Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes — Electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings

This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings applied from aqueous solutions onto metallic and non-metallic substrates. This document does not apply to ternary nickel alloys and nickel-boron ceramic composite coatings.

Dépôts électrolytiques et finitions apparentées — Revêtements composites céramiques-Ni-P sans courant

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Completion Date
13-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23363
First edition
2020-07
Electrodeposited coatings and related
finishes — Electroless Ni-P-ceramic
composite coatings
Dépôts électrolytiques et finitions apparentées — Revêtements
composites céramiques-Ni-P sans courant
Reference number
ISO 23363:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23363:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23363:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4  Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Examples of designations .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5  Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Special test specimens ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Surface finish ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Thickness ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Hardness ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Porosity ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Corrosion resistance .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Stress relief heat treatment prior to coating ................................................................................................................. 4

5.9 Hydrogen embrittlement relief heat treatment after coating ........................................................................ 4

5.10 Heat treatment to harden the coating ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.11 Heat treatment to improve adhesion ................................................................................................................................... 4

5.12 Coefficient of friction and wear resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4

5.13 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.14 Undercoats .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6  Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (normative) General classification of ceramic particles for improving hardness,

wear and corrosion properties of composite coatings ................................................................................................. 5

Annex B (informative) Bath formulation and operating conditions for electroless Ni-P-

ceramic composite coatings ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex C (normative) Methods for the analysis of codeposited nano-sized ceramic particles .................7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23363:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings,

Subcommittee SC 3, Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23363:2020(E)
Introduction

Electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) alloy coatings are produced by the controlled chemical reduction

of nickel ions onto a catalytic surface in hot, usually mildly acidic or occasionally alkaline solutions

using hypophosphite ion as the reducing agent. Because the deposited nickel alloy is a catalyst for the

reaction, the process is self-sustaining or autocatalytic.

Fine ceramic (nano-sized) particles dispersed in the electroless nickel plating bath can be incorporated

with the deposition of a Ni-P layer, which produces a nickel-phosphorus-ceramic (Ni-P-ceramic)

composite coating. There is no molecular bonding between the Ni-P matrix and the incorporated

ceramic particles. The incorporation phenomenon basically results from the impact and settling of the

particles on the surface of the work piece and the subsequent surrounding of these particles by the

growing Ni-P matrix. The deposits produced are uniform in thickness on irregularly shaped articles

as the processing solution circulates freely over their surfaces. The physicochemical properties and

the structure of electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings are dependent on the size, type, chemical

inertness and deposition homogeneity of the ceramic particles as well as plating conditions such as

pH, temperature, plating bath composition, surfactants used, quality of the substrates and their pre-

treatment, activation methods and post-heat treatment.

Electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite is applied to improve hardness, as well as wear, and corrosion-

resistant properties of the coating depending on the nature of the ceramics.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23363:2020(E)
Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes —
Electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite

coatings applied from aqueous solutions onto metallic and non-metallic substrates.

This document does not apply to ternary nickel alloys and nickel-boron ceramic composite coatings.

2  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 2064, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Definitions and conventions concerning the measurement

of thickness

ISO 2080, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Surface treatment, metallic and other inorganic

coatings — Vocabulary

ISO 2081, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary

treatments on iron or steel

ISO 2178, Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates — Measurement of coating thickness —

Magnetic method

ISO 2819, Metallic coatings on metallic substrates — Electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings —

Review of methods available for testing adhesion

ISO 2859-1, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by

acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection

ISO 2859-2, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 2: Sampling plans indexed by limiting

quality (LQ) for isolated lot inspection

ISO 2859-3, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 3: Skip-lot sampling procedures

ISO 2859-4, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 4: Procedures for assessment of

declared quality levels

ISO 3497, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — X-ray spectrometric methods

ISO 3543, Metallic and non-metallic coatings — Measurement of thickness — Beta backscatter method

