Transportable gas storage devices -- Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride

This document defines the requirements applicable to the material, design, construction, and testing of transportable hydrogen gas storage systems, referred to as "metal hydride assemblies" (MH assemblies) which utilize shells not exceeding 150 l internal volume and having a maximum developed pressure (MDP) not exceeding 25 MPa. This document is applicable to refillable storage MH assemblies where hydrogen is the only transferred media. It is not applicable to storage MH assemblies intended to be used as fixed fuel-storage onboard hydrogen fuelled vehicles.

Appareils de stockage de gaz transportables -- Hydrogène absorbé dans un hydrure métallique réversible

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
21-Jun-2018
Completion Date
16-Aug-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16111
Second edition
2018-08
Transportable gas storage devices —
Hydrogen absorbed in reversible
metal hydride
Appareils de stockage de gaz transportables — Hydrogène absorbé
dans un hydrure métallique réversible
Reference number
ISO 16111:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Service conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Pressures ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.1 Maximum developed pressure (MDP) .......................................................................................................... 4

4.1.2 Rated charging pressure (RCP) ........................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.3 Stress level at MDP ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Rated capacity .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Temperature ranges ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 Operating temperature range ............................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Service temperature range ...................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.5 Service life ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6 Hydrogen quality ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Special service conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Design considerations .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Material selection ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 External surfaces ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.3 Compatibility ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.4 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3 Shell design ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.3.1 Shells with internal volume greater than 120 ml ................................................................................ 6

5.3.2 Shells with internal volume of 120 ml or less ........................................................................................ 7

5.4 Design strength ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Overpressure and fire protection............................................................................................................................................ 7

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.2 PRD activation pressure ............................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5.3 PRD activation temperature ................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Loading of hydrogen absorbing alloy .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.7 Shut-off valves ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7.2 MH assemblies with internal volume greater than 120 ml ......................................................... 8

5.7.3 MH assemblies with internal volume of 120 ml or less ................................................................. 9

5.7.4 Integral shut-off valve protection ...................................................................................................................10

5.7.5 Removable shut-off valve protection ...........................................................................................................10

5.8 Actively cooled MH assemblies ..............................................................................................................................................10

5.9 Particulate containment...............................................................................................................................................................10

6 Inspection and testing .................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Type/qualification tests ...............................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Fire test .................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.3 Initial burst tests for MH assemblies with an internal volume of 120 ml or less .13

6.2.4 Drop or impact test .....................................................................................................................................................13

6.2.5 Leak test ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.6 Hydrogen cycling and strain measurement test ................................................................................17

6.2.7 Shut-off valve impact test ......................................................................................................................................21

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ISO 16111:2018(E)

6.2.8 Thermal cycling test ...................................................................................................................................................22

6.2.9 Type test reports ...........................................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Batch tests ................................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.3.1 General requirements ...............................................................................................................................................23

6.3.2 Burst test for shell-batch .......................................................................................................................................24

6.3.3 MDP Test for hydride-batch ................................................................................................................................24

6.4 Routine tests and inspections .................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.1 Routine tests .....................................................................................................................................................................24

6.4.2 Certificates of manufacture .................................................................................................................................24

7 Marking, labelling, and documentation ....................................................................................................................................25

7.1 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................25

7.2.2 Hazards associated with the solid materials ........................................................................................25

7.2.3 Labelling concerning removable valve protection ...........................................................................25

7.2.4 Temperature warning labelling ........................................................................................................................25

8 Documentation accompanying the product ..........................................................................................................................26

8.1 Safety data sheets ..............................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 User's or operating manual .......................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.2 Initial fill and refill procedures .........................................................................................................................26

Annex A (informative) Material compatibility for hydrogen service ...............................................................................28

Annex B (normative) Environmental tests ..................................................................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Type approval certificate ..................................................................................................................................37

Annex D (informative) Acceptance certificate .........................................................................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by ISO/TC 197, Hydrogen technologies.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16111:2008), which has been technically

revised.

