Energy performance of buildings -- Indoor environmental quality

ISO 17772-1:2017 specifies requirements for indoor environmental parameters for thermal environment, indoor air quality, lighting and acoustics and specifies how to establish these parameters for building system design and energy performance calculations. It includes design criteria for the local thermal discomfort factors, draught, radiant temperature asymmetry, vertical air temperature differences and floor surface temperature. ISO 17772-1:2017 is applicable where the criteria for indoor environment are set by human occupancy and where the production or process does not have a major impact on indoor environment. It also specifies occupancy schedules to be used in standard energy calculations and how different categories of criteria for the indoor environment can be used. The criteria in ISO 17772-1:2017can also be used in national calculation methods. ISO 17772-1:2017 sets criteria for the indoor environment based on existing standards and reports (listed in Clause 2 and the Bibliography). The document does not specify design methods, but gives input parameters to the design of building envelope, heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments -- Qualité de l'environnement intérieur

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Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Jun-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
25-Jan-2017
Completion Date
21-Jun-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17772-1
First edition
2017-06
Energy performance of buildings —
Indoor environmental quality —
Part 1:
Indoor environmental input
parameters for the design and
assessment of energy performance of
buildings
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Qualité de
l’environnement intérieur —
Partie 1: Paramètres d’entrée de l’environnement intérieur pour
la conception et l’évaluation de la performance énergétique des
bâtiments
Reference number
ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Interactions with other standards ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Design input parameters for design of buildings and sizing of heating, cooling,

ventilation and lighting systems .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Thermal environment ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Heated and/or mechanically cooled buildings ...................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Buildings without mechanical cooling .......................................................................................................... 7

6.2.3 Increased air velocity ................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Design for indoor air quality (ventilation rates)........................................................................................................ 8

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.3 Non-residential buildings .....................................................................................................................................11

6.3.4 Residential buildings .................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.5 Access to operable windows ...............................................................................................................................12

6.3.6 Filtration and air cleaning ....................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Humidity ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.5 Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.5.2 Non-residential buildings .....................................................................................................................................13

6.5.3 Residential buildings .................................................................................................................................................13

6.6 Noise .............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7 Indoor environment parameters for energy calculation ........................................................................................14

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Thermal environment ....................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.1 Seasonal and monthly calculations ...............................................................................................................14

7.2.2 Hourly calculations .....................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Indoor air quality and ventilation .......................................................................................................................................14

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.4 Humidity ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.5 Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.5.1 Non-residential buildings .....................................................................................................................................15

7.5.2 Residential buildings .................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Recommended criteria for the thermal environment ..........................................................16

Annex B (normative) Basis for the criteria for indoor air quality and ventilation rates ............................22

Annex C (normative) How to define low and very low polluting buildings ...............................................................27

Annex D (normative) Examples of criteria for lighting ..................................................................................................................28

Annex E (normative) Indoor system noise criteria of some spaces and buildings............................................29

Annex F (normative) Criteria for substances in indoor air ........................................................................................................30

Annex G (normative) Occupant schedules for energy calculations ...................................................................................31

Annex H (informative) Default criteria for the thermal environment ...........................................................................32

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)

Annex I (informative) Basis for the criteria for indoor air quality and ventilation rates ..........................38

Annex J (informative) Example on how to define low and very low polluting buildings ............................44

Annex K (informative) Examples of criteria for lighting ...............................................................................................................45

Annex L (informative) Indoor system noise criteria of some spaces and buildings ........................................46

Annex M (informative) WHO health-based criteria for indoor air .....................................................................................47

Annex N (informative) Occupants schedules for energy calculations ............................................................................48

Annex O (informative) Occupants schedules for energy calculations ............................................................................50

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www .iso .org/ directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www .iso .org/ patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following

URL: http:// www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 17772 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
Introduction

Energy consumption of buildings depends significantly on the criteria used for the indoor environment

(heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting) and building (including systems) design and operation.

