Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- GS1 DataBar bar code symbology specification

The GS1 DataBar family contains three types of linear symbologies to be used with the GS1 system. The first type has four variations (GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1 DataBar Stacked and GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional). The stacked variations are two-row symbols. The second type comprises only one variation, namely GS1 DataBar Limited. The third type has two variations, a single row variation (GS1 DataBar Expanded) and a multi-row stacked variation (GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked). The use of GS1 DataBar is intended to comply with the GS1 application guidelines as defined in the GS1 General Specifications. GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional and GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional encode a 14-digit GS1 item identification (often referred to as a Global Trade Item Number, or GTIN) in a linear symbol that can be scanned omnidirectionally by suitably programmed point-of-sale scanners. GS1 DataBar Truncated and GS1 DataBar Stacked encode a 14-digit GS1 item identification in a linear symbol and are not suitable for omnidirectional scanning. GS1 DataBar Limited encodes a 14-digit GS1 item identification with a leading digit of zero or one in a linear symbol for use on small items that will not be scanned at the point-of-sale. GS1 DataBar Expanded encodes GS1 item identification plus supplementary application identifier element strings such as weight and "best before" date in a linear symbol that can be scanned omnidirectionally by suitably programmed point-of-sale scanners. Any member of the GS1 DataBar family can be printed as a stand-alone linear symbol or as part of a GS1 Composite symbol with an accompanying two-dimensional (2D) component printed above the GS1 DataBar linear component. GS1 DataBar symbols are intended for encoding identification numbers and data supplementary to the identification. The administration of the numbering system by GS1 ensures that identification codes assigned to particular items are unique worldwide and that they and the associated supplementary data are defined in a consistent way. The major benefit for the users of the GS1 system is the availability of uniquely defined identification codes and supplementary data formats for use in their trading transactions. ISO/IEC 24724:2011 defines the requirements for the GS1 DataBar symbology family. It specifies the characteristics of the GS1 DataBar symbology family, data character encodation, symbol formats, dimensions, print quality requirements, error detection, and decoding algorithms. For GS1 Composite symbols, ISO/IEC 24723 defines the 2D component. GS1 DataBar was formerly known as "Reduced Space Symbology (RSS)" and is renamed to align with the name of the GS1 organization.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture des données -- Spécifications de la symbologie des codes à barres GS1 DataBar

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Mar-2011
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Feb-2011
Completion Date
29-Mar-2011
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 24724
Second edition
2011-04-01
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — GS1 DataBar bar code
symbology specification
Technologies de l'information — Techniques automatiques
d'identification et de capture des données — Spécifications de la
symbologie des codes à barres GS1 DataBar
Reference number
ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
ISO/IEC 2011
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
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ii © ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and mathematical operators ...............................................2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

3.2 Abbreviated terms.................................................................................................................................3

3.3 Mathematical operators and notational conventions ........................................................................3

4 Symbol description ...............................................................................................................................3

4.1 Types of GS1 DataBar symbol .............................................................................................................3

4.2 Symbology characteristics...................................................................................................................4

4.3 Summary of additional features...........................................................................................................4

4.4 Symbol structure...................................................................................................................................5

5 Symbol requirements for GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1

DataBar Stacked and GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional..........................................................5

5.1 Basic characteristics of GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional ....................................................................5

5.2 Symbol structure of GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional...........................................................................6

5.2.1 Symbol character structure..................................................................................................................7

5.2.2 Symbol character value ........................................................................................................................7

5.2.3 Symbol value.........................................................................................................................................8

5.2.4 Finder patterns ....................................................................................................................................10

5.2.5 Reference decode algorithm ..............................................................................................................11

5.3 Variations for specific applications...................................................................................................14

5.3.1 GS1 DataBar Truncated ......................................................................................................................14

5.3.2 Two-row variations..............................................................................................................................14

6 Symbol requirements for GS1 DataBar Limited...............................................................................15

6.1 Basic characteristics...........................................................................................................................15

6.2 Symbol structure.................................................................................................................................16

6.2.1 Symbol character structure................................................................................................................17

6.2.2 Symbol character value ......................................................................................................................17

6.2.3 Symbol value.......................................................................................................................................18

6.2.4 Check character...................................................................................................................................19

6.2.5 Finder pattern ......................................................................................................................................19

6.2.6 Reference decode algorithm ..............................................................................................................19

7 Symbol requirements for GS1 DataBar Expanded and GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked...........21

7.1 Basic characteristics of GS1 DataBar Expanded.............................................................................21

