Fire tests for building elements and components -- Fire testing of service installations

This part of ISO 10295 provides guidance in respect of a structured method of characterizing the penetrating seal under test utilizing a series of defined parameters, each one being determined by the use of a selected series of test configurations in conjunction with simulated services. The level of characterization being sought is dependent upon the classification requirement of the system, which in turn determines the complexity of the test program. It is also intended the test method addresses the influence the supporting construction has on the performance of the seal system. The methods described apply to the determination of data relating to single component penetration seals where the penetration service does not melt out within the appropriate period of exposure to a fully developed fire. The selection of the appropriate system depends upon many factors. Of particular importance is the size of the penetration, since penetration seal systems are frequently penetration size (or size range) specific. This is a guidance document, its purpose being to determine the critical parameters relating to the performance of the seal being evaluated. Such parameters can then be used as a basis for interpolation and/or extrapolation of the seal's performance. The procedures used have been developed utilizing small square penetrations, single component penetration seals, and cylindrical conductors; however it is possible to generate a similar series of tests using rectangular cross-section conductors if this is more appropriate to end use. This part of ISO 10295 provides a structured approach designed to establish — the mode of failure; — the parameters critical to the performance of the penetration seal under test. The mode of failure and critical parameters are ascertained using test configurations appropriate to the potential performance of the product, in conjunction with clearly defined standard penetrations. The results gained from the application of this technical report are designed to assist a suitably qualified person to develop a direct and extended field of application for the penetration seal under test using in particular, the principles and methodology given in ISO/TR 12470. Using the field(s) of application so generated, it should be possible to classify the penetration seal, thus facilitating its incorporation into specifications. The test configurations recommended in this part of ISO 10295 are not appropriate for evaluating multicomponent penetration seals. This part of ISO 10295 is not appropriate for characterizing all types of penetration seals, e.g. pipe closers/collars and some gland systems, for which evaluation using ISO 10295-1 is more appropriate. This part of ISO 10295 does not address the distance required between services that can generate their own heat. When a live service is being evaluated, it is necessary to give consideration to the distance required between penetrations.

Essais au feu pour les éléments et composants de bâtiment -- Essai au feu des installations de service

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Publication Date
30-Jul-2012
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Jun-2012
Completion Date
31-Jul-2012
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012 - Fire tests for building elements and components -- Fire testing of service installations
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 10295-3
First edition
2012-08-01
Fire tests for building elements and
components — Fire testing of service
installations —
Part 3:
Single component penetration seals —
Guidance on the construction and use
of test configurations and simulated
services to characterise sealing materials
Essais au feu pour les éléments et composants de bâtiment — Essai au
feu des installations de service —
Partie 3: Joints de pénétration à composant unique — Lignes directrices sur
la construction et l’utilisation des configurations d’essai et des processus de
simulation permettant de caractériser les matériaux d’étanchéité
Reference number
ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
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E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Test equipment ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 General performance criteria ........................................................................................................................... 3

6 Guidance on test configurations and procedures ..................................................................................... 4

7 Test procedures ................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Test configuration A — Size of unsupported free area of penetration seal......................................... 5

7.2 Test configuration B — Thermal diffusity of the conductor / penetration ........................................... 6

7.3 Test configuration C ........................................................................................................................................... 7

7.4 Test configuration D — When multiple simulated services are being tested ..................................... 8

7.5 Test procedure E .................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.6 Test procedure F .................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.7 Test procedure G ................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.8 Test procedure H ................................................................................................................................................. 9

8 Deriving the field of application by judgemental analysis ....................................................................... 9

8.1 Analysis using test configuration A ............................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Analysis using test configuration B ............................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Analysis using test configuration C .............................................................................................................10

8.4 Analysis using test configuration D .............................................................................................................10

9 Deriving the field of application by mathematical analysis ...................................................................10

9.1 Use of the 3-D interpolation method to predict the extended field of application ...........................10

Annex A (informative) Determining the extended field of application ................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Example of the application of the principles of 3-D interpolation to the

establishment of the extended application of penetrating sealing system .......................................13

