Ships and marine technology -- Maintenance and testing to reduce losses in critical systems for propulsion

ISO 13613:2011 provides shipboard personnel and other parties information concerning operational maintenance and testing for certain critical systems. Proper maintenance of these systems can help reduce the risk of ship propulsion and manoeuvrability losses.

Navires et technologie maritime -- Maintenance et essais pour réduire les pertes dans les systèmes critiques pour la propulsion

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
22-Nov-2011
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
10-Nov-2011
Completion Date
23-Nov-2011
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ISO 13613:2011 - Ships and marine technology -- Maintenance and testing to reduce losses in critical systems for propulsion
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13613
First edition
2011-12-01
Ships and marine technology —
Maintenance and testing to reduce losses
in critical systems for propulsion
Navires et technologie maritime — Maintenance et essais pour réduire
les pertes dans les systèmes critiques pour la propulsion
Reference number
ISO 13613:2011(E)
ISO 2011
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... v

0.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................vi

0.2 Air start system failure ...................................................................................................................................... vi

0.3 Fuel oil quality problems .................................................................................................................................. vi

0.4 Fuel switching ..................................................................................................................................................... vi

0.5 Informative annexes .......................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Technical information and recommendations ............................................................................................. 1

3.1 General maintenance of ship systems .......................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Compressed air systems maintenance ......................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Fuel oil system maintenance .......................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Maintenance and testing of ship automation systems ............................................................................. 6

Annex A (informative) Example maintenance items for compressed air systems ........................................... 7

Annex B (informative) Sample record of periodic maintenance procedures ..................................................... 8

Annex C (informative) Example diagram of engine fuel supply and switching system .................................. 9

Annex D (informative) Recommendations for lubricating oil systems ..............................................................10

Annex E (informative) Recommendations for other common engineering system components .............. 11

Annex F (informative) Marine fuel characteristics (see also ISO 8217) ..............................................................12

Annex G (informative) Marine residual fuel characteristics (see also ISO 8217) ............................................13

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13613 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee SC 3,

Piping and machinery.
iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
0 Introduction
0.1 General

This International Standard informs shipboard personnel and other parties about the need to consider factors

affecting operational maintenance and testing for certain systems that have been linked to ship propulsion

losses. A recently completed survey of SOLAS ship casualties from 2003 to 2007 revealed that a number of

the reported casualties were propulsion losses involving air start systems for engines, fuel oil quality problems,

and fuel switching.

Industry groups have stated that current procedures for fuel switching underway, in compliance with air quality

regulations, may increase the risk of propulsion losses.
0.2 Air start system failure

Air start system failure typically occurs when a ship with direct drive diesel propulsion is changing direction. Air

valves needed to stop and restart the engine in the other direction seize or fail to respond. Maintenance and

testing of the air systems minimize the risk of failure.
0.3 Fuel oil quality problems

Fuel oil problems can cause propulsion loss by clogging a filter and starving the engine. Use of incorrect fuel

over prolonged periods can cause damage to fuel pumps and engine cylinders. A ship can also lose propulsion

when a generator shuts down because of fuel problems, as electrical power is generally needed to drive cooling

and lubrication pumps for the propulsion engine. Maintenance and testing of fuel oil purifying equipment, tanks

and piping minimize quality problems.
0.4 Fuel switching

In order to comply with air quality regulations, ships may need to switch to low sulfur fuel while underway.

They perform the switch before they enter an emission control area (ECA). This procedure can involve a

changeover from heavy fuel oil to a distillate fuel. Proper fuel switching procedures and awareness of possible

fuel compatibility problems can minimize the risk of propulsion loss.
0.5 Informative annexes

Annexes A to E are provided for information only as examples of recommendations for ship engineering

systems and components. The survey of ship propulsion casualties identified only high pressure air and fuel

system (fuel quality and fuel switching) problems as being linked to a number of casualties.

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13613:2011(E)
Ships and marine technology — Maintenance and testing to
reduce losses in critical systems for propulsion
1 Scope

This International Standard provides shipboard personnel and other parties information concerning operational

maintenance and testing for certain critical systems. Proper maintenance of these systems can help reduce the

risk of ship propulsion and manoeuvrability losses.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
delta p
differential pressure

difference in pressure between two points in a system often used as a measurement parameter in filtering

devices to indicate condition (clean or clogged) of the filter
2.2
viscosity
measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow

NOTE Specified minimum and maximum viscosities are required for all fuel oils. A fuel oil’s viscosity indicates how

well the oil will flow, the extent to which it can be atomized, and the temperature at which the oil should be maintained to

atomize properly.
3 Technical information and recommendations
3.1 General maintenance of ship systems

The purpose of general maintenance of ship systems is to maximize efficiency and reliability of systems and

minimize downtime. Suitable maintenance intervals help avoid equipment failures.
3.1.1 Types of maintenance
3.1.1.1 Preventative
a) Routine
— greasing, lubricating, level checking (tanks, sump, etc.)
— operator checks (buttons/switches, valves/flaps, lamps, alarms)
— measurements (gauges, clearances, voltage, pressure, temperature, vacuum)
b) Planned
— calendar time (weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.)
— operating (running) hours
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
3.1.1.2 Condition based
— vibration analysis, diesel engine trend analysis
— laboratory oil analysis (fuel, lube, hydraulic)
— performance based (deviation from reference points), database building
— ultrasonic thickness/leak detection, etc. ± non-destructive examination
— on-board wear down measurement and/or particle density measurement of oil
3.1.1.3 Breakdown maintenance
— unplanned maintenance
— fix only when broken