7.2 Symbol structure.................................................................................................................................22

7.2.1 Overall symbol structure ....................................................................................................................22

7.2.2 Symbol character structure................................................................................................................23

7.2.3 Symbol character value ......................................................................................................................23

7.2.4 Symbol binary value............................................................................................................................24

7.2.5 Data encodation...................................................................................................................................25

7.2.6 Check character...................................................................................................................................34

7.2.7 Finder pattern ......................................................................................................................................35

7.2.8 GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked .......................................................................................................37

7.2.9 Reference decode algorithm ..............................................................................................................38

8 Symbol quality.....................................................................................................................................40

8.1 Linear symbology parameters ...........................................................................................................40

© ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)

8.2 Additional pass/fail criteria................................................................................................................ 40

8.3 Stacked symbols................................................................................................................................. 40

9 Transmitted data................................................................................................................................. 41

10 Human readable interpretation.......................................................................................................... 41

11 Minimum and Maximum width of a module (X) ............................................................................... 41

12 Application-defined parameters........................................................................................................ 41

Annex A (normative) Check digit calculation................................................................................................ 42

Annex B (normative) C-language element width encoder and decoder..................................................... 43

Annex C (normative) GS1 DataBar Limited check character element widths ........................................... 47

Annex D (normative) Splitting long GS1 DataBar Expanded or GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked

symbols for GS1 emulation mode..................................................................................................... 50

Annex E (informative) Symbol elements......................................................................................................... 51

Annex F (informative) Encoding examples.................................................................................................... 55

F.1 GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional and GS1 DataBar Truncated .......................................................... 55

F.2 GS1 DataBar Limited .......................................................................................................................... 57

F.3 GS1 DataBar Expanded...................................................................................................................... 58

Annex G (informative) C-language element width decoder ......................................................................... 60

Annex H (informative) Minimizing misreads.................................................................................................. 63

H.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 63

H.2 Voting................................................................................................................................................... 64

H.3 Decoding by row................................................................................................................................. 64

H.4 Consistency checks........................................................................................................................... 64

H.5 GS1 DataBar Limited Decoding Considerations ............................................................................. 65

H.5.1 Original reference decode algorithm concerning guard bars........................................................ 65

H.5.2 Potential to misread UPC-A symbols ............................................................................................... 65

H.5.3 Methods to prevent misreads of UPC-A symbols ........................................................................... 66

Annex I (informative) Printing considerations .............................................................................................. 69

I.1 Guard pattern considerations ........................................................................................................... 69

I.2 Pixel-based printing ........................................................................................................................... 69

I.3 Guidance to users of pixel-based printing software....................................................................... 70

I.4 Process control considerations........................................................................................................ 70

I.5 Separation of multiple symbols ........................................................................................................ 71

I.6 Printing the separator pattern ........................................................................................................... 71

Annex J (informative) GS1 DataBar Symbology — Summary of Characteristics ...................................... 72

Bibliography..................................................................................................................................................... 73

iv © ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 24724 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 24724:2006), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
Introduction

GS1 DataBar was formerly known as “Reduced Space Symbology (RSS)” and is renamed to align with the

name of the GS1 organization.

The GS1 DataBar family contains three types of linear symbologies to be used with the GS1 system. The first

type has four variations (GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1 DataBar Stacked and

GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional). The stacked variations are two-row symbols. The second type

comprises only one variation, namely GS1 DataBar Limited. The third type has two variations: a single row

variation (GS1 DataBar Expanded) and a multi-row stacked variation (GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked). The

use of GS1 DataBar is intended to comply with the GS1 application guidelines as defined in the GS1 General

Specifications.

GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional and GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional encode a 14-digit GS1 item

identification (often referred to as a Global Trade Item Number, or GTIN) in a linear symbol that can be

scanned omnidirectionally by suitably programmed point-of-sale scanners. GS1 DataBar Truncated and GS1

DataBar Stacked encode a 14-digit GS1 item identification in a linear symbol and are not suitable for

omnidirectional scanning. GS1 DataBar Limited encodes a 14-digit GS1 item identification with a leading digit

of zero or one in a linear symbol for use on small items that will not be scanned at the point-of-sale. GS1

DataBar Expanded encodes GS1 item identification plus supplementary application identifier element strings

such as weight and “best before” date in a linear symbol that can be scanned omnidirectionally by suitably

programmed point-of-sale scanners.

Any member of the GS1 DataBar family can be printed as a stand-alone linear symbol or as part of a GS1

Composite symbol with an accompanying two-dimensional component printed above the GS1 DataBar linear

component.

