Information technology — MPEG audio technologies — Part 4: Dynamic range control

This document specifies technology for loudness and dynamic range control. It is applicable to most MPEG audio technologies. It offers flexible solutions to efficiently support the widespread demand for technologies such as loudness normalization and dynamic range compression for various playback scenarios.

Technologies de l'information — Technologies audio MPEG — Partie 4: Contrôle de gamme dynamique

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Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Jun-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
18-Oct-2019
Completion Date
04-Jun-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23003-4
Second edition
2020-06
Information technology — MPEG
audio technologies —
Part 4:
Dynamic range control
Technologies de l'information — Technologies audio MPEG —
Partie 4: Contrôle de gamme dynamique
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................... vi

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. vii

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and mnemonics........................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Mnemonics ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols (and abbreviated terms) ............................................................................................................. 3

5 Technical overview ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6 DRC decoder ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 DRC decoder configuration .......................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1.2 Description of logical blocks ........................................................................................................................ 7

6.1.3 Derivation of peak and loudness values............................................................................................... 12

6.2 Dynamic DRC gain payload ....................................................................................................................... 16

6.3 DRC set selection ........................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3.2 Pre-selection based on Signal Properties and Decoder Configuration ..................................... 17

6.3.3 Selection based on requests ..................................................................................................................... 20

6.3.4 Final selection ................................................................................................................................................ 22

6.3.5 Applying multiple DRC sets ....................................................................................................................... 23

6.3.6 Album mode .................................................................................................................................................... 23

6.3.7 Ducking............................................................................................................................................................. 23

6.3.8 Precedence ...................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.4 Time domain DRC application ................................................................................................................. 24

6.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.4.2 Framing ............................................................................................................................................................ 24

6.4.3 Time resolution ............................................................................................................................................. 25

6.4.4 Time alignment ............................................................................................................................................. 25

6.4.5 Decoding .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

6.4.6 Gain modifications and interpolation ................................................................................................... 29

6.4.7 Spline interpolation ..................................................................................................................................... 35

6.4.8 Look-ahead in decoder ............................................................................................................................... 36

6.4.9 Node reservoir ............................................................................................................................................... 37

6.4.10 Applying the compression ......................................................................................................................... 38

6.4.11 Dynamic equalization ................................................................................................................................. 41

6.4.12 Multi-band DRC filter bank ....................................................................................................................... 43

6.5 Sub-band domain DRC ................................................................................................................................ 47

6.6 Generation of DRC gain values at the decoder ................................................................................... 51

6.6.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................................... 51

6.6.2 Description of logical blocks ..................................................................................................................... 52

6.6.3 Algorithmic details ....................................................................................................................................... 53

6.6.4 Combining parametric and non-parametric DRCs ........................................................................... 60

6.7 Loudness equalization support ............................................................................................................... 61

6.8 Equalization tool ........................................................................................................................................... 62

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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)

6.8.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 62

6.8.2 EQ payloads .................................................................................................................................................... 62

6.8.3 EQ filter elements ......................................................................................................................................... 63

6.8.4 EQ set selection ............................................................................................................................................. 64

6.8.5 Application of EQ set ................................................................................................................................... 64

6.9 Complexity management ........................................................................................................................... 72

6.9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 72

6.9.2 DRC and downmixing complexity estimation .................................................................................... 72

6.9.3 EQ complexity estimation ......................................................................................................................... 74

6.10 Loudness normalization ............................................................................................................................ 75

6.10.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................................... 75

6.10.2 Loudness normalization based on target loudness ......................................................................... 76

6.11 DRC in streaming scenarios ...................................................................................................................... 79

6.11.1 DRC configuration ........................................................................................................................................ 79

6.11.2 Error handling ............................................................................................................................................... 79

6.12 DRC configuration changes during active processing ..................................................................... 79

7 Syntax ............................................................................................................................................................... 81

7.1 Syntax of DRC payload ................................................................................................................................ 81

7.2 Syntax of DRC gain payload ...................................................................................................................... 81

7.3 Syntax of static DRC payload .................................................................................................................... 82

7.4 Syntax of DRC gain sequence.................................................................................................................. 109

7.5 Syntax of parametric DRC tool............................................................................................................... 110

7.6 Syntax of equalization tools ................................................................................................................... 117

8 Reference software .................................................................................................................................... 131

8.1 Reference software structure ................................................................................................................ 131

8.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 131

8.2 Bitstream decoding software ................................................................................................................. 131

