Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration — Role model of ITS service application in smart cities

This document describes a basic role model of smart city intelligent transport systems (ITS) service applications as a common platform for smart city instantiation, directly communicating via secure ITS interfaces. It provides a paradigm describing: a) a framework for the provision of a cooperative ITS service application; b) a description of the concept of operations, regulatory aspects and options, and the role models; c) a conceptual architecture between actors involved in the provision/receipt of ITS service applications; d) references for the key documents on which the architecture is based; e) a taxonomy of the organization of generic procedures.

Systèmes de transport intelligents - Intégration de la mobilité - Schéma d'application des services ITS

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Sep-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Sep-2021
Completion Date
06-Sep-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
ISO/TR 4445:2021 - Intelligent transport systems -- Mobility integration -- Role model of ITS service application in smart cities
English language
36 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF TR 4445:Version 17-jul-2021 - Intelligent transport systems -- Mobility integration -- Role model of ITS service application in smart cities
English language
36 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 4445
First edition
2021-09
Intelligent transport systems —
Mobility integration — Role model of
ITS service application in smart cities
Systèmes de transport intelligents - Intégration de la mobilité -
Schéma d'application des services ITS
Reference number
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General overview and framework ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Objective ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 National variations .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Mandatory, optional and cooperative issues ................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Specification of service provision ........................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Architecture options .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Concept of operations ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system .............................................................................................. 4

6.3 Strategies, tactics, policies, and constraints affecting the system ............................................................... 4

6.4 Organizations, activities and interactions among participants and stakeholders ........................ 4

6.5 Clear statement of responsibilities and authorities delegated ...................................................................... 4

6.6 Operational processes for the system ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6.2 Service requirements definition ......................................................................................................................... 5

6.7 Appointment of an approval authority (regulatory) .............................................................................................. 5

6.8 In-vehicle system .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.9 User ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.10 Application service .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.11 Big data management entity ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.12 Data aggregator ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Conceptual architecture framework ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Actors .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Service definition .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4 Role model architecture .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4.2 Jurisdictions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.3 Application service actors ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.4 Service provider(s) .....................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.5 The OBE equipment installer .............................................................................................................................10

7.4.6 The OBE equipment maintainer ......................................................................................................................10

7.4.7 Approval authority (regulatory) .....................................................................................................................11

7.4.8 Security credential management system/public key infrastructure ...............................11

7.4.9 Certification authority (digital)........................................................................................................................12

7.4.10 Application service approval ..............................................................................................................................12

7.4.11 Onboard equipment OBE approval ...............................................................................................................12

7.4.12 Vehicle user .......................................................................................................................................................................14

7.4.13 Application service provision ............................................................................................................................15

8 Communications architecture .............................................................................................................................................................15

9 Quality of service requirements ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Test requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................................16

11 Marking, labelling and packaging ...................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

12 Declaration of patents and intellectual property ............................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) ITS data management architecture .......................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Introduction

Currently, more than 70 % of the world’s people live in cities. The proportion of people living in cities

is rising around the world as civilisations develop and congregate around cities where there are more

employment opportunities. Societies develop more innovatively and rapidly in cities, and they present

better entertainment opportunities, adding to their attraction. The Economist magazine recently

[16]

forecast that by 2045, an extra 2 billion people will live in urban areas . The resulting concentration

of population creates various issues such as road congestion due to an increase in vehicle population

and environmental pollution due to exhaust gas and tyre erosion. These issues have been attributed to

increases in the number of delivery trucks, taxis and town centre traffic and are further exacerbated by

obstacles to the effective use of urban space due to the private ownership of cars (parking lots, street

parking).

The pressures caused by scientific advice that significant action and change of behaviour is needed to

ameliorate the adverse effects of climate change require a more environmentally friendly use of the

transport system.

It is recognized that there is also road infrastructure deterioration, a lack of provision of information

on the use of public transportation, driver shortages due to the increase in the number of elderly people

and the inconvenience of multimodal fare payments, and action to improve the situation is urgently

needed.