ISO 4288, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Rules and

procedures for the assessment of surface texture

ISO 4516, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests

ISO 4519, Electrodeposited metallic coatings and related finishes — Sampling procedures for inspection by

attributes

ISO 4526, Metallic coatings — Electroplated coatings of nickel for engineering purposes

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23363
ISO/TC 107/SC 3
Electrodeposited coatings and related
Secretariat: KATS
finishes — Electroless Ni-P-ceramic
Voting begins on:
2020­04­22 composite coatings
Voting terminates on:
2020­06­17
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Examples of designations .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5  Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Special test specimens ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Surface finish ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Thickness ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Hardness ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Porosity ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Corrosion resistance .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Stress relief heat treatment prior to coating ................................................................................................................. 4

5.9 Hydrogen embrittlement relief heat treatment after coating ........................................................................ 4

5.10 Heat treatment to harden the coating ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.11 Heat treatment to improve adhesion ................................................................................................................................... 4

5.12 Coefficient of friction and wear resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4

5.13 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.14 Undercoats .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6  Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Annex A (normative) General classification of ceramic particles for improving hardness,

wear and corrosion properties of composite coatings ................................................................................................. 5

Annex B (informative) Bath formulation and operating conditions for electroless Ni-P-

ceramic composite coatings ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex C (normative) Methods for the analysis of codeposited nano-sized ceramic particles .................7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and other inorganic coatings,

Subcommittee SC 3, Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
Introduction

Electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) alloy coatings are produced by the controlled chemical reduction

of nickel ions onto a catalytic surface in hot, usually mildly acidic or occasionally alkaline solutions

using hypophosphite ion as the reducing agent. Because the deposited nickel alloy is a catalyst for the

reaction, the process is self-sustaining or autocatalytic.

Fine ceramic (nano­sized) particles dispersed in the electroless nickel plating bath can be incorporated

with the deposition of a Ni-P layer, which produces a nickel-phosphorus-ceramic (Ni-P-ceramic)

composite coating. There is no molecular bonding between the Ni-P matrix and the incorporated

ceramic particles. The incorporation phenomenon basically results from the impact and settling of the

particles on the surface of the work piece and the subsequent surrounding of these particles by the

growing Ni-P matrix. The deposits produced are uniform in thickness on irregularly shaped articles

as the processing solution circulates freely over their surfaces. The physicochemical properties and

the structure of electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings are dependent on the size, type, chemical

inertness and deposition homogeneity of the ceramic particles as well as plating conditions such as

pH, temperature, plating bath composition, surfactants used, quality of the substrates and their pre-

treatment, activation methods and post­heat treatment.

Electroless Ni­P­ceramic composite is applied to improve hardness, as well as wear, and corrosion­

resistant properties of the coating depending on the nature of the ceramics.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23363:2020(E)
Electrodeposited coatings and related finishes —
Electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite

coatings applied from aqueous solutions onto metallic and non-metallic substrates.

This document does not apply to ternary nickel alloys and nickel-boron ceramic composite coatings.

2  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1463, Metallic and oxide coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — Microscopical method

ISO 2064, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Definitions and conventions concerning the measurement

of thickness

ISO 2080, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Surface treatment, metallic and other inorganic

coatings — Vocabulary

ISO 2081, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary

treatments on iron or steel

ISO 2178, Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates — Measurement of coating thickness —

Magnetic method

ISO 2819, Metallic coatings on metallic substrates — Electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings —

Review of methods available for testing adhesion

ISO 2859­1, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by

acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection

ISO 2859­2, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 2: Sampling plans indexed by limiting

quality (LQ) for isolated lot inspection

ISO 2859­3, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 3: Skip-lot sampling procedures

ISO 2859­4, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 4: Procedures for assessment of

declared quality levels

ISO 3497, Metallic coatings — Measurement of coating thickness — X-ray spectrometric methods

ISO 3543, Metallic and non-metallic coatings — Measurement of thickness — Beta backscatter method

ISO 4288, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Rules and

procedures for the assessment of surface texture

ISO 4516, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Vickers and Knoop microhardness test

...

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