Annex C (informative) 3-D interpolation method of analysis ................................................................................16

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no longer

valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 10295-3 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

ISO/TR 10295 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire tests for building elements and

components — Fire testing of service installations:
— Part 1: Penetration seals
— Part 2: Linear joint (gap) seals

— Part 3: Single component penetration seals — Guidance on the construction and use of test configurations

and simulated services to characterize sealing materials
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report describes a range of standard test configurations and associated testing procedures

designed to determine the relevant characteristics of a penetration seal composed of one material when

subjected to the standard fire exposure conditions outlined in ISO 834-1. It is used in conjunction with

ISO 10295-1 in order to establish relationships between the parameters that influence the performance of the

seal in use. The test data generated by this procedure are intended to assist in the classification of penetration

seals based on their intended use and fire resistance under the specified acceptance criteria of this part of

ISO 10295, i.e. their field of extended application by use of the methodology given in ISO/TR 12470.

In addition, the methodology is recommended to manufacturers for use when developing new sealing products,

as it provides a way of establishing the limiting characteristics of the sealing system in a quantifiable manner.

This report describes a procedure intended to be followed utilizing a well selected series of test configurations,

which can be used to generate a data set to characterize the fire sealing capabilities of a single component

penetration seal material. The data set is intended to contain enough information to provide users with

engineering data to determine the suitability of the material in applications other than that in which the material

was originally tested.

A wide variety of product types is used to reinstate the integrity of a fire-separating element when penetrated

by a service or group of services. These product types include, for example
a) soft fillers (sealants or ‘mastics’);

b) semi-rigid intumescent strip materials on their own or in combination with elastomeric foam materials;

c) rigid fibrous batts;
d) rigid board systems;
e) rigid fillers (epoxies or cementicous);
f) cementicous plasters/clay/vermiculite systems.

A wide variety of materials is used to “firestop” penetrations through which building services pass. These

materials all fail at some time during a fire, but the nature of the method of failure; melting, slumping, charring

through etc., needs to be fully understood if a field of application is to be determined with any confidence.

Standard configurations and their associated test procedures need, in due course, to be derived to replicate

the appropriate failure modes and also to increase the range of simulated services so the range of tests and

configurations described in this part of ISO 10295 are not exhaustive.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Fire tests for building elements and components — Fire testing
of service installations —
Part 3:
Single component penetration seals — Guidance on the
construction and use of test configurations and simulated
services to characterize sealing materials
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10295 provides guidance in respect of a structured method of characterizing the penetrating

seal under test utilizing a series of defined parameters, each one being determined by the use of a selected

series of test configurations in conjunction with simulated services. The level of characterization being sought

is dependent upon the classification requirement of the system, which in turn determines the complexity of the

test program. It is also intended the test method addresses the influence the supporting construction has on

the performance of the seal system.

The methods described apply to the determination of data relating to single component penetration seals where

the penetration service does not melt out within the appropriate period of exposure to a fully developed fire.

The selection of the appropriate system depends upon many factors. Of particular importance is the size of the

penetration, since penetration seal systems are frequently penetration size (or size range) specific.

This is a guidance document, its purpose being to determine the critical parameters relating to the performance

of the seal being evaluated. Such parameters can then be used as a basis for interpolation and/or extrapolation

of the seal’s performance. The procedures used have been developed utilizing small square penetrations,

single component penetration seals, and cylindrical conductors; however it is possible to generate a similar

series of tests using rectangular cross-section conductors if this is more appropriate to end use.

This part of ISO 10295 provides a structured approach designed to establish
— the mode of failure;
— the parameters critical to the performance of the penetration seal under test.

The mode of failure and critical parameters are ascertained using test configurations appropriate to the potential

performance of the product, in conjunction with clearly defined standard penetrations.

The results gained from the application of this technical report are designed to assist a suitably qualified person

to develop a direct and extended field of application for the penetration seal under test using in particular, the

principles and methodology given in ISO/TR 12470. Using the field(s) of application so generated, it should be

possible to classify the penetration seal, thus facilitating its incorporation into specifications.