The International Data Corporation forecasts that of the USD 81 billion that will be spent on smart city

technology in 2020, nearly a quarter will go into fixed visual surveillance, smart outdoor lighting and

[17]
advanced public transit .

Eventually, this is likely to mean high speed trains and driverless cars. Consultancy McKinsey forecasts

that up to 15 % of passenger vehicles sold globally in 2030 will be fully automated, while revenues in

the automotive sector could nearly double to USD 6.7 trillion thanks to shared mobility (car-sharing,

[18]

e-hailing) and data connectivity services (including apps and car software upgrades) .

Changing consumer tastes are also calling for new types of infrastructure. Today’s city dwellers, for

example, increasingly shop online and expect ever faster delivery times. To meet their needs, modern

urban areas need the support of last-minute distribution centres, backed by out-of-town warehouses.

Therefore, in recent years, in Europe, studies on the development of mobility integration standards have

been active to solve urban problems. There are various movements around the world making efforts to

address these issues. In the United States, ITS technology is used to try to solve these urban problems,

as in the Smart City Pilot Project. Columbus, Ohio has been selected as a smart city pilot project which

is currently being designed in detail. Important key factors here are the core architectural elements

of smart cities, and urban ITS sharing of probe data (also called sensor data), connected cars and

automated driving. In addition, new issues have been recognized with the introduction of the connected

car to the real world in respect of privacy protection, the need to strengthen security measures, big

data collection and processing measures, which are becoming important considerations.

In terms of the effective use of urban space, it is hoped that the introduction of connected cars and

automated driving can significantly reduce the requirements for urban parking lots (redistribution of

road space). If technology can eliminate congestion, the city road area usage can also be minimized and

reallocated (space utilization improvement) to improve the living environment of, and quality of life

in, the city. In addition, the environment around the road will be improved by improving enforcement

(e.g. overloaded vehicles). On the other hand, even in rural areas, it is possible to introduce automated

driving robot taxis and other shared mobility that saves labour (and is therefore more affordable) and

improves the mobility of elderly people.
To achieve this requires the realization of various issues, for example:

— cooperation with harmonization of de-jure standards such as ISO and industry de facto standards;

— recognition of the significance of international standardization (e.g. to reduce implementation

costs);
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

— recognition of the significance of harmonization activities by countries around the world;

— cooperation and contribution between ISO/TC 22 for in-vehicle systems and ISO/TC 204 for ITS

technology.

As mentioned above, automated driving mobility is expected to play an important role both in cities and

in rural areas. The main effects are, as described above, the reduction of traffic accidents, reduction of

environmental burden, elimination of traffic congestion, realization of effective use of urban space, etc.

ITS technology is an important element for realizing smart cities, and it is important to clearly

understand the role model of ITS service applications when developing standards to achieve these

objectives.

This document gives an important overview of the options for this objective. Considering the emerging

direction of mobility electrification, automated driving and the direction of an environmentally friendly

society, incorporating other urban data such as traffic management into the city management will

improve the mobility of urban society. It is important to consider the creation of a common open role

model for smart city data platforms (such as the ISO 15638 series service framework). Similar platforms

will be necessary for the realization of the future mobility such as automated driving and electrification

of vehicles. A common role model will be developed for all modes of vehicle, including public transport,

general passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles. The incorporation of electronic regulation is especially

important for automated vehicles and it is essential to incorporate it as a core element of urban ITS.

This document describes how ITS data can be presented, interchanged and used by smart cities. This

document does not describe smart city use cases for ITS data in any detail nor does it describe in detail

any specific ITS use cases. It is focused on the generic role model for data exchange between ITS and

smart cities.

The necessary security and data exchange protocols have now been finalized to provide a secure ITS

[5]

interface, with the approval of ISO/TS 21177 , i.e. exchange information with bi-directional protection.

The trust relation between two devices is illustrated in Figure 1.