GS1 DataBar symbols are intended for encoding identification numbers and data supplementary to the

identification. The administration of the numbering system by GS1 ensures that identification codes assigned

to particular items are unique worldwide and that they and the associated supplementary data are defined in a

consistent way. The major benefit for the users of the GS1 system is the availability of uniquely defined

identification codes and supplementary data formats for use in their trading transactions.

vi © ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
Information technology — Automatic identification and data
capture techniques — GS1 DataBar bar code symbology
specification
1 Scope

This International Standard defines the requirements for the GS1 DataBar symbology family. It specifies the

characteristics of the GS1 DataBar symbology family, data character encodation, symbol formats, dimensions,

print quality requirements, error detection, and decoding algorithms.
For GS1 Composite symbols, ISO/IEC 24723 defines the two-dimensional component.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 646, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

ISO 4217, Codes for the representation of currencies and funds

ISO/IEC 15416, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Bar code

print quality test specification — Linear symbols

ISO/IEC 15417, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — Code 128

bar code symbology specification

ISO/IEC 15420, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — EAN/UPC

bar code symbology specification

ISO/IEC 19762-1, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 1: General terms relating to AIDC

ISO/IEC 19762-2, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary — Part 2: Optically readable media (ORM)

ISO/IEC 24723, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture techniques — GS1

Composite bar code symbology specification
© ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and mathematical operators
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19762-1, ISO/IEC 19762-2 and

the following apply.

NOTE For terms which are defined below and in ISO/IEC 19762, the definitions given below apply.

3.1.1
2D component

two-dimensional portion of a GS1 Composite symbol, which encodes supplemental information about an item,

such as its lot number or expiration date
3.1.2
AI element string

character string containing an application identifier followed by its associated data field

3.1.3
encodation methods

compaction schemes used by GS1 DataBar Expanded and 2D components to encode commonly used AI

element strings in binary strings that are shorter than would be required using general data compaction for the

symbology
3.1.4
indicator digit

leading digit of a GTIN-14 item identification number used to differentiate multiple levels of packaging or to

indicate a variable measure item
3.1.5
linear component

linear portion of a GS1 Composite symbol, which encodes the primary identification of an item

3.1.6
linkage flag

indicator encoded in a GS1 DataBar or GS1-128 linear component to signal if a 2D component accompanies

the linear component
3.1.7
segment

minimum decodable portion of a bar code symbol, consisting, in GS1 DataBar, of a symbol character and its

adjacent finder pattern
3.1.8
GS1-128

subset, specified in GS1 General Specifications, of Code 128 as defined in ISO/IEC 15417

3.1.9
voting

decoding technique whereby decoded segment values are saved along with a count of the number of times

they have been decoded

NOTE Voting is used for decoding GS1 DataBar by segments such as when used with omnidirectional scanning.

2 © ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AI Application Identifier (see ISO/IEC 15418)
2D two-dimensional
3.3 Mathematical operators and notational conventions
For the purposes of this document, the following mathematical operators apply.
div integer division operator which discards the remainder
mod integer remainder after integer division
The following ISO notational conventions are used.

0,2 A comma between numbers represents a decimal value (e.g. 0,2 equals 2/10) except when used in

subscripts or as an (n,k) designation.
12 345 A space between digits indicates factors of a thousand.
4 Symbol description
4.1 Types of GS1 DataBar symbol
The GS1 DataBar symbology consists of the following three types:
First type of GS1 DataBar symbol that has the following four variations:
GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional
GS1 DataBar Truncated
GS1 DataBar Stacked
GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional
Second type of GS1 DataBar symbol that has the following one variation:
GS1 DataBar Limited
Third type of GS1 DataBar symbol that has the following two variations:
GS1 DataBar Expanded
GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked

The first type of GS1 DataBar symbol contains four symbol characters in every symbol and has identical

character encodation rules and structure for all symbols of this type.

The second type of GS1 DataBar symbol is structurally different than the first type, containing two symbol

characters and uses different character encodation rules.

The third type has yet another distinct symbology structure and set of character encodation rules, and can

contain a variable number of symbol characters.
© ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)

GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Expanded and GS1

DataBar Expanded Stacked are designed to be read in segments by omnidirectional scanners.

NOTE Annex J contains a summary of characteristics of the three types of GS1 DataBar symbology types.