8.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 131

8.2.2 MPEG-D DRC decoding software ........................................................................................................... 132

9 Conformance ................................................................................................................................................ 132

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 132

9.2 Conformance testing ................................................................................................................................. 132

9.2.1 Conformance test data and test procedure ....................................................................................... 132

9.2.2 Naming conventions .................................................................................................................................. 134

9.2.3 File format definitions .............................................................................................................................. 136

9.3 Encoder Conformance for MPEG-D DRC bitstreams ...................................................................... 138

9.3.1 Characteristics and test procedure ..................................................................................................... 138

9.3.2 Configuration payload .............................................................................................................................. 139

9.3.3 Interface payload ....................................................................................................................................... 153

9.3.4 Frame Payload ............................................................................................................................................. 156

9.3.5 Requirements depending on profiles and levels ............................................................................ 157

9.4 Decoder conformance test categories and conditions .................................................................. 158

9.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 158

9.4.2 Conformance test categories .................................................................................................................. 158

9.4.3 Conformance test conditions ................................................................................................................. 158

Annex A (normative) Tables ............................................................................................................................ 167

Annex B (normative) External Interface to DRC tool .............................................................................. 207

Annex C (informative) Audio codec specific information ..................................................................... 220

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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)

Annex D (informative) DRC gain generation and encoding .................................................................. 225

Annex E (informative) DRC set selection and adjustment at decoder .............................................. 236

Annex F (informative) Loudness normalization ...................................................................................... 243

Annex G (informative) Peak limiter .............................................................................................................. 244

Annex H (informative) Equalization ............................................................................................................. 249

Annex I (normative) Profiles and levels....................................................................................................... 251

Annex J (informative) Reference software disclaimer ........................................................................... 260

Annex K (informative) Reference software ................................................................................................ 261

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................. 262

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity.

ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the

IEC list of patent declarations received (see http://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information Technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia, and hypermedia.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 23003-4:2015), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendments ISO 23003-4:2015/Amd.1:2017 and

ISO 23003-4:2015/Amd.2:2017. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Amendments to the previous edition that include enhancements, definitions of profiles and levels,

reference software, and conformance are integrated.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23003 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
Introduction

Consumer audio systems and devices are used in a large variety of configurations and acoustical

environments. For many of these scenarios, the audio reproduction quality can be improved by

appropriate control of content dynamics and loudness.

This document provides a universal dynamic range control tool that supports loudness normalization.

The DRC tool offers a bitrate efficient representation of dynamically compressed versions of an audio

signal. This is achieved by adding a low-bitrate DRC metadata stream to the audio signal. The DRC tool

includes dedicated sections for clipping prevention, ducking, and for generating a fade-in and fade-out

to supplement the main dynamic range compression functionality. The DRC effects available at the DRC

decoder are generated at the DRC encoder side. At the DRC decoder side, the audio signal may be played

back without applying the DRC tool, or an appropriate DRC tool effect is selected and applied based on

the given playback scenario.

Loudness normalization is fully integrated with DRC and peak control to avoid clipping. A metadata-

controlled equalization tool is provided to compensate for playback scenarios that impact the spectral

balance, such as downmix or DRC. Furthermore, the DRC tool supports metadata-based loudness

equalization to compensate the effect of playback level changes on the spectral balance.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) draw attention to the fact that it is claimed that compliance with this document may

involve the use of a patent.

ISO and IEC take no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of these patent rights

The holders of these patent rights have assured ISO and IEC that they are willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the world.

In this respect, the statements of the holders of these patent rights are registered with ISO and IEC.

Information may be obtained from the patent database available at www.iso.org/patents.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights other than those in the patent database. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
Information technology — MPEG audio technologies —
Part 4:
Dynamic range control
1 Scope

This document specifies technology for loudness and dynamic range control. It is applicable to most

MPEG audio technologies. It offers flexible solutions to efficiently support the widespread demand for

technologies such as loudness normalization and dynamic range compression for various playback

scenarios.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 14496-12, Information technology — Coding of audio-visual objects — Part 12: ISO base media

file format

ISO/IEC 14496-26:2010, Information technology — Coding of audio-visual objects — Part 26: Audio

Conformance

ISO/IEC 23008-3:2019, Information technology — High efficiency coding and media delivery in

heterogeneous environments — Part 3: 3D audio

ISO/IEC 23091-3, Information technology — Coding-independent code points — Part 3: Audio

