, the number of the clause describing it is given

in parentheses.
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
Key

For some lock-stitched blocks, cover application (if necessary) takes place before trimming.

For single-sheet binding, trimming (if necessary) takes place before binding.

NOTE The number in parentheses in each box refers to the number of the relevant clause in this

International Standard.
Figure 1 — Workflow chart for bound products

All processes shall be performed in a way that no markings, ink transfer, wrinkles, cracks, etc. occur.

There shall be prior information exchange between parties on all aspects of quality of the end or final

product. This includes information on the standardized climatic condition of the region of use.

4.2 Cutting for folding
4.2.1 Preparation

Prior to the cutting operation, tests for cutting pressure shall be performed to ensure the avoidance of

marking in subsequent processes.
4.2.2 Cutting accuracy
4.2.2.1 Piles of sheets

A first master edge (usually identifiable by the printed register mark) shall be defined, either parallel

or perpendicular to the printed content, and a second master edge shall be defined; the angle between

them shall be 90° ± 0,2°. If the angle between the master edges cannot be guaranteed, the following

edge and squareness tolerances shall apply.
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ISO 16763:2016(E)

The squareness and dimensions of a cut pile shall be determined by taking the measurement of two

sample sheets (one from the top and one from the bottom of the pile). The squareness of the sheet shall

be determined by measuring both the horizontal and vertical edges (W1, W2, H1, H2) and the diagonal

lines (X, Y) as shown in Figure 2, where the squareness tolerance is given by the values of W1 – W2,

H1 – H2 and X – Y, each value shall be ±0,5 mm. For dimensional accuracy tolerance, the value shall be

1,0 mm per 1 000 mm.
A calibrated measuring device shall be used to take measurements.
Figure 2 — Measurement of edges and diagonal lines for squareness
4.2.2.2 Web-fed cutting

In cutting for web-fed production, the position of the cutting edge and any perforation shall be within

1,0 mm of the design cutting position.
4.2.2.3 Cutting quality

After any cutting operation and removal of the waste from the cut edges, the material shall match the

desired shape and dimensions and be free from pressure marks, knife marks, ink transfer, breaks and

burring due to a blunt cutting instrument.
4.3 Folding
4.3.1 Fold types

The appropriate fold type and imposition schema for a signature is provided as part of the job information.

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ISO 16763:2016(E)
4.3.2 Folding control
Folded products should show no cracking along the fold or any wrinkles.

NOTE To prevent cracking, pre-creasing along fold lines can be carried out and, to prevent wrinkles,

perforation can be carried out.
4.3.3 Folding quality

Measurement for folding accuracy shall be taken on the last folding position using reopened unbound

signatures under a graduated magnifier. The deviation tolerances between the last folding position and the

folding marks for different numbers of folds shown in Table 1 shall apply. For papers of higher grammage,

fewer folds should be made. The grammage of paper shall be determined as described in ISO 536.

Table 1 — Deviation tolerance for folding accuracy
Deviation tolerance
Number of folds Applicability of the tolerance
1 fold 0,60 Substrates up to 200 g/m²
2 folds 0,70 Substrates up to 180 g/m²
3 folds 0,90 Substrates up to 150 g/m²
4 folds 1,00 Substrates up to 100 g/m²

NOTE If papers have a high bulk, the folding accuracy will be affected. The basis weight is intended as a

guide. If papers with higher basis weights are to be folded more often than indicated in Table 1, larger folding

deviations may result.
4.4 Assembling into blocks
4.4.1 Gathering

During gathering, signatures shall be aligned both to the leading edge and to the spine with a deviation

tolerance of ±0,5 mm. The correctness of the sequence of signatures shall be checked (either visually by

collating marks or automatically by an inspection system).

NOTE Gathering can be performed in more than one process to form multi-layer blocks or single-layer blocks.

If an overlap is required for a gathering operation, the trim-cut overlap should be appropriate to

the device used.
NOTE The trim-cut overlap is usually a minimum of 5 mm.
4.4.2 Pasting on endpapers

The fold of each endpaper on the first and last signatures respectively should have an offset of

(1,5 ± 0,5) mm from the outermost fold of the signature. The adhesive line shall be straight and have a

maximum width of 5,0 mm, clear of ink or varnish. The endpaper shall be aligned with the signature on

the head. See Figure 3.
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ISO 16763:2016(E)
Key
1 folded signature
2 endpaper
3 offset
Figure 3 — Position of the endpaper
4.4.3 Inserting
When other folded sheets or loose inserts need to b
...

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