The relation enables two devices to cooperate in a trusted way, i.e. to exchange information in

secure application sessions, and thus only access data or request data that they have the appropriate

credentials to access.

This document provides the framework within which these transactions can be undertaken.

[5]
NOTE Source: ISO/TS 21177:2019 , Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Interconnection of trusted devices
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration —
Role model of ITS service application in smart cities
1 Scope

This document describes a basic role model of smart city intelligent transport systems (ITS) service

applications as a common platform for smart city instantiation, directly communicating via secure ITS

interfaces. It provides a paradigm describing:
a) a framework for the provision of a cooperative ITS service application;

b) a description of the concept of operations, regulatory aspects and options, and the role models;

c) a conceptual architecture between actors involved in the provision/receipt of ITS service

applications;
d) references for the key documents on which the architecture is based;
e) a taxonomy of the organization of generic procedures.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 14812, Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary

ISO 15638-1, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for collaborative Telematics Applications for

Regulated commercial freight Vehicles (TARV) — Part 1: Framework and architecture

ISO 15638-3, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for collaborative telematics applications for

regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) — Part 3: Operating requirements, 'Approval Authority'

procedures, and enforcement provisions for the providers of regulated services

ISO/TS 15638-4, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for cooperative telematics applications for

regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) — Part 4: System security requirements

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 14812, ISO 15638-1,

ISO 15638-3 and ISO/TS 15638-4 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DTS 14812:2020.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
API application programming interface
app application programme
APDU application protocol data unit
ASD alcohol screening device
CA certificate authority
CAN controller area network
CCAM cooperative, connected and automated mobility
C-ITS cooperative intelligent transport system
CONOPS concept of operations
ECU engine control unit
[4]
ExVe extended vehicle (see the ISO 20078 series )
GNSS global navigation satellite system
ITS intelligent transport system
ITS-S intelligent transport system station
ITS-SCU intelligent transport system station communication unit
ITS-SU intelligent transport system station unit
MaaS mobility as a service
OBE on-board equipment
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PKC public key certificate
PKI public key infrastructure
RA registration authority
RAM random access memory
RSE road-side equipment
RV road vehicle
RVU road vehicle user
Rx receive
SAPDU service access point data unit
SCMS security credential management system
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
SSP secure service provider
TARV telematics applications for ITS service applications
Tx transmit
TLS transport layer security
[3]
UML Unified Modelling Language (see ISO/IEC 19501 )
V2I vehicle-to-infrastructure (communication)
V2V vehicle-to-vehicle (communication)
VRU vulnerable road user
5 General overview and framework
5.1 Objective

This clause describes a generic framework for the provision of cooperative telematics application

services for ITS service applications.

Clause 6 provides the general CONOPS for which this architecture is designed. Clause 7 provides a

framework, role definition and summary of the architecture at a conceptual level. Clause 8 describes

the communications architecture.
5.2 National variations

The instantiation of interoperable on-board platforms for ITS service applications with common

features is expected to vary from country to country, as will the provision of regulated, or supported,

services.
5.3 Mandatory, optional and cooperative issues

5.3.1 This document does not impose any requirements on nations in respect of which services for

ITS service applications countries will require, or which they will support as an option, but provides

a generic common framework architecture within which countries can achieve their own objectives in

respect of application services for ITS-supported service applications in cities, and provide standardized

sets of requirements descriptions for the exchange of data to enable consistent and cost-efficient

implementations where instantiated.

5.3.2 Cooperative ITS application, in this context, is the use of a common platform to meet both

regulated and commercial service provision, providing collaboration between transport systems and

smart cities.
5.4 Specification of service provision

Cooperative ITS applications for ITS service applications (both commercial services and regulated

services) are specified in terms of the service provision, and not in terms of the hardware and software.