4.2 Symbology characteristics
The characteristics of the GS1 DataBar symbology are:
a) Encodable character set:

1) GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1 DataBar Stacked, GS1 DataBar

Stacked Omnidirectional and GS1 DataBar Limited: 0 through 9;

2) GS1 DataBar Expanded and GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked: a subset of ISO/IEC 646, consisting

of the upper and lowercase letters, digits, and 20 selected punctuation characters in addition to the

special function character, FNC1.

b) Symbol character structure: different (n,k) symbol characters are used for each type of the symbology,

where each symbol character is n modules in width and is composed of k bars and k spaces.

c) Code type: continuous, linear bar code symbology.

d) Maximum numeric data capacity (including implied application identifiers where appropriate, but not

including any encoded FNC1 characters):

1) GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1 DataBar Stacked, GS1 DataBar

Stacked Omnidirectional and GS1 DataBar Limited: application identifier “01” plus a 14-digit numeric

item identification;

2) GS1 DataBar Expanded and GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked: 74 numeric or 41 alphabetic

characters (see note).

NOTE The GS1 DataBar Expanded data capacity depends on the encodation method. The maximum is

74 digits for (01) + other AIs, the maximum is 70 digits for any AIs, and the maximum is 77 digits for

(01) + (392x) + any AIs.
e) Error detection:

1) GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated, GS1 DataBar Stacked, GS1 DataBar

Stacked Omnidirectional: mod 79 checksum;
2) GS1 DataBar Limited: mod 89 checksum;
3) GS1 DataBar Expanded and GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked: mod 211 checksum.
f) Character self-checking: yes.
g) Bidirectionally decodable: yes.
4.3 Summary of additional features
The following is a summary of additional GS1 DataBar symbology features:

a) Data compaction: Each member of the family has data compaction methods optimized for the data strings

that they will encode. GS1 DataBar Expanded is optimized for specific combinations of application

identifiers that are commonly used.
4 © ISO/IEC 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 24724:2011(E)

b) Component linkage: All GS1 DataBar symbols include a linkage flag. If the linkage flag is clear, i.e. equal

to 0, then the GS1 DataBar symbol stands alone. If the linkage flag is set, i.e. equal to 1, then a 2D

component is associated with the GS1 DataBar family linear component and its separator pattern.

c) GS1-128 emulation: Readers set to the GS1-128 emulation mode transmit the data encoded within the

GS1 DataBar family symbol as if the data were encoded in one or more GS1-128 symbols.

4.4 Symbol structure

Each GS1 DataBar symbol contains outside guard patterns, symbol characters, and finder patterns. Every

symbol includes a method for error detection.

The guard patterns for the first and third types of GS1 DataBar symbols consist of two one-module wide

elements forming either a bar/space or a space/bar pair at each end of the symbol. GS1 DataBar Stacked and

GS1 DataBar Expanded Stacked symbols have guard patterns at the ends of each row of the symbol. GS1

DataBar Limited symbols has a different guard pattern requirement that is designed to prevent misreads. See

Annex I.1 regarding printing considerations for exterior guard pattern elements.

Every symbol has two or more symbol characters, each with an (n,k) structure. The symbol character values

are combined mathematically to form the explicitly encoded data.

The finder pattern is a set of elements selected to be identifiable by the decoder so that the symbol can be

recognized and the relative position of the elements can be determined. Each symbol contains one or more

finder patterns. The finder patterns also function as the check character and/or segment identifiers.

All GS1 DataBar symbols include a linkage flag. If the flag is set, the GS1 DataBar linear component and its

contiguous separator pattern shall be aligned with a 2D component in accordance with ISO/IEC 24723.

Normally the GS1 DataBar linear component, its contiguous separator pattern, and the 2D component are

printed at the same time, comprising a single GS1 Composite symbol. It is possible however, to preprint a

GS1 DataBar linear component with the linkage flag set in anticipation of a subsequent process in which the

2D component is added. Under such circumstances the separator pattern shall be printed with the GS1

DataBar linear component in accordance with ISO/IEC 24723.

Bars and spaces may not be inverted for any form of GS1 DataBar symbol. That is, bars must be dark and

spaces must be light. Scanners should not attempt to decode bar and space patterns as if they are inverted

because inverted GS1 DataBar symbols can be misread.
5 Symbol requirements for GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional, GS1 DataBar Truncated,
GS1 DataBar Stacked and GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional
5.1 Basic characteristics of GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional

GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional is a linear symbology capable of encoding 20 000 000 000 000

(2 × 10 ) values. These values are expressed as 14 digits. The first digit is a linkage flag. The following

13 digits
...

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