3 Terms, definitions and mnemonics
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 14496-12 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
DRC sequence
series of DRC gain values that can be applied to one or more audio channels
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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
3.1.2
DRC set

defined set of DRC sequences that produce a desired effect if applied to the audio signal

3.1.3
album
collection of audio recordings that are mastered in a consistent way

Note 1 to entry: Traditionally, a collection of songs released on a Compact Disk belongs into this category, for

example.
3.1.4
conformance test bitstream

bitstream used for testing the conformance of MPEG-D DRC compliant audio decoders

3.1.5
conformance test case

conformance test category and a combination of one or more conformance test conditions for which a

conformance test sequence is provided
3.1.6
conformance test condition

condition which applies to properties of a conformance test sequence in order to test a certain

functionality of the MPEG-D DRC decoder
3.1.7
conformance test criteria

one or more conformance test tools and corresponding parameters applied to verify the conformance

for a certain conformance test sequence
3.1.8
conformance test sequence

set of a conformance test bitstream, a decoder setting, an input audio file and a corresponding reference

file
3.1.9
decoder input parameters

input parameters that are supplied to an MPEG-D DRC decoder in addition to a conformance test

bitstream, a decoder interface bitstream and an input audio file
3.1.10
decoder setting

combination of a decoder interface bitstream and decoder input parameters that are supplied to an

MPEG-D DRC decoder
3.1.11
input DRC set selection parameters
input parameter set for testing of a DRC gain decoder instance

Note 1 to entry: This parameter set is solely used for conformance testing in the context of the DRC gain decoder

conformance test category (DrcGainDec).
3.1.12
reference audio file

decoded counterpart of a conformance test bitstream, a decoder setting and an input audio file

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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
3.1.13
reference DRC set selection parameters

decoded counterpart of a conformance test bitstream and a decoder setting fed to the DRC set selection

process

Note 1 to entry: This parameter set is an intermediate result of an MPEG-D DRC compliant decoder

implementation solely used for conformance testing in the context of the DRC selection process test category

(DrcSelProc).
3.1.14
reference file
reference audio file or reference DRC set selection parameters
3.2 Mnemonics

bslbf bit string, left bit first, where “left” is the order in which bit strings are written in the

ISO/IEC 14496 series

NOTE Bit strings are written as a string of 1s and 0s within single quote marks, for

example '1000 0001'. Blanks within a bit string are for ease of reading and have no

significance.
byte_align() number of bits to fill for byte alignment at the offset of n bits:
byte_align(n) = 8 ceil (n/8) – n
uimsbf unsigned integer, most significant bit first

vlclbf variable length code, left bit first, where “left” refers to the order in which the

variable length codes are written
bit(n) a bit string with n bits in the same format as bslbf
unsigned int(n) an unsigned integer with n bits in the same format as uimsbf
signed int(n) a signed integer with n bits, most significant bit first
mod modulo operator: (x mod y) = x-y floor (x/y)
sizeof(x) size operator that returns the bit size of a field x

TRUE/FALSE values of Boolean data type, which correspond to numerical 1 and 0, respectively

4 Symbols
a filter coefficient
b band index of DRC filter bank (starting at 0)
b filter coefficient

deltaTmin smallest permitted DRC gain sample interval in units of the audio sample interval

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ISO/IEC 23003-4:2020(E)
f cross-over frequency in Hz
f cross-over frequency expressed as fraction of the audio sample rate
c,norm
f (s) cross-over frequency of audio decoder sub-band s expressed as fraction of
c,norm,SB
the audio sample rate
NOTE The cross-over frequency is the upper band edge frequency of the sub-
band.
f audio sample rate in Hz
NOTE If an audio decoder is present, it is the sample rate of the decoded time-
domain audio signal.
M DRC frame size in units of the audio sample interval 1/f
DRC s
N maximum permitted number of DRC samples per DRC frame
DRC
NOTE Identical to the number of intervals with a duration of deltaTmin per DRC
frame.
N codec frame size in units of the audio sample interval 1/f
Codec s
π ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter
s audio decoder sub-band index (starting at 0)
z complex variable of the z-transform
5 Technical overview

The technology described in this document is called the “DRC tool”. It provides efficient control of

dynamic range, loudness, and clipping based on metadata generated at the encoder. The decoder can

choose to selectively apply the metadata to the audio signal to achieve a desired result. Metadata for

dynamic range compression consists of encoded time-varying gain values that can be applied to the

audio signal. Hence, the main b
...

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