The following clauses have been modified with respect to the previous edition: 2; 3.4; 3.5; 3.9; 3.10;

3.11; 3.12; 3.13; 3.14; 3.15; 3.16; 3.17; 3.18; 3.19; 3.20; 3.21; 3.22; 4.1; 4.3; 5.2.1; 5.3; 5.5; 5.8; 6.2; 6.3; 7.2;

8.1 and Annex D.
The main changes compared to the previous edition concern the following:
— service temperature conditions have been described in further detail (4.3.2);
— shell design has been extended to ISO 11119-3 standard reference (5.3);
— drop test conditions have been modified (6.2.4);
— acceptance criteria have been modified for leak testing (6.2.5);
— hydrogen cycling conditions have been modified (6.2.6);
— new warning labelling has been proposed (7.2);
— information in safety data sheets has been updated (8.1).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
Introduction

As the utilization of gaseous hydrogen evolves from the chemical industry into various emerging

applications, such as fuel for fuel cells and internal combustion engines and other specialty hydrogen

applications, the importance of new and improved storage techniques has become essential. One of

these techniques employs the absorption of hydrogen into specially formulated alloys. The material

can be stored and transported in a solid form, and the hydrogen later released and used under specific

thermodynamic conditions. This document describes the service conditions, design criteria, type tests,

batch tests and routine tests for transportable hydride-based hydrogen storage systems, referred to as

“metal hydride assemblies” (MH assemblies). Types of MH assemblies may serve as: fuel cell cartridges;

hydrogen fuel storage containers; high-purity hydrogen supplies as well as other uses.

vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16111:2018(E)
Transportable gas storage devices — Hydrogen absorbed
in reversible metal hydride
1 Scope

This document defines the requirements applicable to the material, design, construction, and testing of

transportable hydrogen gas storage systems, referred to as “metal hydride assemblies” (MH assemblies)

which utilize shells not exceeding 150 l internal volume and having a maximum developed pressure

(MDP) not exceeding 25 MPa.

This document is applicable to refillable storage MH assemblies where hydrogen is the only transferred

media. It is not applicable to storage MH assemblies intended to be used as fixed fuel-storage onboard

hydrogen fuelled vehicles.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7225, Gas cylinders — Precautionary labels

ISO 7866, Gas cylinders — Refillable seamless aluminium alloy gas cylinders — Design, construction

and testing

ISO 9809-1, Gas cylinders — Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders — Design, construction and testing —

Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1 100 MPa

ISO 9809-2, Gas cylinders — Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders — Design, construction and testing —

Part 2: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater than or equal to 1 100 MPa

ISO 9809-3, Gas cylinders — Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders — Design, construction and testing —

Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders
ISO 10297:2014, Gas cylinders — Cylinder valves — Specification and type testing

ISO 11114-1, Gas cylinders — Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents — Part 1:

Metallic materials

ISO 11114-2, Gas cylinders — Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents — Part 2:

Non-metallic materials

ISO 11114-4, Transportable gas cylinders — Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas

contents — Part 4: Test methods for selecting steels resistant to hydrogen embrittlement

ISO 11119-1, Gas cylinders — Refillable composite gas cylinders and tubes — Design, construction and

testing — Part 1: Hoop wrapped fibre reinforced composite gas cylinders and tubes up to 450 l

ISO 11119-2:2012, Gas cylinders — Refillable composite gas cylinders and tubes — Design, construction

and testing — Part 2: Fully wrapped fibre reinforced composite gas cylinders and tubes up to 450 l with

load-sharing metal liners

ISO 11119-3, Gas cylinders — Refillable composite gas cylinders and tubes — Design, construction and

testing — Part 3: Fully wrapped fibre reinforced composite gas cylinders and tubes up to 450L with non-

load-sharing metallic or non-metallic liners
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16111:2018(E)

ISO 14246, Gas cylinders — Cylinder valves — Manufacturing tests and examinations

ISO 14687 (all parts), Hydrogen fuel — Product specification
ISO 16528-1, Boilers and pressure vessels — Part 1: Performance requirements
UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
absorbed, adj.

taken and held through the formation of chemical bonds within the bulk of the material

3.2
burst pressure
highest pressure reached in an MH assembly during a burst test
3.3
design stress limit
total stress loading allowed on the shell wall

Note 1 to entry: In MH assemblies, the shell design takes into account the gas pressure plus other stresses, such

as pressure exerted by expansion of the hydrogen absorbing alloy.
3.4
fuel cartridge

MH assembly, which stores hydrogen for use as a fuel in a fuel cell through a valve(s) that controls the

discharge of fuel into the fuel cell
3.5
full flow capacity pressure

gas pressure at which the pressure relief device is fully open to have the maximum gas flow

3.6
hydrogen absorbing alloy

material capable of reacting with hydrogen gas to form a reversible metal hydride

3.7
internal component

structure, matrix, material or device contained within the shell (excluding hydrogen gas, hydrogen

absorbing alloy and metal hydride)

Note 1 to entry: Internal components may be used for purposes such as heat transfer, preventing movement of

the hydrogen absorbing alloy/metal hydride and/or to prevent excessive stress on the shell walls due to hydride

expansion.
3.8
internal volume
water capacity of the shell
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
3.9
maximum developed pressure
MDP

highest gas gauge pressure developed internally to an MH assembly at rated capacity and equilibrium

under normal service conditions or normal operating conditions, whichever is greater

Note 1 to entry: The MDP term was specifically selected for MH assemblies to avoid confusion with the maximum

allowable working pressure (MAWP) and the service pressure used in other ISO International Standards.

