Earth-moving machinery -- Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives and related components and systems

ISO 14990-3:2016 specifies the particular safety requirements for the electrical equipment and its components incorporated in self-powered (utilizing on-board electric power sources) electrically-driven earth-moving machines (EMMs). It is applicable to those machines using on-board voltages in the range of 50 V?36 kV AC r.m.s. at any frequency, and 75 V?36 kV DC ? including any repetition rate of pulsating DC? intended for outdoor use. Voltages occurring within devices are not considered to be on-board voltages and are thus not within its scope. It is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14990‑1, which gives general requirements for EMMs regardless of how they are powered. Requirements specific to externally-powered machines are given in ISO 14990‑2. It is possible to have an EMM that is both self-powered and externally powered (e.g. a battery powered machine having a built-in charger with power supply function), in which case ISO 14990‑2 is also applicable.

Engins de terrassement -- Sécurité électrique des machines utilisant des moteurs électriques et composants et systèmes connexes

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Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Oct-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-Sep-2016
Completion Date
26-Oct-2016
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ISO 14990-3:2016 - Earth-moving machinery -- Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives and related components and systems
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14990-3
First edition
2016-11-01
Earth-moving machinery — Electrical
safety of machines utilizing electric
drives and related components and
systems —
Part 3:
Particular requirements for self-
powered machines
Engins de terrassement — Sécurité électrique des machines utilisant
des moteurs électriques et composants et systèmes connexes —
Partie 3: Exigences particulières pour les machines auto-alimentées
Reference number
ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Special conditions ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Supplies ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Protection against electric shock hazards ................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Protection against electrical fire hazards .................................................................................................................................. 2

7 Protection against thermal hazards ................................................................................................................................................. 3

8 Protection against mechanical hazards........................................................................................................................................ 3

9 Protection against abnormal operation hazards ................................................................................................................ 3

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9.2 Overcurrent protection (OCP) ................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Electric power source ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

11 Wiring .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

12 Electric motors ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

13 Non-motor loads ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

14 Controls .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

15 Manuals and documentation ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

15.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

15.2 Information to be provided .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

16 Marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

16.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

16.2 Marking of equipment ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

17 Tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Enquiry form for electrical equipment of self-powered machines .........................6

Annex B (informative) Comparison of selected requirements of ISO 14990, UN ECE R100

and ISO 6469-3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery, Subcommittee SC

3, Machine characteristics, electrical and electronic systems, operation and maintenance.

This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14990-1.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Introduction
This document is a type-C standard as defined in ISO 12100.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations, or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in ISO 14990-1:2016, Annex A.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those stated in type-A or type-B

standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the

other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this

type-C standard.

Electrification is an enabling technology providing increased flexibility in machine form packaging.

Because in the past earth-moving machinery (EMM) electrical systems have predominately been in the

12–24 V DC range, two safety aspects require particular attention:

— significantly higher voltages, such as are utilized in industrial or structural applications and in

other transportation sectors;
— greater available electrical energy.

Portions of this document appear to govern electrical design practices (e.g. Clauses 9, 11, 12, and 17). Their

requirements are necessary because certain aspects of design cannot be separated from electrical safety.

Some of the content of this document is based on IEC 60204-1 and IEC 60204-11, adapted to the needs of

earth-moving machinery. Non-electrical hazards are addressed in the ISO 20474 series.

Figure 1 is provided as an aid to the understanding of the interrelationship of the various elements of a

machine and its associated equipment. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a typical machine and associated

equipment showing the various elements of the electrical equipment addressed in this document.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Figure 1 — Block diagram of a typical machine
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Electrical safety of machines
utilizing electric drives and related components and
systems —
Part 3:
Particular requirements for self-powered machines
1 Scope

This document specifies the particular safety requirements for the electrical equipment and its

components incorporated in self-powered (utilizing on-board electric power sources) electrically-

driven earth-moving machines (EMMs).

It is applicable to those machines using on-board voltages in the range of 50 V–36 kV AC r.m.s. at any

frequency, and 75 V–36 kV DC — including any repetition rate of pulsating DC— intended for outdoor use.

Voltages occurring within devices are not considered to be on-board voltages and are thus not within

its scope.

It is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14990-1, which gives general requirements for EMMs

regardless of how they are powered. Requirements specific to externally-powered machines are

given in ISO 14990-2. It is possible to have an EMM that is both self-powered and externally powered

(e.g. a battery powered machine having a built-in charger with power supply function), in which case

ISO 14990-2 is also applicable.

NOTE For machines intended to be operated on-road, automotive standard ISO 6469 and/or UN ECE R100

may provide useful guidance. See Annex B for a comparison of requirements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14990-1:2016, Earth-moving machinery — Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives or

related components and systems — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 14990-2, Earth-moving machinery — Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives or related

components and systems — Part 2: Particular requirements for externally-powered machines

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions and abbreviated terms given in

ISO 14990-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
4 General requirements
4.1 General

The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 4 shall apply except as modified by this clause.

4.2 Special conditions

The enquiry form given in Annex A can be used as the basis for an agreement between user and supplier

to address special conditions, or where certain provisions of this document might not be applicable.

The waiver of any requirement shall be limited to situations not covered by this document.

4.3 Supplies

For supply systems such as onboard generators, supply voltage limits are not applicable, provided that

the equipment is designed to operate correctly from the supply voltage source.
5 Protection against electric shock hazards

The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 5 shall apply except as modified by this clause.

5.1 See Figure 2 for an example of equipotential bonding for electrical equipment of a self-powered EMM.

5.2 Each protective conductor connecting point on a machine shall be marked or labelled as such using

the symbol IEC 60417-5019 or with the letters “PE”, or by use of the bicolour combination GREEN-AND-

YELLOW, or by any combination of these. The graphical symbol is preferred.

Alternatively, each protective conductor connecting point on a self-powered machine may be marked or

labelled as such using the symbol IEC 60417-5020 .

5.3 On self-powered machines, the protective conductors, the conductive structural parts of the

electrical equipment, and those extraneous conductive parts which form the structure of the machine

shall all be connected to a protective bonding terminal to provide protection against electric shock.

Where a self-powered machine is also capable of being connected to an external incoming power supply,

this protective bonding terminal shall be the connection point for the external protective conductor.

When the supply of electrical energy is self-contained within mobile equipment, and when there is no

external supply connected (for example when an on-board battery charger is not connected), there is

no need to connect such equipment to an external protective conductor.
6 Protection against electrical fire hazards
The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 6 shall apply.
1) Online database: available at http://www.graphical-symbols.info/
2) Online database: available at http://www.graphical-symbols.info/
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
Figure 2 — Example of equipotential bonding for self-powered EMMs
7 Protection against thermal hazards
The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 7 shall apply.
8 Protection against mechanical hazards
The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 8 shall apply.
9 Protection against abnormal operation hazards
9.1 General

The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 9 shall apply except as modified by this clause.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 14990-3:2016(E)
9.2 Overcurrent protection (OCP)

Overcurrent protection by means of automatic engine shutoff is permitted if the I t ratings of conductors

and components are not exceeded.
10 Electric power source
The requirements of ISO 14990-1:2016, Clause 10 sh
...

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