5.5 Architecture options

Architecturally, it needs to be possible for a vehicle user/OBE to use the services of different application

services. The in-vehicle system is a vehicle original equipment specification option, inbuilt at the time of

manufacture of the vehicle, with service provider selection being a subsequent service-user choice (e.g.

like selecting an internet service provider) or is aftermarket equipment that has access rights to the

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

required data. An ITS application service is based in the infrastructure. Other options are possible and

can be supported within the conceptual architecture. The objective of this role model is the accessibility

of the use of ITS data generated in ITS application services in smart city application services.

6 Concept of operations
6.1 General

This clause describes the characteristics of a proposed system from the viewpoint of an individual who

uses that system. Its objective is to communicate the quantitative and qualitative system characteristics

to all stakeholders.

This document describes the roles and responsibilities of the classes and actors involved in the

provision of ITS services for ITS service applications using a secure vehicle interface.

This document recognizes that there are variations between jurisdictions. It does not attempt, nor

recommend, homogeneity between jurisdictions. It is designed to provide common standard features

to enable equipment of common specification, that supports a standardized secure ITS interface to be

used, and the common features of service provision to be able to be referenced simply by reference

to an International Standard (requiring it to specify in detail only the additional requirements of a

jurisdiction).

A CONOPS generally evolves from a concept and is a description of how a set of capabilities is employed

to achieve desired objectives.
6.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system

The overall objective of the ITS service application in smart cities is the seamless exchange of data

between transport applications and smart city service applications.

These services are provided to meet the smart city requirements using common secure ITS interface

communications between ITS systems (including in-vehicle systems, infrastructure-based systems and

personal ITS stations) and smart city applications.
6.3 Strategies, tactics, policies, and constraints affecting the system

Strategies, tactics, policies and constraints, and indeed the services that are regulated as mandatory or

optionally supported, vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Clause 7 provides details of the options of

such aspects.

6.4 Organizations, activities and interactions among participants and stakeholders

The classes, attributes and key relationships are described in this clause. Some high-level conceptual

architectural details are elaborated in Clause 7. Clause 8 provides the taxonomy of the architecture.

Clause 9 defines the communications architecture. Clause 10 defines the facilities layer and its

interoperability.
6.5 Clear statement of responsibilities and authorities delegated

Clause 5 describes the high-level options and issues. The actors, their responsibilities and authorities

are described in Clause 7. The roles are described in this clause and in Clause 7.

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
6.6 Operational processes for the system
6.6.1 General

The description given in 6.6.2 of operational processes is at a high abstracted level (above that of any

appl
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 4445
First edition
Intelligent transport systems —
Mobility integration — Role model of
ITS service application in smart cities
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 General overview and framework ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Objective ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 National variations .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Mandatory, optional and cooperative issues ................................................................................................................. 3

5.4 Specification of service provision ........................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Architecture options .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Concept of operations ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system .............................................................................................. 4

6.3 Strategies, tactics, policies, and constraints affecting the system ............................................................... 4

6.4 Organizations, activities and interactions among participants and stakeholders ........................ 4

6.5 Clear statement of responsibilities and authorities delegated ...................................................................... 4

6.6 Operational processes for the system ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.6.2 Service requirements definition ......................................................................................................................... 5

6.7 Appointment of an approval authority (regulatory) .............................................................................................. 5

6.8 In-vehicle system .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.9 User ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.10 Application service .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.11 Big data management entity ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.12 Data aggregator ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Conceptual architecture framework ................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Actors .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Service definition .................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4 Role model architecture .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4.2 Jurisdictions ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.3 Application service actors ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.4.4 Service provider(s) .....................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.5 The OBE equipment installer .............................................................................................................................10

7.4.6 The OBE equipment maintainer ......................................................................................................................10

7.4.7 Approval authority (regulatory) .....................................................................................................................11

7.4.8 Security credential management system/public key infrastructure ...............................11

7.4.9 Certification authority (digital)........................................................................................................................12

7.4.10 Application service approval ..............................................................................................................................12

7.4.11 Onboard equipment OBE approval ...............................................................................................................12