3.10
metal hydride
solid material formed by reaction between hydrogen and hydrogen absorbing alloy
3.11
metal hydride assembly
MH assembly

single complete hydrogen storage system, including shell, metal hydride, pressure relief device (PRD),

shut-off valve, other appurtenances and internal components

Note 1 to entry: The MH assembly extends only to, and including, the first shut-off valve.

Note 2 to entry: A fuel cell cartridge is a type of MH assembly.
3.12
normal operating conditions

range of pressures, MH assembly external shell temperatures, hydrogen flow rates, hydrogen quality,

etc., specified for all use and filling operations
3.13
normal service conditions

range of pressures and environmental temperatures, specified for transportation and storage

conditions
3.14
pressure relief device
PRD

device intended to prevent the rupture of an MH assembly in the event of overpressure or exposure to fire

Note 1 to entry: A pressure relief device may be “pressure-activated”, set to activate at a certain pressure.

Alternatively, a pressure relief device may be “thermally-activated”, set to activate at a certain temperature. A

pressure relief device may also be both “pressure-activated” and “thermally-activated”.

3.15
pressure relief valve
PRV
reseatable pressure relief device (PRD)
3.16
rated capacity
maximum quantity of hydrogen deliverable under specified conditions
3.17
rated charging pressure
RCP
maximum pressure to be applied to the MH assembly for refilling

Note 1 to entry: The RCP is not necessarily equal to the equilibrium plateau pressure of the hydrogen

absorbing alloy.
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ISO 16111:2018(E)
3.18
reversible metal hydride

metal hydride for which there exists an equilibrium condition where the hydrogen absorbing alloy,

hydrogen gas and the metal hydride co-exist

Note 1 to entry: Changes in pressure or temperature will shift the equilibrium favouring the formation or

decomposition of the metal hydride with respect to the hydrogen absorbing alloy and hydrogen gas.

3.19
rupture
structural failure of a shell resulting in the sudden release of stored energy
3.20
shell

enclosure of any shape (cylindrical, prismatic, cubic, etc.) designed to contain the hydrogen gas, metal

hydride and other internal components of the MH assembly

Note 1 to entry: A shell may be a gas cylinder, a pressure vessel or other type of container.

3.21
stress level at MDP

sum of all the stresses on the shell wall caused by the metal hydride at rated capacity, hydrogen gas at

MDP and any other applicable mechanical loadings
3.22
test pressure
required pressure applied during a pressure test for qualification
4 Service conditions
4.1 Pressures
4.1.1 Maximum developed pressure (MDP)

The MDP shall be determined by the manufacturer from the metal hydride's temperature–pressure

characteristics. In no case shall the MDP exceed 0,8 times the test pressure of the shell. The MDP shall

not exceed 25 MPa.
4.1.2 Rated charging pressure (RCP)

The RCP shall be specified by the manufacturer in order to prevent charging at a pressure that could

result in the shell wall stress exceeding the design stress limit.
4.1.3 Stress level at MDP

The stress level at MDP shall be determined by the manufacturer from the hydrogen absorbing alloy's

packing and expansion properties, the MDP within the MH assembly, and other applicable mechanical

loadings.
4.2 Rated capacity

The manufacturer shall state the rated capacity of the MH assembly by units of mass of hydrogen.

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ISO 16111:2018(E)
4.3 Temperature ranges
4.3.1 Operating temperature range

The minimum and maximum MH assembly temperature for normal operating conditions shall be

specified by the manufacturer.
4.3.2 Service temperature range

The minimum and maximum ambient shell temperatures for normal service conditions shall be a

minimum of −40 °C and a maximum of +65 °C. If the maximum and minimum shell temperatures are to

be different from those specified, they shall be identified by the manufacturer.
4.4 Environmental conditions

The MH assemblies are expected to be exposed to a number of environmental conditions over their

service life, such as vibration and shock, varying humidity levels, and corrosive environments. The

manufacturer shall specify the environmental conditions for which the MH assembly was designed.

4.5 Service life

The service life for the MH assemblies shall be specified by the manufacturer on the basis of use under

...

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