The test configurations recommended in this part of ISO 10295 are not appropriate for evaluating multi-

component penetration seals.

This part of ISO 10295 is not appropriate for characterizing all types of penetration seals, e.g. pipe closers/collars

and some gland systems, for which evaluation using ISO 10295-1 is more appropriate.

This part of ISO 10295 does not address the distance required between services that can generate their own

heat. When a live service is being evaluated, it is necessary to give consideration to the distance required

between penetrations.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 834-1, Fire-resistance test — Elements of building construction — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary

ISO 10295-1, Fire tests for building elements and components — Fire testing of service installations — Part 1:

Penetration seals

ISO 10295-2, Fire tests for building elements and components — Fire testing of service installations — Part 2:

Linear joint (gap) seals

ISO/TR 12470, Fire resistance tests — Guidance on the application and extension of results

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10295-1, ISO 10295-2, ISO 13943

and the following apply.
3.1
single component penetration seal

penetration seal with either a single simulated service, i.e. a cable or pipe, or multiple simulated services

passing through it, where the free space between the simulated service(s) and the supporting construction are

filled by a single material
3.2
multi-component penetration seal

penetration seal with either a single simulated service, i.e. a cable or pipe, or multiple simulated services

passing through it, where the free space between the simulated service(s) and the supporting construction are

filled by more than one material
3.3
pipe closer device/collar

pre-fabricated heat activated device which under fire exposure acts to crush plastic pipes or ducts which pass

through vertical or horizontal separating elements

NOTE The device normally consists of a metal canister containing pressure producing intumescent material.

3.4
associated supporting construction

supporting construction which is specially designed to replace the element to be sealed in practice and which,

when tested in conjunction with the seal, forms the direct field of application
3.5
fire barrier bulkhead

product normally rigid in form, which fills the bulk of the penetration when the simulated services fill a relatively

small area of the hole in the separating element
3.6
intumescent

phenomenon of expansion considerably in excess of normal thermal expansion under the action of heat,

normally generated by fire
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
3.7
intumescent seal

sealant that remains flexible after curing and which contains materials that expand on heating to maintain the

seal under the action of fire
3.8
fire seal
seal designed to prevent the passage of fire, smoke or hot gases
3.9
free space

void or volume between a single, or group, of simulated service(s) and the supporting construction occupied

by the penetration seal
3.10
service (in practice)

building service, typically a metal pipe or a metal cored cable, for the purpose of conveying liquids or gases or

for transmitting power which can have a relationship derived with one of the simulated services in terms of its

similarity with heat flow, conductivity, etc.
NOTE Services exclude thin steel sheet items such as trunking.
3.11
simulated service

conductor in rod form (usually steel) which penetrates the seal system under test, in a manner similar to a pipe

or cable, which is capable of stressing the seal in a defined reproducible manner

3.12
multiple simulated services
several simulated services of the same type
4 Test equipment

Equipment employed in the conduct of this test consists of a furnace, support frames and instrumentation as

specified in ISO 834-1 and in this part of ISO 10295.

The internal dimensions of the furnace shall be a minimum of 1 m by 1 m by 1 m. The furnace shall be such

that a distance of at least 200 mm exists between any point of the periphery of any penetration seal and the

wall of the furnace.

A method shall be provided on the unexposed face for rigidly supporting the simulated service at a distance

of between 400 mm – 450 mm from the unexposed face of the penetration seal except where the penetration

seal is being evaluated for loading or movement. Refer to Figure 1.

The guide does not replicate the associated supporting construction used in practice.

5 General performance criteria

The simulated service and the single component penetration seal shall be evaluated in accordance with the

method described in ISO 10295-1.

The purpose of a penetration seal is to reinstate the fire resistance of the element being penetrated. The

recommended test configurations are designed initially to establish the fire resistance of the penetration seal. The

use of the cotton pad test shall be discontinued when the temperature of the simulated service reaches 300 °C.