— do minimum maintenance to keep equipment running (e.g. filters), until something breaks

NOTE It is important to remember that, even with proper maintenance, breakdown is possible on virtually any system

at any time.
3.1.2 Logistical support

Detailed information for replacement parts in critical systems is needed, such as

— manufacturer,
— make/model/serial number,
— warranty information,
— maintenance recommendations,
— maintenance and repair history,
— vendor locations, and
— required spare parts to be kept on board, and on-board inventories.
The following may be associated with nearly all systems and equipment:
— scheduled maintenance intervals;
— equipment operating records;
— lubrication procedures and schedules;

— repair and maintenance parts details, notes, diagrams, and even digital photographs;

— complete listing of instruments and tests required during maintenance procedures;

— experience and time requirements of maintenance personnel (level of competence and man hours

expected).
3.2 Compressed air systems maintenance

Compressed air systems require periodic maintenance. Inadequate maintenance can lead to

— lower efficiency,
— air leakage,
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ISO 13613:2011(E)
— high operating temperatures,
— poor moisture control, leading to too much moisture in the system,
— contamination by dirt or rust,
— excessive contamination, and
— unsafe working environments.

Maintenance of compressed air systems should take into account the manufacturer’s recommendations for

inspection and service, as well as company-specific requirements. Annex A provides some basic compressed

air system maintenance recommendations.
3.3 Fuel oil system maintenance
3.3.1 General

Fuel systems on ships are a potential source of fire and/or explosion, and should, therefore, be maintained in

optimum condition. Poor fuel quality can potentially cause an engine breakdown at sea, which could endanger

the ship and cause loss of business.

Components of fuel systems from the fuel tank through to the engine and back to the tank should be checked

regularly for leaks, wear, deterioration, and general damage. Components can include valves, pumps, heat

exchangers, gaskets, filters and strainers.

Ship and company personnel should ensure that correct fuel filters are available for the types of fuel to be used.

Owners and operators, in consultation with manufacturers, should determine the method of record-keeping of

maintenance work performed on the fuel systems.
3.3.2 Testing of fuel received

MARPOL Annex VI requires that a sample of bunker fuel be provided during each bunkering operation. A

testing programme for fuel received may be beneficial in verifying fuel quality. In some instances, reports

provided by suppliers may be considered inadequate or inaccurate when compared to the importance of the

product to proper engine operation.

Users should consider the engine manufacturer’s recommendations and ISO 8217 for more specific details on

marine fuel oil properties, especially viscosity, in determining the most appropriate fuel for their installation.

3.3.3 Purifier maintenance

In addition to planned maintenance, most purifiers require at least occasional cleaning. Non-self-cleaning

types may need more frequent cleaning.
Sludge, wax and other solids are normally cleaned from discs manually.

Sludge disposal timer (self-cleaning), correct RPM, and correct temperature of fluid are all important. Cleaning

intervals are often determined by experience with various fuel quality types.
3.3.4 Properties of fuel that can affect maintenance and operation

In order to avoid fuel pump and injector difficulties, fuels should be delivered to the engine in a condition as

close to the manufacturer’s recommended technical specifications as possible. Water in fuel can cause ragged

operation and may corrode the fuel handling system. Important fuel properties include

— viscosity (see 2.2),

— flashpoint; fuels having a flashpoint of less than 60 °C are generally not permitted, see Reference [4],

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ISO 13613:2011(E)
— sulfur content,
— total sediment,
— water (percent by volume), and
— density.

Some engine manufacturers may prescribe guidelines that differ from those above when burning heavy fuel

oil (HFO). Correct viscosity, however, is essential to engines burning HFO, and adjusting viscosity may require

fuel heating systems. Conversely, when ships switch from HFO to distillate, a cooling process may be required

to ensure the distillate fuel temperature is not excessive.
3.3.5 Fuel switching

Fuel switching may involve a change-over from high sulfur fuel (HSF) to low sulfur fuel (LSF), either for the

main engine(s), ship service diesel generators, or both. Fuel switching may be required by local area law for

vessels mandating the use of LSF in order to limit oxides of sulfur (SOx). (See Figure C.1 for a general diagram

of a fuel/fuel switching system).

There are a number of important considerations involved with fuel switching, including

— separate storage tanks required for HSF and LSF,

— potential for clogged filters when “blending” or mixing HSF and LSF fuels during the switching process,

resulting in loss of fuel supply to engine,

— engine is normally designed for optimum performance based on specific fuel oil temperature and viscosity

range,

— improper fuel for a particular engine can result in premature wear to critical engine components, including

injection pumps, cylinder liners, and piston rings,

— in certain engines, fuel leaks may cause fuel dilution of lubricating oil, which can degrade the lubricating

properties and result in significant damage to expensive engine bearings,

— improper control of LSF temperature may result in excessively low viscosity of fuel,

— considering the total base number (TBN) of the lubricating oil (cylinder and engine) when the sulfur content

of the fuel is not consistent,
— consulting engine and boiler manufacturers for fuel switching guidance
...

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