Indoor environment also affects health, productivity and comfort of the occupants. Recent studies

have shown that costs of poor indoor environment for the employer, the building owner and for society,

as a whole are often considerable higher than the cost of the energy used in the same building. It has

also been shown that good indoor environmental quality can improve overall work and learning

performance and reduce absenteeism. In addition uncomfortable occupants are likely to take actions

to make themselves comfortable which may have energy implications. There is therefore a need for

specifying criteria for the indoor environment for design and energy calculations for buildings and

building service systems.

There exist other national and International Standards, and technical reports, which specify criteria for

[2]

thermal comfort (ISO 7730 ). These documents do specify different types and categories of criteria,

which may have a significant influence on the energy demand. For the thermal environment criteria

for the heating season (cold/winter) and cooling season (warm/summer) are listed. These criteria are,

however, mainly for dimensioning of building, heating, cooling and ventilation systems. They may not

be used directly for energy calculations and year-round evaluation of the indoor thermal environment.

Studies have shown that occupant expectations in natural ventilated buildings may differ from

conditioned buildings, which will be part of this document.

This document specifies how design criteria can be established and used for dimensioning of systems.

It defines how to establish and define the main parameters to be used as input for building energy

calculation and long term evaluation of the indoor environment. Finally this document identifies

parameters to be used for monitoring and displaying of the indoor environment

Different categories of criteria may be used depending on type of building, type of occupants, type

of climate and national differences. This document specifies several different categories of indoor

environment which could be selected for the space to be conditioned. These different categories are

intended to be used for design and may also be used to give an overall, yearly evaluation of the indoor

environment by evaluating the percentage of time in each category. The designer may also select other

categories using the principles from this document.

Table 1 shows the relative position of this document within the set of EPB standards in the context of

[15]
the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1 .

NOTE 1 In ISO/TR 52000-2 the same table can be found, with, for each module, the numbers of the relevant

EPB standards and accompanying technical reports that are published or in preparation.

NOTE 2 The modules represent EPB standards, although one EPB standard can cover more than one module

and one module can be covered by more than one EPB standard, for instance a simplified and a detailed method

respectively. See also Clause 2 and Tables A.1 and H.1.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)

Table 1 — Position of this document within the EN EPB set of standards according to

ISO 52001-1
Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
Building
Humid- Domes- PV,
Descrip- Descrip- Descrip- Heat- Cool- Ventila- Dehumidifi- Light- automa-
ifi tic hot wind,
tions tions tions ing ing tion cation ing tion and
cation water ..
control
sub1 M1 sub1 M2 sub1 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11
1 General 1 General 1 General
Common
terms and
Building
definitions;
2 2 energy 2 Needs
symbols,
needs
units and
subscripts
(Free)
Indoor Maximum
Applica-
3 3 conditions 3 load and
tions
without power
systems
Ways to Ways to Ways to
express express express
4 energy 4 energy 4 energy
perfor- perfor- perfor-
mance mance mance
Building
Heat
functions Emission
transfer by
5 and build- 5 5 and con-
transmis-
ing bound- trol
sion
aries
Building Heat
occupan- transfer by Distribu-
6 cy and 6 infiltra- 6 tion and
operating tion and control
conditions ventilation
Aggre-
gation of
Storage
energy Internal
7 7 7 and con-
services heat gains
trol
and energy
carriers
Building Genera-
Solar heat
8 partition- 8 8 tion and
gains
ing control
Load
Calculated Building
dispatch-
energy dynamics
9 9 9 ing and
perfor- (thermal
operating
mance mass)
conditions
Measured Measured Measured
energy energy energy
10 10 10
perfor- perfor- perfor-
mance mance mance
11 Inspection 11 Inspection 11 Inspection
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
Building
Humid- Domes- PV,
Descrip- Descrip- Descrip- Heat- Cool- Ventila- Dehumidifi- Light- automa-
ifi tic hot wind,
tions tions tions ing ing tion cation ing tion and
cation water ..
control
Ways to
express
12 12 BMS
indoor
comfort
Outdoor
envi-
ronment
conditions
Economic
calculation
viii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Indoor environmental
quality —
Part 1:
Indoor environmental input parameters for the design and
assessment of energy performance of buildings
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for indoor environmental parameters for thermal environment,

indoor air quality, lighting and acoustics and specifies how to establish these parameters for building

system design and energy performance calculations.