A thermocouple shall be fixed to the simulated service at a distance of 50 mm from the unexposed face of the

penetration seal. The purpose of this thermocouple is to determine when it is inappropriate to use the cotton

pad test. This test method is not designed to predict the temperature rise on the simulated service, unless the

material coincides with that used in practice.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)

The temperature rise of a simulated service with different thermal characteristics to that tested may be predicted

based upon the temperature measured by the thermocouple on the simulated service using the methodology

recommended in ISO/TR 12470, but this can require evidence generated by other tests.

6 Guidance on test configurations and procedures

If it is the intention to evaluate the ability of a single component penetration seal to seal a defined penetration

and to reinstate the integrity of the fire separating element, then the test should be set up and conducted

according to ISO 10295-1. The direct field of application is according to ISO 10295-1.

7 Test procedures

These test procedures are proposed to characterize the capability of the seal to withstand conditions that can

be experienced by the seal in square penetrations. If the penetration has another geometry, e.g. circular, it can

be necessary to confirm L for these penetrations by repeating the configuration A.

No attempt has been made to define in absolute terms the degree of movement (see 7.6), nor the magnitude of

any loads (see 7.7) as these need to be representative of the intended market. In the case of movement (section

7.6), an outline of a procedure has been suggested, but other magnitudes of movement may be equally justifiable.

If it is the intention to derive an extended field of application for the single component penetration seal, then

further characterization is required. This is achieved by testing the single component penetration seal using a

series of test configurations; each one designed to provide information relating to a particular parameter (P).

The flow chart shown in Figure 1 can be used to assist in the construction of an appropriate test programme.

The test configurations A, B and C utilize single simulated services which form part of the mandatory entry

point of the characterization programme. The test configurations provide the basic information to enable a

suitably qualified person to develop a field of application for the single component penetration seal under test.

If the product is to be used for multiple simulated then an additional test, test configuration D is mandated to

establish the influence of the size of the gap between the penetrations has upon the penetration seal. When

the multiple simulated services are of a mixed type then the data generated by the test described in test

configuration D is not directly applicable.
The standard simulated service shall be solid mild steel.

Supporting construction shall be according to ISO 10295-1, e.g. blockwork 650 ± 200 kg/m3. The appropriate

thickness of the supporting construction shall be based upon the duration of the initial testing, except where

the test arrangement is designed to evaluate the influence of supporting construction on the fire resistance of

the seal. Alternative supporting constructions may be selected in order to extend the field of application of the

penetration seal.
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Figure 1 — Flow diagram
7.1 Test configuration A — Size of unsupported free area of penetration seal

This configuration is designed to evaluate the effect of a variation in the free area between the simulated

services(s) and the supporting construction on the ability of a single component penetration seal to maintain

the integrity of the element being penetrated.
Integrity failure probably occurs via one of two mechanisms.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)

7.1.1 Distance L is critical when the mechanical/structural failure of the single component penetration seal is

due to slumping and/or shrinkage.

7.1.2 Conductivity of the simulated service is critical when the exhaustion of the single component penetration

seal is due to erosion or over activation as a result of conductivity (L or M is too small).

NOTE The procedure adopted in test configuration B (7.2) is dependent upon which of the above mechanisms is relevant.

7.1.3 The depth of the single component penetration seal used in test configuration A shall be specified by

the sponsor and be related to the fire resistance rating for which the maximum free space is to be established.

When the single component penetration seal is used for various fire resistance ratings, then it is likely that the

single component penetration seal will be applied at different thicknesses. Similar tests can be needed for all

fire resistance ratings unless the evaluation does not demonstrate a mode of failure related to area.

7.1.4 Figure 2 illustrates 1S, 1,33S, 1,67S and 2S, but other increments may be used if required.

7.1.4.1 Refer to Figure 2 as an example of a constant stylised service (e.g. 50 mm diameter) with a variable

penetration (height and width varying by fixed increments) and a constant thickness of single component

penetration seal (e.g. 50 mm).
7.1.4.2 Other dimensions may be applicable for other applications.
Figure 2 — Test configuration A — Standard (Fixed) simulated service diameter
7.2 Test configuration B — Thermal diffusity of the conductor / penetration

This configuration is designed to evaluate the effect of a variation in the heat conducted by a simulated service

on the ability of a single component penetration seal to maintain the integrity of the element being penetrated.