7.4.12 Vehicle user .......................................................................................................................................................................14

7.4.13 Application service provision ............................................................................................................................15

8 Communications architecture .............................................................................................................................................................15

9 Quality of service requirements ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Test requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................................16

11 Marking, labelling and packaging ...................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

12 Declaration of patents and intellectual property ............................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) ITS data management architecture .......................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................36

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Introduction

Currently, more than 70 % of the world’s people live in cities. The proportion of people living in cities

is rising around the world as civilisations develop and congregate around cities where there are more

employment opportunities. Societies develop more innovatively and rapidly in cities, and they present

better entertainment opportunities, adding to their attraction. The Economist magazine recently

[16]

forecast that by 2045, an extra 2 billion people will live in urban areas . The resulting concentration

of population creates various issues such as road congestion due to an increase in vehicle population

and environmental pollution due to exhaust gas and tyre erosion. These issues have been attributed to

increases in the number of delivery trucks, taxis and town centre traffic and are further exacerbated by

obstacles to the effective use of urban space due to the private ownership of cars (parking lots, street

parking).

The pressures caused by scientific advice that significant action and change of behaviour is needed to

ameliorate the adverse effects of climate change require a more environmentally friendly use of the

transport system.

It is recognized that there is also road infrastructure deterioration, a lack of provision of information

on the use of public transportation, driver shortages due to the increase in the number of elderly people

and the inconvenience of multimodal fare payments, and action to improve the situation is urgently

needed.

The International Data Corporation forecasts that of the USD 81 billion that will be spent on smart city

technology in 2020, nearly a quarter will go into fixed visual surveillance, smart outdoor lighting and

[17]
advanced public transit .

Eventually, this is likely to mean high speed trains and driverless cars. Consultancy McKinsey forecasts

that up to 15 % of passenger vehicles sold globally in 2030 will be fully automated, while revenues in

the automotive sector could nearly double to USD 6.7 trillion thanks to shared mobility (car-sharing,

[18]

e-hailing) and data connectivity services (including apps and car software upgrades) .

Changing consumer tastes are also calling for new types of infrastructure. Today’s city dwellers, for

example, increasingly shop online and expect ever faster delivery times. To meet their needs, modern

urban areas need the support of last-minute distribution centres, backed by out-of-town warehouses.

Therefore, in recent years, in Europe, studies on the development of mobility integration standards have

been active to solve urban problems. There are various movements around the world making efforts to

address these issues. In the United States, ITS technology is used to try to solve these urban problems,

as in the Smart City Pilot Project. Columbus, Ohio has been selected as a smart city pilot project which

is currently being designed in detail. Important key factors here are the core architectural elements

of smart cities, and urban ITS sharing of probe data (also called sensor data), connected cars and

automated driving. In addition, new issues have been recognized with the introduction of the connected

car to the real world in respect of privacy protection, the need to strengthen security measures, big

data collection and processing measures, which are becoming important considerations.

In terms of the effective use of urban space, it is hoped that the introduction of connected cars and

automated driving can significantly reduce the requirements for urban parking lots (redistribution of

road space). If technology can eliminate congestion, the city road area usage can also be minimized and

reallocated (space utilization improvement) to improve the living environment of, and quality of life

in, the city. In addition, the environment around the road will be improved by improving enforcement

(e.g. overloaded vehicles). On the other hand, even in rural areas, it is possible to introduce automated

driving robot taxis and other shared mobility that saves labour (and is therefore more affordable) and

improves the mobility of elderly people.
To achieve this requires the realization of various issues, for example:

— cooperation with harmonization of de-jure standards such as ISO and industry de facto standards;

— recognition of the significance of international standardization (e.g. to reduce implementation

costs);
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

— recognition of the significance of harmonization activities by countries around the world;

— cooperation and contribution between ISO/TC 22 for in-vehicle systems and ISO/TC 204 for ITS

technology.