It includes design criteria for the local thermal discomfort factors, draught, radiant temperature

asymmetry, vertical air temperature differences and floor surface temperature.

This document is applicable where the criteria for indoor environment are set by human occupancy and

where the production or process does not have a major impact on indoor environment.

It also specifies occupancy schedules to be used in standard energy calculations and how different

categories of criteria for the indoor environment can be used.

The criteria in this document can also be used in national calculation methods. This document sets

criteria for the indoor environment based on existing standards and reports (listed in Clause 2 and the

Bibliography).

The document does not specify design methods, but gives input parameters to the design of building

envelope, heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13731, Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Vocabulary and symbols
IEC 60050-845, International electrotechnical vocabulary — Chapter 845: Lighting

EN 16798-3, Ventilation of non-residential buildings — Performance requirements for ventilation and

room-conditioning systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13731 and IEC 60050-845,

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
3.1
EPB standard
[19]

standard that complies with the requirements given in ISO 52000-1, CEN/TS 16628 and

[20]
CEN/TS 16629

Note 1 to entry: These three basic EPB documents were developed under a mandate given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association (Mandate M/480,), and support essential requirements of

EU Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD). Several EPB standards and related

documents are developed or revised under the same mandate.
[SOURCE: ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.5.14]
3.2
adaptation, thermal

physiological, psychological or behavioural adjustment of building occupants to the interior thermal

environment in order to avoid or to limit thermal discomfort

Note 1 to entry: In naturally ventilated buildings these are often in response to changes in indoor environment

induced by outdoor weather conditions.
3.3
adaptation
perceived air quality

sensory adaptation to perceived air quality (odour), which occurs during the first 15 min exposure to

bio effluents
3.4
airing

intentional opening of windows, doors, vents, etc. for increasing the ventilation in a room

3.5
breathing zone
part of the occupied zone at the head level of the occupants

Note 1 to entry: Head level is 1,7 m standing, 1,1 m seated and 0,2 m for children on the floor

Note 2 to entry: For a definition of occupied zone see EN 16798–3.
3.6
building, very low-polluting

building where predominantly very low-emitting materials and furniture are used, activities with

emission of pollutants are prohibited and no previous emitting sources (like tobacco smoke, from

cleaning) were present
Note 1 to entry: Default criteria are listed in Annex H.
3.7
building, low-polluting

building where predominantly low emitting materials are used and materials and activities with

emission of pollutants are limited
Note 1 to entry: Note to entry: Default criteria are listed in in Annex H.
3.8
building, non low-polluting

building where no effort has been done to select low-emitting materials and where activities with

emission of pollutants are not limited or prohibited

Note 1 to entry: Default criteria are listed in Annex H. Previous emissions (like tobacco smoke) can have taken place.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
3.9
cooling season

part of the year (usually summer) during which cooling is needed to keep the indoor temperature

within specified levels, at least part of the day and in part of the rooms

Note 1 to entry: The length of the cooling season differs substantially from country to country and from region

to region.
3.10
daylight factor

ratio of the illuminance at a point on a given plane due to the light received directly or indirectly from

a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution, to the illuminance on a horizontal plane due to an

unobstructed hemisphere of this sky, excluding the contribution of direct sunlight to both illuminances

3.11
demand controlled ventilation

ventilation system where airflow rates are controlled automatically according to measured needs at

room level
3.12
dehumidification
process of removing water vapour from air
3.13
outdoor temperature, daily mean
average of the hourly mean outdoor air temperature for one calendar day (24 h)
3.14
outdoor temperature
running mean
exponentially weighted running mean of the daily mean outdoor air temperature
3.15
heating season

part of the year during which heating is needed to keep the indoor temperature within specified levels,

at least part of the day and in part of the rooms

Note 1 to entry: The length of the heating season differs substantially from country to country and from region

to region.
3.16
humidification
process of adding water vapour to air to increase humidity
3.17
mechanical cooling

cooling of the indoor environment by mechanical means used to provide cooling of supply air

Note 1 to entry: This includes fan coil units, cooled surfaces, etc.