This is achieved by the incorporation of a series of simulated services of varying diameter, but with constant

material in the configuration

Based upon the information generated by test configuration A, the dimensions S of the penetrations for B1, B2,

B3 and B4 are derived from the relationship between the diameter of the simulated service d and L using the

 

equation 1,4 +LS= , for each penetration in turn, if failure mode was as described in 7.1.1 due to

 c 
 

slumping or shrinkage or D + 2M for B5, B6, B7 and B8, where D = diameter of the simulated service and

failure mode was exhaustion as described in 7.1.2.

7.2.1 Figure 3 illustrates an example of constant critical area of seal based upon either L or M with a

c c

conductor, which changes in diameter by fixed increments (e.g. Twenty mm increments) and with a constant

thickness of seal (e.g. 50 mm), related to required duration.

7.2.2 In order to reduce the thermal delay of the large diameter conductors it can be necessary to reduce their

mass by the use of hollow sections.
6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Option 1 – Minimum unsupported dimension of sealant, M
Option 2 – Maximum unsupported dimension of sealant, L
Key
L maximum unsupported dimension of the sealant
M minimum unsupported dimension of the sealant
Figure 3 — Test configuration B
7.3 Test configuration C

Variation in the thickness, d, of the seal has a considerable effect on the duration for which the seal is able to

maintain the integrity/insulation of the penetrated element.

This configuration is designed to evaluate the influence that such a variation in the depth of the single

component penetration seal has when installed within the opening relative to one of the faces of the element

being penetrated.

The size of the penetration used in this test configuration may be derived from test configuration A, for the fire

resistance rating being investigated.

7.3.1 Figure 4 illustrates 1d, 1,33d, 1,67d and 2d, but other increments may be used if it is required to identify

the relationship.

7.3.2 Figure 4 is an example of a constant penetration size, constant simulated service (e.g. 50 mm diameter)

with a variable thickness of seal, d, which changes by fixed increments.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
Figure 4 — Test configuration C
7.4 Test configuration D — When multiple simulated services are being tested

This configuration is designed to determine the effect of any interaction between two (or more) simulated

services on the single component penetration seal.

Figure 5 is an example of constant simulated services (50 mm), constant sealant depth with gaps between

simulated services that vary by fixed increments.
Figure 5 — Test configuration D
7.5 Test procedure E

This test procedure is designed to characterize the ability of the single component penetration seal to be

effective in more than one orientation.
Repeat configuration A in alternative orientation.
7.6 Test procedure F

This test procedure is designed to characterize the ability of the seal to accept movement of the simulated

service during the fire.

This should be restricted to axial movement only. Configuration A3 is to be displaced axially from the single

component penetration seal in 25 mm increments at agreed times during the test, say (a) the fire resistance

rating (when known) minus 15 min, (b) the fire resistance rating, and (c) the fire resistance rating plus 15 min.

8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10295-3:2012(E)
7.7 Test procedure G

This test procedure is designed to characterize the ability of the single component penetration seal to function

while experiencing loads during fire exposure. This can also be used to characterize the ability of the single

component penetration seal to withstand a load in the ambient state as a pre-conditioning test.

A configuration, say A3, is to be pivoted on the unexposed face to allow movement in the vertical plane, rather

than being rigidly fixed. This is to enable it to exert a load on the single component penetration seal during the

test. A number of such simulated services may be tested simultaneously with a load applied to each, which

varies in fixed increments.
7.8 Test procedure H

This test procedure is designed to characterize the residual strength of the single component penetration seal,

not the simulated service, when the application requires strength after the period of classification has been

satisfied in respect of integrity and, if appropriate, fire resistance.

A jet of compressed air at a pressure of 300 Pa is to be applied evenly via a 5 mm diameter orifice at a distance

of 300 mm to the surface of the single component penetration seal for a period of say 2 min and increased by

fixed (100 P
...

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