As mentioned above, automated driving mobility is expected to play an important role both in cities and

in rural areas. The main effects are, as described above, the reduction of traffic accidents, reduction of

environmental burden, elimination of traffic congestion, realization of effective use of urban space, etc.

ITS technology is an important element for realizing smart cities, and it is important to clearly

understand the role model of ITS service applications when developing standards to achieve these

objectives.

This document gives an important overview of the options for this objective. Considering the emerging

direction of mobility electrification, automated driving and the direction of an environmentally friendly

society, incorporating other urban data such as traffic management into the city management will

improve the mobility of urban society. It is important to consider the creation of a common open role

model for smart city data platforms (such as the ISO 15638 series service framework). Similar platforms

will be necessary for the realization of the future mobility such as automated driving and electrification

of vehicles. A common role model will be developed for all modes of vehicle, including public transport,

general passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles. The incorporation of electronic regulation is especially

important for automated vehicles and it is essential to incorporate it as a core element of urban ITS.

This document describes how ITS data can be presented, interchanged and used by smart cities. This

document does not describe smart city use cases for ITS data in any detail nor does it describe in detail

any specific ITS use cases. It is focused on the generic role model for data exchange between ITS and

smart cities.

The necessary security and data exchange protocols have now been finalized to provide a secure ITS

[5]

interface, with the approval of ISO/TS 21177 , i.e. exchange information with bi-directional protection.

The trust relation between two devices is illustrated in Figure 1.

The relation enables two devices to cooperate in a trusted way, i.e. to exchange information in

secure application sessions, and thus only access data or request data that they have the appropriate

credentials to access.

This document provides the framework within which these transactions can be undertaken.

[5]
NOTE Source: ISO/TS 21177:2019 , Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Interconnection of trusted devices
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Mobility integration —
Role model of ITS service application in smart cities
1 Scope

This document describes a basic role model of smart city intelligent transport systems (ITS) service

applications as a common platform for smart city instantiation, directly communicating via secure ITS

interfaces. It provides a paradigm describing:
a) a framework for the provision of a cooperative ITS service application;

b) a description of the concept of operations, regulatory aspects and options, and the role models;

c) a conceptual architecture between actors involved in the provision/receipt of ITS service

applications;
d) references for the key documents on which the architecture is based;
e) a taxonomy of the organization of generic procedures.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 14812, Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary

ISO 15638-1, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for collaborative Telematics Applications for

Regulated commercial freight Vehicles (TARV) — Part 1: Framework and architecture

ISO 15638-3, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for collaborative telematics applications for

regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) — Part 3: Operating requirements, ‘Approval Authority’

procedures, and enforcement provisions for the providers of regulated services

ISO/TS 15638-4, Intelligent transport systems — Framework for cooperative telematics applications for

regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) — Part 4: System security requirements

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 14812, ISO 15638-1,

ISO 15638-3 and ISO/TS 15638-4 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DTS 14812:2020.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
API application programming interface
app application programme
APDU application protocol data unit
ASD alcohol screening device
CA certificate authority
CAN controller area network
CCAM cooperative, connected and automated mobility
C-ITS cooperative intelligent transport system
CONOPS concept of operations
ECU engine control unit
[4]
ExVe extended vehicle (see the ISO 20078 series )
GNSS global navigation satellite system
ITS intelligent transport system
ITS-S intelligent transport system station
ITS-SCU intelligent transport system station communication unit
ITS-SU intelligent transport system station unit
MaaS mobility as a service
OBE on-board equipment
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PKC public key certificate
PKI public key infrastructure
RA registration authority
RAM random access memory
RSE road-side equipment
RV road vehicle
RVU road vehicle user
Rx receive
SAPDU service access point data unit
SCMS security credential management system
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
SSP secure service provider
TARV telematics applications for ITS service applications
Tx transmit
TLS transport layer security
[3]
UML Unified Modelling Language (see ISO/IEC 19501 )
V2I vehicle-to-infrastructure (communication)
V2V vehicle-to-vehicle (communication)
VRU vulnerable road user
5 General overview and framework
5.1 Objective

This clause describes a generic framework for the provision of cooperative telematics application

services for ITS service applications.