Note 2 to entry: Opening of windows during night and day time or mechanical supply of cold outdoor air is not

regarded as mechanical cooling.
3.18
mechanical ventilation

ventilation system where air is supplied or extracted from the building or both by a fan using air

terminal devices, ducts and roof/wall devices
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
3.19
natural ventilation

ventilation provided by thermal, wind, or diffusion effects through doors, windows, or other intentional

devices in the building designed for ventilation

Note 1 to entry: Natural ventilation systems can be either manually or automatically controlled.

3.20
occupied hours

hours when the majority of the building or part of the building being considered is in its intended use

3.21
operative temperature

uniform temperature of an imaginary black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same

amount of heat by radiation plus convection as in the actual non-uniform environment

[1] [13]
Note 1 to entry: Further information is given in ISO 7726 and EN 16798-2 .
3.22
optimal operative temperature

operative temperature that satisfies the greatest percentage of occupants at a given clothing and

activity level in the current thermal environment
3.23
room conditioning system

system installed and used to keep comfortable conditions in a room within a defined range

Note 1 to entry: Air conditioning, chilled beams and radiant, surface heating and cooling systems are included.

3.24
ventilation

process of providing outdoor air by natural or mechanical means to a space or building

3.25
ventilation rate

magnitude of outdoor air flow to a room or building through the ventilation system or device

3.26
ventilation system

combination of appliances or building components designed to supply indoor spaces with outdoor air

and/or to extract polluted indoor air

Note 1 to entry: A ventilation system can refer to mechanical, natural and hybrid ventilation systems.

Note 2 to entry: The ventilation system can consist of mechanical components (e.g. combination of air handling

unit, ducts and terminal units). A ventilation system can also refer to natural ventilation systems making use of

temperature differences and wind with facade grills in combination with mechanical exhaust (e.g. in corridors,

toilets etc.). A combination of mechanical and natural ventilation is possible (hybrid systems).

3.27
design ventilation airflow rate

ventilation rate that the ventilation system is able to provide in design conditions (including boost,

weather and loads)
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17772-1:2017(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in ISO 52000-1:2017, Annex C and the

following apply.
Symbol Quantity Unit
θ indoor operative temperature °C
θ outdoor temperature °C
Θ running mean outdoor air temperature °C
Θ operative temperature, design and energy calculations °C
Θ running mean outdoor temperature °C
rm-i
Θ daily mean outdoor temperature °C
ed-i
v air speed (average / maximum) m/s
Θ floor surface temperature °C
ΔCO concentration ppm
ΔΘ radiant temperature asymmetry K
ΔΘ vertical air temperature difference K
α constant for running mean calculations
q total ventilation rate l/s
tot
q ventilation rate for building materials l/s(m )
q ventilation rate for persons l/s (per person)
q total ventilation rate in occupied zone l/s(m ), l/s(person)
tot,oz
n number of persons
q ventilation rate required for dilution of pollutant L/s
G generation of a pollutant µg/s
C guideline value of a pollutant µg/L
C guideline value of the substance µg /m
h,i
C supply concentration of a pollutant at air intake µg/L
h,o
ε ventilation effectiveness -
A floor area m
L A-weighed sound pressure level dB(A)
p,A
L equivalent continuous sound pressure level dB(A)
eq, nT,A
D daylight factor
DC daylight quotient of the calculated area j
a,j
E average maintained illuminance lx
M activity level met
l assumed clothing level winter/summer clo
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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