Clause 6 provides the general CONOPS for which this architecture is designed. Clause 7 provides a

framework, role definition and summary of the architecture at a conceptual level. Clause 8 describes

the communications architecture.
5.2 National variations

The instantiation of interoperable on-board platforms for ITS service applications with common

features is expected to vary from country to country, as will the provision of regulated, or supported,

services.
5.3 Mandatory, optional and cooperative issues

5.3.1 This document does not impose any requirements on nations in respect of which services for

ITS service applications countries will require, or which they will support as an option, but provides

a generic common framework architecture within which countries can achieve their own objectives in

respect of application services for ITS-supported service applications in cities, and provide standardized

sets of requirements descriptions for the exchange of data to enable consistent and cost-efficient

implementations where instantiated.

5.3.2 Cooperative ITS application, in this context, is the use of a common platform to meet both

regulated and commercial service provision, providing collaboration between transport systems and

smart cities.
5.4 Specification of service provision

Cooperative ITS applications for ITS service applications (both commercial services and regulated

services) are specified in terms of the service provision, and not in terms of the hardware and software.

5.5 Architecture options

Architecturally, it needs to be possible for a vehicle user/OBE to use the services of different application

services. The in-vehicle system is a vehicle original equipment specification option, inbuilt at the time of

manufacture of the vehicle, with service provider selection being a subsequent service-user choice (e.g.

like selecting an internet service provider) or is aftermarket equipment that has access rights to the

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)

required data. An ITS application service is based in the infrastructure. Other options are possible and

can be supported within the conceptual architecture. The objective of this role model is the accessibility

of the use of ITS data generated in ITS application services in smart city application services.

6 Concept of operations
6.1 General

This clause describes the characteristics of a proposed system from the viewpoint of an individual who

uses that system. Its objective is to communicate the quantitative and qualitative system characteristics

to all stakeholders.

This document describes the roles and responsibilities of the classes and actors involved in the

provision of ITS services for ITS service applications using a secure vehicle interface.

This document recognizes that there are variations between jurisdictions. It does not attempt, nor

recommend, homogeneity between jurisdictions. It is designed to provide common standard features

to enable equipment of common specification, that supports a standardized secure ITS interface to be

used, and the common features of service provision to be able to be referenced simply by reference

to an International Standard (requiring it to specify in detail only the additional requirements of a

jurisdiction).

A CONOPS generally evolves from a concept and is a description of how a set of capabilities is employed

to achieve desired objectives.
6.2 Statement of the goals and objectives of the system

The overall objective of the ITS service application in smart cities is the seamless exchange of data

between transport applications and smart city service applications.

These services are provided to meet the smart city requirements using common secure ITS interface

communications between ITS systems (including in-vehicle systems, infrastructure-based systems and

personal ITS stations) and smart city applications.
6.3 Strategies, tactics, policies, and constraints affecting the system

Strategies, tactics, policies and constraints, and indeed the services that are regulated as mandatory or

optionally supported, vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Clause 7 provides details of the options of

such aspects.

6.4 Organizations, activities and interactions among participants and stakeholders

The classes, attributes and key relationships are described in this clause. Some high-level conceptual

architectural details are elaborated in Clause 7. Clause 8 provides the taxonomy of the architecture.

Clause 9 defines the communications architecture. Clause 10 defines the facilities layer and its

interoperability.
6.5 Clear statement of responsibilities and authorities delegated

Clause 5 describes the high-level options and issues. The actors, their responsibilities and authorities

are described in Clause 7. The roles are described in this clause and in Clause 7.

4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TR 4445:2021(E)
6.6 Operational processes for the system
6.6.1 General
The description given in 6.6.2 of operational processes is at a high abstrac
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.